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We have observed 79 supernova remnants (SNRs) with the Urumqi 25 m telescope at λ6 cm during the Sino-German λ6 cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane. We measured flux densities of SNRs at λ6 cm, some of which are the first ever measured or the measurements at the highest frequency, so that we can determine or improve spectra of SNRs. Our observations have ruled out spectral breaks or spectral flattening that were suggested for a few SNRs, and confirmed the spectral break of S147. By combining our λ6 cm maps with λ11 cm and λ21 cm maps from the Effelsberg 100 m telescope, we calculated the spectral index maps of several large SNRs. For many remnants we obtained for the first time polarization images, which show the intrinsic magnetic field structures at λ6 cm. We disapproved three objects as being SNRs, OA184, G192.8−1.1 and G16.8−1.1, which show a thermal spectrum and no polarization. We have discovered two large supernova remnants, G178.2−4.2 and G25.1−2.3., in the survey maps.
The Sino-German λ6 cm polarization survey has mapped in total intensity and polarization intensity over an area of approximately 2200 square degrees in the Galactic disk. This survey provides an opportunity to search for Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) that were previously unknown. We discovered the new SNRs G178.2−4.2 and G25.1−2.3 which have non-thermal spectra, using the λ6 cm data together with the observations with the Effelsberg telescope at λ11 cm and λ21 cm. Both G178.2−4.2 and G25.1−2.3 are faint and have an apparent diameter greater than 1°. G178.2−4.2 shows a polarized shell. HI data suggest that G25.1−2.3 might have a distance of about 3 kpc. The λ6 cm survey data were also very important to identify two other new SNRs, G152.4−2.1 and G190.9−2.2.
After Prof. R. Wielebinski visited China in 1999, we started to plan the Sino-German λ6 cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane, using the Urumqi 25-m radio telescope of Xinjiang (formerly Urumqi) Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It is a high-frequency complement of previous Effelsberg 21-cm and 11-cm surveys, using the same observing and processing methods. The telescope is located at an altitude of 2029 m above sea level at geographic longitude of 87°E and latitude 43°N. The dual-channel λ6 cm receiver with a polarimeter and a bandwidth of 600 MHz was designed by O. Lochner and constructed at the MPIfR in Germany with involvements by the Urumqi engineers M.Z. Chen and J. Ma. In August 2004, the receiver was installed at the secondary focus of the Urumqi 25-m telescope.
It is clinically important to understand the factors that increase the likelihood of the frequent and recurrent suicide attempts seen in those with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Although several studies have examined this subject in a cross-sectional manner, the aim of this study was to determine the most clinically relevant baseline and time-varying predictors of suicide attempts over 16 years of prospective follow-up among patients with BPD.
Two-hundred and ninety in-patients meeting Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB-R) and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD were assessed during their index admission using a series of semistructured interviews and self-report measures. These subjects were then reassessed using the same instruments every 2 years. The generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach was used to model the odds of suicide attempts in longitudinal analyses, controlling for assessment period, yielding an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each predictor.
Nineteen variables were found to be significant bivariate predictors of suicide attempts. Eight of these, seven of which were time-varying, remained significant in multivariate analyses: diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), substance use disorder (SUD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), presence of self-harm, adult sexual assault, having a caretaker who has completed suicide, affective instability, and more severe dissociation.
The results of this study suggest that prediction of suicide attempts among borderline patients is complex, involving co-occurring disorders, co-occurring symptoms of BPD (self-harm, affective reactivity and dissociation), adult adversity, and a family history of completed suicide.
As part of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) we have imaged the polarized emission from the plane of the Milky Way at 1420 MHz, covering 1200 square degrees with arc-minute resolution. Structure on all scales is represented by combining aperture-synthesis data with single-antenna data. The survey depicts the Magneto-Ionic Medium at a resolution that matches images of other components of the Interstellar Medium within the CGPS database (http://www4.cadc.hia.nrc.gc.ca).
The Global Magneto-Ionic Medium Survey (GMIMS) is a project to map the diffuse polarized emission over the entire sky, Northern and Southern hemispheres, from 300 MHz to 1.8 GHz. With an angular resolution of 30–60 arcmin and a frequency resolution of 1 MHz or better, GMIMS will provide the first spectro-polarimetric data set of the large-scale polarized emission over the entire sky, observed with single-dish telescopes. GMIMS will provide an invaluable resource for studies of the magneto-ionic medium of the Galaxy in the local disk, halo, and its transition.
