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The effect of grain size on the flow strength of FCC polycrystals was analyzed by means of computational homogenization. The mechanical behavior of each grain was dictated by a dislocation-based crystal plasticity model in the context of finite strain plasticity and takes into the account the formation of pile-ups at grain boundaries. All the model parameters have a clear physical meaning and were identified for different FCC metals from dislocation dynamics simulations or experiments. It was found that the influence of the grain size on the flow strength of FCC polycrystals was mainly dictated by the similitude coefficient K that establishes the relationship between the dislocation mean free path and the dislocation density in the bulk. Finally, the modeling approach was validated by comparison with experimental results of the effect of grain size on the flow strength of Ni, Al, Cu, and Ag.
Recently there has been a considerable rise in the frequency of metabolic diseases, such as obesity, due to changes in lifestyle and resultant imbalances between energy intake and expenditure. Whey proteins are considered as potentially important components of a dietary solution to the obesity problem. However, the roles of individual whey proteins in energy balance remain poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) containing α-lactalbumin (LAB), a specific whey protein, or the non-whey protein casein (CAS), on energy balance, nutrient transporters expression and enteric microbial populations. C57BL/6J mice (n 8) were given an HFD containing either 20 % CAS or LAB as protein sources or a low-fat diet containing CAS for 10 weeks. HFD-LAB-fed mice showed a significant increase in cumulative energy intake (P=0·043), without differences in body weight, energy expenditure, locomotor activity, RER or subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue weight. HFD-LAB intake led to a decrease in the expression of glut2 in the ileum (P=0·05) and in the fatty acid transporter cd36 (P<0·001) in both ileum and jejunum. This suggests a reduction in absorption efficiency within the small intestine in the HFD-LAB group. DNA from faecal samples was used for 16S rRNA-based assessment of intestinal microbiota populations; the genera Lactobacillus, Parabacteroides and Bifidobacterium were present in significantly higher proportions in the HFD-LAB group. These data indicate a possible functional relationship between gut microbiota, intestinal nutrient transporters and energy balance, with no impact on weight gain.
Although mild to moderate major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the main reasons for consulting a general practitioner (GP), there is still no international consensus on the most appropriate therapeutic approach.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of watchful waiting (WW) compared with the use of antidepressants (ADs) for the treatment of mild to moderate depressive symptoms in 263 primary care (PC) usual-practice patients in a 12-month pragmatic non-randomised controlled trial. Both longitudinal and per-protocol analyses were performed, through a multilevel longitudinal analysis and a sensitivity analysis.
We observed a statistically significant time x treatment interaction in the severity of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS) in favour of the AD group at 6 months but not at 12 months. The effect size of this difference was small. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups in severity of anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory, BAI) or health-related quality-of-life (EuroQol-5D, EQ-5D). Sensitivity analysis and per-protocol analysis showed no differences between the two groups in any of the evaluated scales.
Superiority of either treatment (WW and AD) was not demonstrated in patients treated for depression in PC after one year of follow-up.
The family Clinostomidae Lühe, 1901 contains 29 species allocated to seven genera, of which Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 is the most diverse, with c. 14 valid species. The diversity of Clinostomum has been assessed, combining morphological and molecular data. The genetic library for species in this genus has increased steadily, although there is little or no information for the other genera included in the family. Molecular phylogenetic relationships among the genera of clinostomids have not been assessed, and their classification is still based on morphological traits. The monotypic Ithyoclinostomum was described from a fish-eating bird in Brazil, and its metacercariae have been found in several locations in South America, parasitizing erythrinid freshwater fishes. We collected unusually large metacercariae from the body cavity of cichlids in several locations across Middle America. These metacercariae exhibited some resemblance to Ithyoclinostomum, although several differences prevent their inclusion in Ithyoclinostomum dimorphum, casting doubt on their taxonomic identification. The main objective of this paper was to characterize the metacercariae collected in cichlids using both morphology and molecular data from three molecular markers, and to assess the molecular phylogenetic relationships among the genera of Clinostomidae to establish the position of the newly generated sequences. We took a conservative position and tentatively placed the metacercariae as belonging to Ithyoclinostomum.
