To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The potential of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake to re-invade cleared areas was evaluated over a 13 y period that included two wildfires and the introduction of biological control agents. The first wildfire occurred in 1998 and was followed by a mean of 591.5 recruited seedlings m-2. Recruits from that fire were cleared seven years later in July 2005 for a second experiment to evaluate seedling recruitment into cleared areas. Seed rain, seedling recruitment and mortality, and sapling growth rates were measured in four plots located around individual large reproductive trees. A second natural wildfire in 2007 burned through those plots leading to increases in seed rain followed by a pulse in recruitment of 21.04 seedlings m-2, 96.5% fewer than after the 1998 fire. Recruits in half of the plots around each tree were then treated with regular applications of an insecticide to restrict herbivory by biological control agents, while herbivory was not restricted in the other half. There was no difference in seedling mortality between treatments 1083 days post fire (2007) with 96.6% seedling mortality in the unrestricted herbivory treatment and 89.4% mortality in the restricted herbivory treatment. Recruits subjected to the restricted herbivory treatment grew taller than those in the unrestricted herbivory treatment, 101.3 cm vs. 37.4 cm. Many of the recruits were attacked by the biological control agents that slowed their growth. Although solitary M. quinquenervia trees retain some capacity to re-invade areas under specific circumstances, there was a downward trend in their overall invasiveness at this site with progressively smaller recruitment cohorts due to biological control agents. Land managers should prioritize removing large reproductive trees over treating recently recruited populations which can be left for many years to the biological control agents to suppress before any additional treatment would be needed.
The UK Biobank contains data with varying degrees of reliability and completeness for assessing depression. A third of participants completed a Mental Health Questionnaire (MHQ) containing the gold-standard Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) criteria for assessing mental health disorders.
To investigate whether multiple observations of depression from sources other than the MHQ can enhance the validity of major depressive disorder (MDD).
In participants who did not complete the MHQ, we calculated the number of other depression measures endorsed, for example from hospital episode statistics and interview data. We compared cases defined this way with CIDI-defined cases for several estimates: the variance explained by polygenic risk scores (PRS), area under the curve attributable to PRS, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)-based heritability and genetic correlations with summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD genome-wide association study.
The strength of the genetic contribution increased with the number of measures endorsed. For example, SNP-based heritability increased from 7% in participants who endorsed only one measure of depression, to 21% in those who endorsed four or five measures of depression. The strength of the genetic contribution to cases defined by at least two measures approximated that for CIDI-defined cases. Most genetic correlations between UK Biobank and the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD study exceeded 0.7, but there was variability between pairwise comparisons.
Multiple measures of depression can serve as a reliable approximation for case status where the CIDI measure is not available, indicating sample size can be optimised using the entire suite of UK Biobank data.
Type II diabetes is considered the most common metabolic disorder in the developed world and currently affects about one in ten globally. A therapeutic target for the management of type II diabetes is the inhibition of α- glucosidase, an essential enzyme located at the brush border of the small intestinal epithelium. The inhibition of α-glucosidase results in reduced digestion of carbohydrates and a decrease in postprandial blood glucose. Although pharmaceutical synthetic inhibitors are available, these are usually associated with significant gastrointestinal side effects. In the present study, the impact of inhibitors derived from edible brown algae is being investigated and compared for their effect on glycaemic control. Carbohydrate- and polyphenolic-enriched extracts derived from Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Undaria pinnatifida were characterised and screened for their inhibitory effects on maltase and sucrase enzymes. Furthermore, enzyme kinetics and the mechanism of inhibition of maltase and sucrase were determined using linear and nonlinear regression methods. All tested extracts showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of α-glucosidase with IC50 values ranging from 0⋅26 to 0⋅47 mg/ml for maltase; however, the only extract that was able to inhibit sucrase activity was A. nodosum, with an IC50 value of 0⋅83 mg/ml. The present study demonstrates the mechanisms in which different brown seaweed extracts with varying composition and molecular weight distribution differentially inhibit α-glucosidase activities. The data highlight that all brown seaweed extracts are not equal in the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes involved in postprandial glycaemia.