Commensurate BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices were grown by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy on four different substrates: TiO2-terminated (001) SrTiO3, (101) DyScO3, (101) GdScO3, and (101) SmScO3. With the aid of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), precise single-monolayer doses of BaO, SrO, and TiO2 were deposited sequentially to create commensurate BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices with a variety of periodicities. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements exhibit clear superlattice peaks at the expected positions. The rocking curve full width half-maximum of the superlattices was as narrow as 7 arc s (0.002°). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals nearly atomically abrupt interfaces. Temperature-dependent ultraviolet Raman and XRD were used to reveal the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric transition temperature (TC). Our results demonstrate the importance of finite size and strain effects on the TC of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices. In addition to probing finite size and strain effects, these heterostructures may be relevant for novel phonon devices, including mirrors, filters, and cavities for coherent phonon generation and control.
Spatial distribution and properties of oxide were examined in
300 mm nitrogen (N) doped CZ-Si. Experimentally grown materials
with N ranging from
~ 1013 cm−3 to 1015 cm−3 were studied by
infrared light scattering tomography, scanning infrared microscopy,
transmission electron microscopy and electron beam induced current.
It was established that an increasing N content improves the
uniformity of the radial distribution of precipitates in the bulk of
the wafer, the density of precipitates reaching a level of
~ 109 cm−3. The width of the denuded zone varies in the
m depending on radial position and
N doping level. Electron microscopy revealed lower oxide precipitate
densities of about 105 to 108 cm−3. The results are
interpreted in terms of existence of agglomerates of nanometer size
precipitate nuclei and/or by the defect-induced strain relaxation
around the precipitates.
An experiment was conducted to determine if molasses could be successfully used to administer dotriacontane (C32) and hexatriacontane (C36) n-alkane markers to steers and to compare this method with a commercially available intra-ruminal controlled release device (CRD).
The experiment was conducted over two similar periods (runs) using 24 Brahman crossbred steers in each run to study the effect of marker delivery methods and tropical grass hay diets in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. All steers were housed individually in partially covered pens, received one of two buffel-grass hays (B20: 20-week regrowth; 0·72 g nitrogen (N) per 100 g and B8: 8-week regrowth; 1·11 g N per 100 g) and one of four marker delivery treatments (control: no marker; 200 mg/day of C32 and C36 n-alkanes from a CRD or offered three times (Ms ✕ 3) or five times (Ms ✕ 5) a day in molasses).
Voluntary intake (VI) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) for diets differed (P < 0·001) with B8 greater than B20. There was no difference among marker treatments for VI but the control treatment had greater, unexplained and possibly spurious, DMD than the Ms ✕ 3 marker treatment. Although the recovery of n-alkanes was variable (0·84 to 1·05) adjacent odd- and even-chain n-alkanes were similar with no differences (P > 0·05) due to marker treatment or diet. The CRD supplied a consistent marker dose between 6 and 18 days after insertion.
Deviation from the 24-h mean faecal concentration seldom varied more than 0·03 for the individual markers and 0·05 for C31/C32 and C33/C32 ratios for all treatments. Over all the n-alkanes studied, the between-day variation was less than the within-day variation. For instance, the average of subsamples taken at 06:00 h and 18:00 h was within proportionately 0·05 of the 10-day mean concentration for 0·38 and 0·25 of records for C32 and C36 markers, respectively.
It was concluded that molasses containing C32 and C36 n-alkane markers and given either three or five times daily was as accurate as the commercial CRD in administering n-alkane markers to steers and provides a method of delivering n-alkanes over an extended period in grazing studies.