Slaughter is a crucial step in the meat production chain that could induce psychological stress on each animal, resulting in a physiological response that can differ among individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between an animal’s emotional state, the subsequent psychological stress at slaughter and the cellular damage as an effect. In all, 36 entire male pigs were reared at an experimental farm and a cognitive bias test was used to classify them into positive bias (PB) or negative bias (NB) groups depending on their decision-making capabilities. Half of the animals, slaughtered in the same batch, were used for a complete study of biomarkers of stress, including brain neurotransmitters and some muscle biomarkers of oxidative stress. After slaughter, specific brain areas were excised and the levels of catecholamines (noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA)) and indoleamines (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and serotonin (5HT)) were analyzed. In addition, muscle proteasome activity (20S), antioxidant defence (total antioxidant activity (TAA)), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation (LPO)) and autophagy biomarkers (Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein I light chain 3 (LC3-I) and LC3-II) were monitored during early postmortem maturation (0 to 24 h). Compared with PB animals, NB pigs were more susceptible to stress, showing higher 5HT levels (P<0.01) in the hippocampus and lower DA (P<0.001) in the pre-frontal cortex. Furthermore, NB pigs had more intense proteolytic processes and triggered primary muscle cell survival mechanisms immediately after slaughter (0 h postmortem), thus showing higher TAA (P<0.001) and earlier proteasome activity (P<0.001) and autophagy (Beclin-1, P<0.05; LC3-II/LC3-I, P<0.001) than PB pigs, in order to counteract the induced increase in oxidative stress, that was significantly higher in the muscle of NB pigs at 0 h postmortem (LPO, P<0.001). Our study is the first to demonstrate that pig’s cognitive bias influences the animal’s susceptibility to stress and has important effects on the postmortem muscle metabolism, particularly on the cell antioxidant defences and the autophagy onset. These results expand the current knowledge regarding biomarkers of animal welfare and highlight the potential use of biomarkers of the proteasome, the autophagy (Beclin-1, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio) and the muscle antioxidant defence (TAA, LPO) for detection of peri-slaughter stress.
Suicide is the second most frequent cause of death among the youth and its rates among adolescents have recently risen. Up to 30% of adolescents who attempt suicide will try it again within a year. Our objective is to analyze how previous attempts and diagnosed psychiatric disorder behave as markers of risk of reattempts and their statistical interaction. We include every underage patient treated by an emergency room psychiatrist after a suicide attempt in a General Hospital between years 2010 and 2015. Patients free of relapse after 1000 days are censored. We obtain Kaplan–Meier estimates for the risk of a new attempt as a time-dependant variable, dividing them by the presence of previous suicide attempts, diagnosed psychiatric disorder or both at a time, checking the differences by using log-rank tests. Then, we perform Cox proportional risk models including both variables and a factor of their interaction and adjust them by sex and age in a non-automatically driven multivariate analysis, thus obtaining HR estimates. We present 150 cases (118 female; mean[SD] age in years: 15.8 [1.6]). Overall, 22.6% of them relapse during follow-up time. Multivariate models show interaction of previous attempts and diagnosed psychiatric disorder is associated with relapse with an HR of 1.27 × 108 (95% CI: 5.51 × 107 – 2.9 × 108). Interaction of both factors is an outstanding risk marker of relapse after an attempted suicide and should thus be given clinical importance in tertiary prevention.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Cranfield University's National Flying Laboratory Centre (NFLC) has developed a Bulldog light aircraft into a flight test facility. The facility is being used to research advanced in-flight instrumentation including fibre optic pressure and strain sensors. During the development of the test bed, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to assist the flight test design process, including the sensor requirements. This paper describes the development of the Bulldog flight test facility, including an overview of the design and certification process, the in-flight data taken using the installed fibre optic sensor systems and lessons learned from the development programme, including potential further applications of the sensors.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne neurotropic viral pathogen maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes (vectors) and birds (natural hosts) with equids, humans, and other vertebrates acting as dead-end hosts. WNV activity in Mexico has been reported in several domestic and wild fauna and in humans, and the virus has been isolated from birds, mosquitoes, and humans. However, no serological studies have been conducted in monkeys, and only two in a limited number of crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii). Here we present data on the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against WNV in 53 healthy wild monkeys (49 Ateles geoffroyi and four Alouatta pigra), and 80 semi-captive healthy crocodiles (60 C. acutus and 20 C. acutus–C. moreletti hybrids) sampled during 2012. None of the monkey sera neutralized WNV, whereas 55% of the crocodile sera presented neutralizing antibodies against WNV. These results can contribute to the design of surveillance programmes in Mexico.
