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Ten compounds are found in the Ba0-Y203-CuOx system. High temperature (≈950-1000°C) phases identified as Ba4Y2O7 , Ba2Y2O5 , Ba3Y4O9 , BaY2O4 , Y2Cu2O5 , BaCuO2+x, Ba3YCu2OZ BaY2Cu05 and BazYCu306+x are formed in this temperature range. In addition, a new compound with composition of 2BaO:CuO, which possibly has a melting point below 950°C, was prepared at 850°C. A summary o£ the crystallographic data of these 10 phases is given. In particular, results of x-ray studies pertaining to four compounds, BazYCu306+x, which is currently the most promising high To' superconductor material, Ba2Cu03 , BaY2Cu05 , and Ba3YCu20Z are reviewed.
The spatial-intensity profile of light reflected during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with a microstructured target is investigated experimentally and the potential to apply this as a diagnostic of the interaction physics is explored numerically. Diffraction and speckle patterns are measured in the specularly reflected light in the cases of targets with regular groove and needle-like structures, respectively, highlighting the potential to use this as a diagnostic of the evolving plasma surface. It is shown, via ray-tracing and numerical modelling, that for a laser focal spot diameter smaller than the periodicity of the target structure, the reflected light patterns can potentially be used to diagnose the degree of plasma expansion, and by extension the local plasma temperature, at the focus of the intense laser light. The reflected patterns could also be used to diagnose the size of the laser focal spot during a high-intensity interaction when using a regular structure with known spacing.
We reviewed all patients who were supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and/or ventricular assist device at our institution in order to describe diagnostic characteristics and assess mortality.
A retrospective cohort study was performed including all patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and/or ventricular assist device from our first case (8 October, 1998) through 25 July, 2016. The primary outcome of interest was mortality, which was modelled by the Kaplan–Meier method.
A total of 223 patients underwent 241 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs. Median support time was 4.0 days, ranging from 0.04 to 55.8 days, with a mean of 6.4±7.0 days. Mean (±SD) age at initiation was 727.4 days (±146.9 days). Indications for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were stratified by primary indication: cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=175; 72.6%) or respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=66; 27.4%). The most frequent diagnosis for cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients was hypoplastic left heart syndrome or hypoplastic left heart syndrome-related malformation (n=55 patients with HLHS who underwent 64 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs). For respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, the most frequent diagnosis was congenital diaphragmatic hernia (n=22). A total of 24 patients underwent 26 ventricular assist device runs. Median support time was 7 days, ranging from 0 to 75 days, with a mean of 15.3±18.8 days. Mean age at initiation of ventricular assist device was 2530.8±660.2 days (6.93±1.81 years). Cardiomyopathy/myocarditis was the most frequent indication for ventricular assist device placement (n=14; 53.8%). Survival to discharge was 42.2% for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients and 54.2% for ventricular assist device patients. Kaplan–Meier 1-year survival was as follows: all patients, 41.0%; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients, 41.0%; and ventricular assist device patients, 43.2%. Kaplan–Meier 5-year survival was as follows: all patients, 39.7%; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients, 39.7%; and ventricular assist device patients, 43.2%.
This single-institutional 18-year review documents the differential probability of survival for various sub-groups of patients who require support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or ventricular assist device. The indication for mechanical circulatory support, underlying diagnosis, age, and setting in which cannulation occurs may affect survival after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and ventricular assist device. The Kaplan–Meier analyses in this study demonstrate that patients who survive to hospital discharge have an excellent chance of longer-term survival.
Thomas M. Franck's The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance has lived a dual existence. On the one hand, it is almost universally cited as having brought international lawyers into the freewheeling debate of the early 1990s among scholars of international relations, comparative politics, and political theory about the so-called “Third Wave” of democratization. On the other hand, the article is not infrequently described as a legal avatar of post-Cold War Western triumphalism, often sharing a sentence or a footnote with Francis Fukuyama's The End of History and the Last Man. From the standpoint of the two authors of this essay—one a long-time defender of Franck's thesis and the other a long-time critic—both of these broad-brush characterizations of the article contain elements of truth, but both are also woefully incomplete.
How do treaties function in the American legal system? This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the current status of treaties in American law. Its ten chapters examine major areas of change in treaty law in recent decades, including treaty interpretation, federalism, self-execution, treaty implementing legislation, treaty form, and judicial barriers to treaty enforcement. The book also includes two in-depth case studies: one on the effectiveness of treaties in the regulation of armed conflict and one on the role of a resurgent federalism in complicating US efforts to ratify and implement treaties in private international law. Each chapter asks whether the treaty rules of the 1987 Third Restatement of Foreign Relations Law accurately reflect today's judicial, executive, and legislative practices. This volume is original and provocative, a useful desk companion for judges and practicing lawyers, and an engaging read for the general reader and graduate students.
During the past decade the achievements in the theory of stellar atmospheres of hot stars combined with improved spectrograph and detector technology at large telescopes have led to a significantly improved knowledge of PN nuclei properties (see Méndez et al. 1988, Kudritzki and Méndez 1989).
The photometric behaviour of AGK3-0°965, the central star of the bipolar planetary nebula NGC 2346, has been monitored photometrically for several months at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at Tonantzintla and San Pedro Mértir, Mexico. A model is proposed in which the eclipses were caused by the passage of an elongated cool dust cloudlet of size ~ 2–5 × 1012 cm and total mass ~ 10−12 M⊙. This model can explain most of the observations. The velocity of the cloud in the direction of the major axis of the projected central binary orbit is vp = 0.14 km s−1. Another warmer (T ≲ 1000 K) circumstellar cloud is responsible for the infrared excess at wavelengths from 3 to 12 μm. Its emission, as seen from the Earth, has not changed significantly at λ > 3 μm during the past twelve years, as shown by new infrared observations also reported. Its most relevant physical properties are still to be determined. The present results provide the first evidence of a dense circumstellar cloudlet of mass similar to that of a minor planet which is probably the result of the fragmentation of a disk or toroid around the central star of NGC 2346. Although the presence of many other similar cloudlets in its vicinity is expected, the probability of similar events occurring in the next few hundred years is very small.
The details of the present work will be published in the Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica.
Near-infrared observations of 82 stars in h and χ Persei (NGC 869 and 884) were obtained with the Mexican National Observatory infrared photometer/spectrometer on the 2.1 m telescope at San Pedro Mártir, Baja California. The JHK photometry covers most of the stars in the upper main sequence of the central parts of the clusters as well as the giants and supergiants in a more extended region, with additional L' and M measurements of the brightest members. In Figure 1 the (J-H) vs (H-K) and (H-K) vs (K-L) diagrams are presented. In order to complement the available good quality UBV photometry, we carried out photoelectric measurements of 23 stars in our sample for which only low quality photographic data has been published. These observations were made with the pulse-counting photometer attached to the newly refurbished 1.5 m telescope at San Pedro Mártir.