Kernza® intermediate wheatgrass [Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & Dewey], the first perennial grain crop to come to market in North America, can provide a number of ecosystem services when integrated into cropping systems that are dominated by annual grain crops. However, grain yield from Kernza is lower than comparable annual cereal crops such as wheat and oats. Also, although Kernza is a long-lived perennial that can persist for decades, grain yield tends to decline over time as Kernza stands age leading most farmers to replant or rotate to a different crop after 3–5 yrs. Increased intraspecific competition as stand density increases with age has been reported to cause grain yield declines. We investigated the effect of strip-tillage applied at two different timings, between the third and fourth grain harvests, from a Kernza stand in upstate New York. Strip-tillage applied in late fall as plants were entering dormancy increased grain yield by 61% when compared to the control treatment without strip-tillage. However, total crop biomass was not reduced resulting in a greater harvest index for the fall strip-tillage treatment. Strip-tillage applied before stem elongation the following spring reduced overall tiller density and total crop biomass but did not impact tiller fertility or grain yield compared to the control treatment without strip-tillage. Increased grain yield in the fall strip-tillage treatment was due to an increase in the percentage of tillers that produced mature seedheads. This suggests that grain yield decline over time is at least partially caused by competition between tillers in dense stands. Results support further research and development of strip-tillage and other forms of managed disturbance as tools for maintaining Kernza grain yield over time.
The majority of children living in foster care in the United States have a history of maltreatment and/or disrupted caregiving. Maltreatment in early childhood adversely affects development at many levels, including neurobiology and behavior. One neurobiological measure associated with maltreatment is alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry. Prior research has found greater right frontal asymmetry among children with a history of maltreatment. However, little research has been extended developmentally downward to examine alpha asymmetry and its behavioral correlates among toddlers in foster care; this was the purpose of the present study. Differences in EEG asymmetry were examined between a sample of foster toddlers (mean age = 3.21 years, n = 38) and a community comparison, low-income sample without a history of foster care (mean age = 3.04 years, n = 16). The toddlers in the foster care group exhibited greater right alpha asymmetry, primarily driven by differences in parietal asymmetry. Neither frontal nor parietal asymmetry were clearly related to internalizing or externalizing behaviors, measured concurrently or at previous time points. These findings reveal differences in alpha EEG asymmetry among toddlers in foster care, and highlight the need to better understand associations between neurobiological and behavioral functioning following early adversity.
Nutrition education programmes for athletes aim to enhance nutrition knowledge and more importantly support positive dietary change to enhance performance, health and well-being. This systematic review assessed changes in the dietary intakes of athletes in response to nutrition education programmes. A search was conducted which included studies providing quantitative dietary intake assessment of athletes of any calibre aged between 12 and 65 years in response to a nutrition education programme. Standardised differences (effect sizes) were calculated (when possible) for each dietary parameter. The search yielded 6285 papers with twenty-two studies (974 participants (71·9 % female)) eligible for inclusion. Studies described athletes competing at high school (n 3) through to college level or higher (n 19). Study designs were either single arm with an intervention-only group (twelve studies; n 241) or double arm including an intervention and control group (ten studies; n 689). No control groups received an alternative or ‘sham’ intervention. Face-to-face lectures (9/22) and individual nutrition counselling (6/22) were the most common education interventions. Non-weighed, 3-d diet records (10/22) were the most frequently utilised dietary assessment method. Although 14/22 studies (n 5 single and n 9 double) reported significant change in at least one nutrition parameter, dietary changes were inconsistent. Poor study quality and heterogeneity of methods prohibit firm conclusions regarding overall intervention success or superior types of educational modalities. Of note, carbohydrate intakes ‘post-intervention’ when assessed often failed to meet recommended guidelines (12/17 studies). Given the substantial investment made in nutrition education interventions with athletes, there is a need for well-designed and rigorous research to inform future best practice.
To investigate (i) changes in stakeholder commitment and (ii) perceptions of the purpose, challenges and benefits of healthy food and beverage provision in community sports settings during the stepwise implementation of a healthy beverage policy.