Few reports exist on the use of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometry coupled with Mass Spectrometry (DRIFTS-MS) in situ to monitor the dehydroxylation of kaolinitic clays. The use of DRIFTS-MS in situ allows study of the effect of heat treatment on the dehydroxylation, identifying intensities and temperatures at which the hydroxyl groups are released, forming metakaolinite and meta-alunite. The effluent gases from the infrared cell were analysed by mass spectrometry. The decrease in intensity of the bands at 3694, 3669, 3650 and 3621 cm−1 associated with the −OH stretching vibration modes of AlVI−OH−AlVI of kaolinite began at 450°C. Two additional bands at 3513 and 3485 cm−1 are associated with the vibration of AlVI−OH of alunite that also began to disappear during thermal treatment. Monitoring of the fractions m/e 17 and 18 using a mass spectrometer revealed that the intensity of these fractions increased starting at 450°C. Therefore, it is possible to study the dehydroxylation process of clays during thermal treatment.Chemical and mineralogical characterization of a kaolinitic clay (KN) fromMexico showed that the clay consists of 64.8% kaolinite, 11.0% alunite and 24.4% quartz based on PXRD, EDS, TG/DTA, TEM and FTIR results, and suggested that the material might have potential for use in the manufacture of ceramics, refractory bricks or geopolymers.
In recent decades conducting polymers have attracted attention due to their promising and versatile applications in different fields. There is a considerable interest in the application of nanotubes multilayer carbon (MWCNT) because of their unique structure, high electrical conductivity, high chemical stability, and high surface-to-volume ratio. These properties make MWCNT extremely attractive for fabricating sensors. Composites based on a matrix of a biopolymer such as the chitosan (CS) with a lot of conductive polymers or (MWCNT), have received increasing attention due to their attractive structural, mechanical and electrical properties that could have applications in different fields such as tissue engineering, biomedicine, and manufacture of sensors and biosensors. Have been reported conducting polymer composites with an extensive range of interesting mechanical and electrical properties, which is reported in this paper to obtain films by ultrasonic bath mixing of Chitosan 3% w/v using polypyrrole (PPy) and multilayer carbon nanotubes. Surface characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrical properties were analyzed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in a frequency range 0.01 - 10E+5 Hz to 10 mV AC. The results show that the films of CS/PPy/MWCNT have a homogeneous distribution where the chitosan envelops the loads, while for EIS retention load was observed within the matrix observing these materials in accordance with the equivalent circuit of Warburg showing diffusional process.
Breast milk constitutes one of the most important sources of postnatal microbes. However, the influence of perinatal factors on the milk microbiome is still poorly understood. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of mode of delivery on the microbiome composition and diversity present in breast milk of healthy mothers. Mature milk samples (n=10) were taken from mothers after 1 month of exclusively breastfeeding. Microbiomes from milk samples were analyzed with 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing and targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite inter-individual variability in bacterial composition, The Principal Coordinates Analysis clearly separated milk microbiome from mothers with vaginal delivery (n=6) from those who undergo C-section (n=4). In addition, higher bacterial diversity and richness was found in milk samples from vaginal deliveries. Quantitative PCR data showed that higher levels of Bifidobacterium spp. were related significantly to lower levels of Staphylococcus spp. Despite the low sample size, our data suggest that mode of delivery has an important impact on milk microbiome composition. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these results and to understand the biological effects of C-section associated microbes on infant’s health.
Four restriction enzymes (AluI, HhaI, MspI and RsaI), either individually or in combination, were used in terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis to: (i) characterize the chicken intestinal bacterial community; and (ii) tentatively identify intestinal bacterial groups related with increased performance parameters in broiler chickens. Balanced commercial diets free of any feed antibiotics were offered to broilers assigned randomly to one of the five dietary treatments: control (C) (commercial diet with no additive), inulin (I), fructose caramel, propyl propane thiosulphonate (PTS-O)-45 and PTS-O-90. Except for the inulin-supplemented diet, multivariate statistical analysis of T-RFLP profiles based on individual enzymes or their combinations showed that the caecal bacterial community composition was significantly different among diets, particularly between the control and the supplemented diets. Individual RsaI and the combination AluI + RsaI proved to be the most useful to discriminate between dietary treatments. Clostridiaceae 1, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae and Micrococcaceae were tentatively identified as those families most likely to be implicated in defining the caecal microbiota composition of growing broiler chickens, and also as those most closely related with differences in productive parameters.