The n-alkane method was developed in temperate areas as a tool to estimate voluntary intake (VI) at pasture. The present study aimed to investigate the performance of n-alkanes as markers for estimating VI of steers (mean live weight 213 kg) offered a range of tropical grass hays and lucerne. Tropical and temperate forages have different n-alkane profiles and little is known about the issues which affect the accuracy of the method under tropical conditions. In two pen experiments (no. = 20 and no. = 24) n-alkanes were dosed using intraruminal controlled-release devices. Actual mean voluntary dry matter intakes for the diets ranged from 3·12 to 4·60 kg/day and actual mean dry-matter digestibility varied between 439 and 620 g/kg. n-Alkane profiles (C30 to C36) of the diets and the faeces for each animal were determined using gas chromatography. The recovery of each n-alkane was determined for each animal. Recoveries of n-alkanes were highly variable and generally varied between diets and between experiments. When adjacent n-alkanes were used to estimate VI (ratio method), agreement with actual VI was often poor. Despite this, where the recoveries of n-alkane pairs were similar, group mean VI were accurately estimated. From these data, it is concluded that estimation of VI in cattle offered tropical grass hays or lucerne hay, requires measured recoveries of both dosed and natural plant n-alkanes. The dosed and natural n-alkane pairs having the most similar recoveries should be used in the ratio method to estimate VI.
Of all the methods available to observe magnetic fields in the Milky Way, the mapping of linear polarization at cm wavelengths has proven to be most successful. The instruments that have contributed most of the new data are the 100 m Effelsberg telescope and the Parkes 64 m dish. Their Galactic plane surveys gave us a new conception of the linear polarization distribution. A new Effelsberg 1.4 GHz ‘medium latitude polarization survey’ now being made gives us data about large sections of the Galaxy. Polarization maps of selected regions of the Galaxy are now being made at several frequencies up to 32 GHz. Data from Westerbork at ∼ 325 MHz, as well as data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) at 1.4 GHz give new exciting information.
A perfect 2D porous alumina photonic crystal with 500 nm interpore distance was fabricated on an area of 4 cm2 via imprint methods and subsequent electrochemical anodization. A 4” imprint stamp consisting of a convex pyramid array was obtained by modern VLSI processing using DUV-lithography, anisotropic etching, LPCVD Si3N4 deposition and wafer bonding. The optical properties of the porous alumina photonic crystal were measured with an infrared microscope in Г-M direction. For both polarizations, a bandgap is observed at around 1 μm for r/a = 0.42. A reflectivity of almost unity for E-polarization in the region of the bandgap is a sign of the high quality of the structure, indicating almost no scattering losses. These experimental results could be correlated very well to the bandstructure as well as reflectivity calculations assuming a dielectric constant of å = 2.0 for the anodized alumina.
The selective interaction of metal clusters with various polymers constitutes the basis for the self-assembly approach to the synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid materials, that leads to the control of particle size, geometry and dispersion gradient. Metal particles were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of an organometallic precursor, in this case, iron pentacarbonyl, in the presence of a polymer matrix. Under the conditions utilized for these reactions, the aggregation of the metallic clusters competed with the interactions between the growing metal fragments and the polymer matrix. The dominance of one reaction route as compared to the other, ultimately determined the equilibrium particle shape, size and distribution for each metal-polymer system. In this work, we attempted to analyze the formation of iron oxide nanoclusters in several structurally-distinct polymers, and developed a general mechanistic view to explain the characteristics of the polymer-metal oxide hybrid materials that were obtained.
Most of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) require a 3-dimensional architecture which can efficiently be realized by multiple semiconductor wafer direct bonding. The present paper demonstrates the method on a force sensor for high resolution measurements of static loads. To minimize temperature stress an all-in silicon solution was developed in contrast to micromachined resonant force sensors published already in the literature.
The presented force sensor integrates load coupling, the excitation and detection of the vibration of the microresonator in one and the same single crystal silicon package. First measurements proved a sensitivity of 26 Hz/N and a resolution better than 3 mN.
SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) epitaxial thin films having a mix of (100) and (116) orientations have been grown on SrLaGaO4(110) by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction θ2 θ and pole figure scans, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed the presence of two epitaxial orientations, SBT(100) ∥ SLG(110); SBT ∥ SLG and SBT(116) ∥ SLG(110); SBT  ∥ SLG. By calculating the integrated intensity of certain x-ray diffraction peaks, it was established that the crystallinity and the in-plane orientation of the (100) and (116) orientation are best at a substrate temperature of 775 °C and 788 °C, respectively, and that the volume fraction of the (100) orientation at about 770 °C reached about 60%. By scanning force microscopy and cross-sectional TEM investigations we found that the a-axisoriented grains are rounded and protrude out due to the rapid growth along the  direction, leading to a distinct difference of the surface morphology between (100)- and (116)-oriented grains.