Convergent, parallel, mixed-methods design complemented (i) repeat semi-structured interviews with council stakeholders (n 17 interviews, n 6 interviewees), with (ii) repeat quantitative stakeholder surveys measuring Commitment to Organisational Change; (iii) weekly sales data examining health behaviour and revenue effects (15 months pre-intervention; 14 months post-intervention); (iv) customer exit surveys (n 458); and (v) periodic photographic audits of beverage availability. Interviews were analysed inductively. Stakeholder surveys, sales data, customer surveys and audits were analysed descriptively.
Four local government-owned sports and recreation centres in Melbourne, Australia, completed a 3-month trial to increase the availability of healthy beverages and decrease the availability of unhealthy beverages in food outlets.
Interviews were conducted with council managers and those involved in implementation (September 2016–October 2017). Customers were surveyed (September–October 2017).
Interviews and surveys indicated that stakeholders’ commitment to policies varied such that, over time, optimism that changing beverage availability could increase the healthiness of customers’ purchases became more widespread among interviewees. Stakeholder focus generally progressed from anticipatory concern to solutions-focused discussions. Sales, audit and customer survey data supported interview findings.
We found a general increase in optimism regarding policy outcomes over time during the implementation of a healthy beverage policy. Stepwise trials should be further explored as an engagement tool within community retail settings.
Apart from its role as a digestive and absorptive organ, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a vital immune organ that encompasses roughly 70 % of the total immune cells of the body. As such, the physical, chemical and nutrient composition of the diet influences overall GI function, effectively as an immune organ. With the improvement in feed technology, agro-industrial co-products that are high in fibre have been widely used as a feed ingredient in the diets of pigs and poultry. Arabinoxylan (AX) and mannan are the most abundant hemicellulosic polysaccharides present in cereal grain and co-product ingredients used in the livestock industry. When monogastric animals consume diets containing high amounts of AX and mannans, stimulation of GI immune cells may occur. This involves the activation of several cellular and molecular pathways of the immune system and requires a considerable amount of energy and nutrients to be expended by the animal, which may ultimately influence overall health and growth performance of animals. Therefore, a better understanding of the role of AX and mannan in immune modulation will be helpful in modulating untoward GI immune responses, thereby minimising nutrient and energy expenditure toward this effort. This review will summarise pertinent research on the role of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides containing AX and mannans in immune modulation in order to preserve gut integrity.
With the implementation of the European Green Paper on Mental Health, and the development of the Mental Health Pact, the strategic importance of Mental Health promotion and illness reduction as keystones of a European mental health policy and practice has never been greater.
The PROMISE project is a EU project and is financed by the European Commission, Directorate General for Health and Consumers, DG Sanco. It aims to develop and disseminate guidelines for generic training and education with respect to Mental Health Promotion and Illness Reduction. The best practice guidelines will specifically focus on the prevention of suicide, depression, and alcohol and drug abuse, and the promotion of healthy living.
A specific innovation is the involvement of mental health service users as non-traditional actors by developing multi-disciplinary training guidelines and training programs with a special emphasis on positive mental health, healthy living, diet and exercise project.
Project partners are all ‘multiplier’ organizations from 8 different European countries and have extensive previous expertise in their designated roles.
The role of Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona PROMISE is: Identify best practice media guidelines for engaging press and media with the mental health promotion agenda through the use of positive role models. Monitor the implementation of the best practice guidelines through the design and development of local case studies in 7 sites across Europe.
Outcomes are an integrated and comprehensive set of training guidelines and model training programs accessed through an interactive website, endorsed by European level professional body and university networks.
Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with serious adverse healthcare outcomes. It is misdiagnosed in over 50% of cases across healthcare settings.
Objectives and aims:
To document the point prevalence of delirium across an acute general hospital and identify factors associated with accurate detection by medical and nursing staff, as well as patient and carer recognition.
Adult in-patients in Cork University Hospital on 15.05.2010 were assessed for inattention, delirium symptoms with the Revised Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-R98) and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), and pre-existing cognitive impairment with the Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline (IQCODE). Recognition by patients/carers and nursing staff was assessed through direct questioning, while recognition by the treating medical team was assessed through casenote review.