Mola mola is distributed from temperate to tropical oceans. The scarce reports on the occurrence of the species in the Uruguayan coast were based on incomplete morphological studies on collected specimens that could not properly discard the congeneric Mola ramsayi. This work constitutes confirmation of the occurrence of Mola mola in the coastal area of Uruguay, based on morphological characters of a specimen collected in April 2013. The fish occurred 100 m offshore in the Río de la Plata estuary (at a depth of 5 m), in an area with a water temperature between 19 and 19.5°C. Morphometric data is provided. The specimen is preserved in the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Uruguay).
Magnetic fields are one of the most important drivers of the highly dynamic processes that occur in the lower solar atmosphere. They span a broad range of sizes, from large- and intermediate-scale structures such as sunspots, pores and magnetic knots, down to the smallest magnetic elements observable with current telescopes. On small scales, magnetic flux tubes are often visible as Magnetic Bright Points (MBPs). Apart from simple V/I magnetograms, the most common method to deduce their magnetic properties is the inversion of spectropolarimetric data. Here we employ the SIR code for that purpose. SIR is a well-established tool that can derive not only the magnetic field vector and other atmospheric parameters (e.g., temperature, line-of-sight velocity), but also their stratifications with height, effectively producing 3-dimensional models of the lower solar atmosphere. In order to enhance the runtime performance and the usability of SIR we parallelized the existing code and standardized the input and output formats. This and other improvements make it feasible to invert extensive high-resolution data sets within a reasonable amount of computing time. An evaluation of the speedup of the parallel SIR code shows a substantial improvement in runtime.
The crystal structure of the novel metal organic framework (MOF) Zn(C3H5NO2S)2 is described. This MOF can serve as a model for active sites in metalloproteins, on diverse activities such as structural or catalytic functions. Each half of the amino acid act as a bidentate ligand to one Zn and as a monodentate ligand to another Zn, while the disulphide bond presents an important structural function, stabilizing the crystal packing. The structure has been obtained ab initio from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (space group P212121), with a = 20.0906(7), b = 9.5842(3), c = 5.018 89(13), and V = 966.40(5) Å3, with Z = 4. The structure was determined using a direct space approach, by means of the Monte Carlo technique, followed by Rietveld refinement.
We conducted an experiment to determine whether early-life social learning of feeding site selection in lambs was sex-specific. Sixteen ewes and their new born lambs were used in a controlled experiment. Eight ewe–lamb pairs included a male lamb and the remaining eight a female lamb. All pairs were individually exposed to an experimental arena containing a safe and unsafe artificial feeding site (SFS, UFS) each consisting of nine bowls which contained either ground Bermuda grass hay (SFS) or ground alfalfa hay (UFS). The bowls in UFS were surrounded by bright orange traffic cones (visual cues). Half the ewes were trained with controlled electric shock to avoid UFS. Thus, pairs were randomly assigned to: (1) shock aversion training (SAT) to mothers of male lambs (MS); (2) SAT to mothers of female lambs (FS); (3) no aversion training (NAT, control) to mothers of male lambs (MC); and (4) NAT (control) to mothers of female lambs (FC). None of the lambs were subjected to SAT. During training, testing, extinction, and retraining ewe–lamb pairs were exposed to the arena together. Ewes were then removed from the experiment and two additional extinction phases were conducted with weaned lambs alone. Fear conditioning elicited UFS avoidance of both the trained ewes (means±s.e.m. % times observed in UFS during testing phase: FC=95.3±1.70; MC=94.4±4.87; FS=1.6±1.63; MS=0 ±0; P<0.01) and their naïve lambs (FC=83.8±6.07%; MC=76.6±6.56%; FS=30.4±7.90%; MS=33.9±9.23%; P<0.01). UFS avoidance in lambs occurred regardless of sex and tended to persist after weaning (% times observed in UFS during 1st post-weaning extinction phase: FC=92.6±4.50%; MC=89.8±6.09%; FS=45.1±10.57%; MS=43.5±10.42%; P=0.06). Fear conditioning in mothers appeared to alter sex-related differences in mother–infant behavioral synchrony by increasing and decreasing feeding synchrony of male and female lambs, respectively (FC: r=0.52, P<0.01; MC: r=−0.02, P=0.86; FS: r=0.14, P=0.26; MS: r=0.46, P<0.01). During the extinction phase mothers of ram lambs were observed feeding more often (FC=85.0±2.33%; MC=92.7±1.45%; FS=47.3±8.81%; MS=72±5.68%; P=0.02) and standing less often than ewes with daughters (FC=7.3±2.40%; MC=2.7±0.83%; FS=39.3±9.04%; MS=18.0±5.29%; P=0.06). This study suggests that social conditioning at an early age could be a viable tool to induce learning of feeding site avoidance in female and male lambs alike.