Field-grown trees of Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Alnus
glutinosa (L.) Geartner and Betula pendula Roth displayed
pronounced differences in responses of light-saturated net photosynthesis
(Asat) to herbivory by the alder beetle
(Agelastica alni L., Galerucinae), a specialized insect which
primarily defoliates alders. We found that
photosynthetic rates of grazed leaves increased following herbivory in
Alnus but not in Betula. Area- and mass-based Asat
of grazed leaves declined linearly with increasing amount of leaf perforation
in B. pendula, by as much
as 57%. By contrast Alnus glutinosa and Alnus incana
increased area-based rates of Asat by 10–50%
at all levels
of leaf grazing. Given increased Asat in the remaining
portion of grazed leaves, a net reduction in photosynthesis
per leaf occurred only when the proportion of leaf area grazed exceeded
40% for Alnus incana and 23% for Alnus
glutinosa. Since vein perforation by Agelastica alni was
observed much more frequently in leaves of Betula than
in Alnus, we hypothesized that declining Asat
in herbivorized Betula was related to this disruption of water
transport. A field experiment with artificial leaf perforation demonstrated
a greater decline in Asat in vein-perforated Betula
leaves than perforated leaves with midrib veins intact. However, regardless
of leaf perforation
regime, birch never showed post-perforation increases in Asat.
In all species, rates of transpiration of grazed leaves
linearly increased and water-use efficiency decreased with increased amount
of leaf perforation. In grazed Alnus
incana leaves, increasing leaf area consumption by Agelastica
alni resulted in an increase of total phenols, a
reduction in starch content and no changes in nitrogen concentration in
the remaining portion. The increase in
photosynthesis in Alnus incana might be related to declining leaf
starch concentration or increasing stomatal
conductance, but was unrelated to leaf nitrogen concentration. These gas
exchange and leaf chemistry
measurements suggest that in contrast to B. pendula, Alnus
incana and Alnus glutinosa, which are the major host
species for Agelastica alni, possess leaf-level physiological
adaptations and defence mechanisms which can
attenuate negative effects of herbivory by the alder leaf-beetle.
The observation of an area of 120° × 56° centered on RA=8h DEC=20° at 408 MHz was the first astronomical use of the MPIfR 100-m telescope (1970) and was designed to compile a complete sky survey using also data from Jodrell Bank and Parkes (Haslam et al., 1982). The observation of the northern sky at 1420 MHz started in 1972 using the Stockert 25-m telescope and was finished in 1976 (Reich and Reich 1986). This survey has been completed to an all sky survey using data from Villa Elisa (Argentina). The two surveys are absolutely calibrated. The angular resolutions are 0.8° and 0.59°, respectively. A number of surveys of the Galactic plane have been made with the 100-m telescope at arc minute angular resolution. Surveys at 2695 MHz (|b| ≤ 5°) (Reich et al. 1990, Fürst et al. 1990) and at 1410 MHz (|b| < 4°) (Reich et al. 1990) are public.
At medium Galactic latitudes (up to |b| = 20°) the emission consists mainly of faint extended ridges or arcs superimposed on the still dominating, about 10 times stronger, diffuse Galactic emission. They have never been investigated in a systematic way although they provide important clues for the understanding of the “disk-halo connection”. This region is covered by new observations at 1400 MHz with the 100-m telescope.
The anisotropie oxide superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-Dgr; and Sr2RuO4 have been epitaxially combined in various ways (c-axis on c-axis, c-axis on a-axis, and a-axis on a-axis) though the use of appropriate substrates. Phase-pure a-axis oriented or c-axis oriented epitaxial Sr2RuO4 films were grown by pulsed laser deposition. YBa2Cu3O7-δ films were then grown on both orientations of Sr2RuO4 films and the resulting epitaxy was characterized.
A radio continuum survey at medium Galactic latitudes with the 100−m telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie is being carried out at a center frequency of 1.4 GHz in total power and linear polarization. We present polarization and depolarization structures detected at medium latititudes with no corresponding observable structure in total power emission. Existence of such kind of polarization structures imply that the emission, due to the Faraday modulation of the Galactic synchrotron foreground, occurs in thin sheetlike regions. This phenomenon is a sign for fluctuating local magnetic field.