311 were recruited (87% of inpatients). 55(18%) had delirium. Pre-existing cognitive decline was detected in 28 delirious patients(51%). of those with delirium, 17 (31%) were aware of their own confusion, 35(64%) were recognised by nursing staff, and 24 (44%) had delirium documented in medical casenotes. Predictors of recognition in medical casenotes were the severity of inattention, short-term memory impairment and being managed by a medical rather than surgical team. for nurse recognition, predictors were severity of delusions, affective lability, inattention and long-term memory impairment. for patient self-recognition, acuity of onset and disorientation were predictors.
Delirium is present in approximately one in five hospitalised inpatients at any time. Under-detection is common. Factors linked to accurate detection can inform educational and other efforts to improve delirium recognition.
In 2015, beverages were removed from display at a self-service café within a major health service, resulting in fewer purchases of unhealthy beverages. This initiative was continued following initial evaluation of the results. The current study aimed to determine customer acceptability of the initiative, and whether healthier purchases had continued, at 18 months following implementation.
Drinks were categorised as ‘green’ (best choices), ‘amber’ (choose carefully) and ‘red’ (limit), based on the state government nutrient profiling system, for intervention and analysis purposes. In 2015, unhealthy ‘red’ drinks were removed from display. In 2017, weekly beverage sales were counted, through stock-taking, for 6 weeks, and customer surveys were conducted over 2 days.
A café located within a major Victorian health service.
Café customers (hospital staff, patients and visitors).
Eighteen months after the implementation of the initiative, the proportion of ‘red’ beverages sold was 7 % of total drink sales (compared with 33 % before the removal of unhealthy beverages from display in 2015 (P < 0·001), and 10 % immediately following the removal of unhealthy beverages from display). Customer surveys revealed high levels of acceptability for the initiative and low levels of awareness of the initiative.
The removal of unhealthy beverages from display can result in customers making healthier purchases, and this appears to continue over the long-term. Such interventions have the potential to contribute to the sustained shift in population purchases and consumption needed to make meaningful improvements to population health.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
We designed, developed, and implemented a new hospital-based health technology assessment (HB-HTA) program called Smart Innovation. Smart Innovation is a decision framework that reviews and makes technology adoption decisions. Smart Innovation was meant to replace the fragmented and complex process of procurement and adoption decisions at our institution. Because use of new medical technologies accounts for approximately 50 percent of the growth in healthcare spending, hospitals and integrated delivery systems are working to develop better processes and methods to sharpen their approach to adoption and management of high cost medical innovations.
The program has streamlined the decision-making process and added a robust evidence review for new medical technologies, aiming to balance efficiency with rigorous evidence standards. To promote system-wide adoption, the program engaged a broad representation of leaders, physicians, and administrators to gain support.
To date, Smart Innovation has conducted eleven HB-HTAs and made clinician-led adoption decisions that have resulted in over $5 million dollars in cost avoidance. These are comprised of five laboratory tests, three software-assisted systems, two surgical devices, and one capital purchase.
Smart Innovation has achieved cost savings, avoided uncertain or low-value technologies, and assisted in the implementation of new technologies that have strong evidence. The keys to its success have been the program's collaborative and efficient decision-making systems, partnerships with clinicians, executive support, and proactive role with vendors.
Blue petrels (Halobaena caerulea Gmelin) rapidly moult their flight feathers in Antarctic waters in February–April, immediately following the breeding season, yet the behaviour of moulting birds at sea has not been described. We observed large numbers of moulting blue petrels off West Antarctica from 67–71°S and 78–119°W in mid-February 2017. Most of these birds probably breed at the Diego Ramirez archipelago, southwest of Cape Horn, which is the closest colony to this area. Moulting petrels often sit on the water in dense flocks, just outside the marginal ice zone, at sea temperatures of -0.7 to 0.9°C. Wing moult is intense, with 7–8 inner primaries (62–75% of primary length and 55–69% of primary mass), their corresponding primary coverts and all greater secondary coverts being grown at the same time. Moulting petrels need a reliable food source during this energetically demanding period, so the waters off West Antarctica are probably crucial for the Diego Ramirez population, which makes up more than half of the world's blue petrels.