It has been found that the hybrid materials are a compatible matrix for numerous organic compounds, such as organic dyes, laser dyes, and compounds that exhibit photo-chromic behavior and many more The epoxy-silica system seems to be an excellent matrix for organic dyes and a hybrid material suitable for to be used as coating on glass substrates with good adhesion properties. This work presents a systematic study of the effects of the different amount of using rhodamine 6G as dye on the structure and properties of epoxy–silica hybrids coatings synthesized by the sol-gel process. We have taken advantage on the high solubility of organic dyes in a hybrid organic–inorganic epoxy resin–silica (epoxy–SiO2) matrix to obtain homogeneous, hard and high optical quality red color films on glass substrates. The effects of the content of rhodamine 6 G on the optical and thermal properties of epoxy-silica hybrid films were also examined. Epoxy resin DER 332 cured with an amine (4,4 diamino diphenyl methane) was used as organic component and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as precursor of the inorganic component. The results showed that at a concentration of rhodamine 0.05% coatings retain adhesion properties similar to coatings without colorant and the coatings are uniform and free of defects. These coatings have the potential to be used as filters and ornamental coatings.
As a result of archaeological investigations carried out in the pre-Hispanic city of Izamal, Yucatan, Mexico a large number of fragments of pottery vessels were recovered from the period known as maya protoclassic. The most important of this collection was its similarity to ceramic style representative recognized as Holmul, whose production has been identified mostly in the region of the Central Maya Lowlands. This style includes Ixcanrio Orange Polychrome ceramic type as diagnostic type more easily distinguished by its orange slip and tetrapods supports. Izamal, is the only place in the Northern Maya Lowlands has reported a large amount of pottery of this ceramic type. In this study we try to identify the origin of manufacture using X-ray diffraction technique. This will allow us to understand the social and political behavior of this ceramic tradition and their presence in this region of the Maya area.
In vitro and in vivo experiments were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of laboratory-made di-d-fructose dianhydride (DFA)-enriched caramels. The DFA-enriched caramels were obtained from d-fructose (FC), d-fructose and sucrose (FSC), or d-fructose and β-cyclodextrin (FCDC). In the in vitro experiment, raftilose and all caramels increased (P<0.05) l-lactate concentration and decreased (P<0.05) pH. Total short-chain fatty acid concentration was higher (P<0.05) than controls in tubes containing raftilose, FSC, FCDC and commercial sucrose caramel (CSC). Raftilose, and all caramels tested except FSC and FC (1%), increased (P<0.01) lactobacilli log10 number of copies compared with the non-additive control. FSC, FCDC and CSC increased (P<0.01) the bifidobacteria number of copies as compared with controls. All additives, except FCDC, decreased (P<0.01) Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale log number of copies. Compared with controls, raftilose, FC and CSC led to lower (P<0.01) Escherichia–Shigella and enterobacteria. For the in vivo experiment, a total of 144 male 1-day-old broiler chickens of the Cobb strain were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments for 21 days. Dietary treatments were control (commercial diet with no additive), inulin (20 g inulin/kg diet) and FC (20 g FC/kg diet). Final BW of birds fed FC diet was higher (P<0.01) than controls or inulin-fed birds, although feed: gain values were not different. Feed intake of chickens fed FC was higher (P<0.01) than that of inulin-fed birds but not statistically different from controls. Crop pH values were lower (P<0.01) in birds fed FC diet as compared with control diet, with inulin-fed chickens showing values not different from control- or FC-fed birds. Lower (P<0.05) lactobacilli number of copies was determined in the crop, ileum and caeca of birds fed the inulin diet compared with the control diet. Inulin supplementation also resulted in lower (P<0.05) C. coccoides/E. rectale, bacteroides and total bacteria in caecal contents. Addition of FC to broiler diets gave place to lower (P<0.05) enterobacteria and Escherichia–Shigella in crop and caecal contents compared with controls. The bacteroides number of copies increased (P<0.05) as compared with controls in the ileum, but decreased (P<0.05) in the caeca of chickens fed the FC diet. Energy, ADF, NDF and non-starch polysaccharides faecal digestibilities were greater (P<0.05) than controls in chickens fed diets containing inulin or FC. Fat digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in FC-fed birds compared with controls or inulin-fed chickens. In conclusion, DFA-enriched caramels tested here, particularly FC, may represent a type of new additives useful in poultry production.