The current study investigated the effects of supplementing rumen-protected choline (RPC) on metabolic profile, selected liver constituents and transcript levels of selected enzymes, transcription factors and nuclear receptors involved in mammary lipid metabolism in dairy goats. Eight healthy lactating goats were studied: four received no choline supplementation (CTR group) and four received 4 g RPC chloride/day (RPC group). The treatment was administered individually starting 4 weeks before expected kidding and continuing for 4 weeks after parturition. In the first month of lactation, milk yield and composition were measured weekly. On days 7, 14, 21 and 27 of lactation, blood samples were collected and analysed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and cholesterol. On day 28 of lactation, samples of liver and mammary gland tissue were obtained. Liver tissue was analysed for total lipid and DNA content; mammary tissue was analysed for transcripts of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory binding proteins 1 and 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and liver X receptor α. Milk yield was very similar in the two groups, but RPC goats had lower (P<0·05) plasma β-hydroxybutyrate. The total lipid content of liver was unaffected (P=0·890), but the total lipid/DNA ratio was lower (both P<0·05) in RPC than CTR animals. Choline had no effect on the expression of the mammary gland transcripts involved in lipid metabolism. The current plasma and liver data indicate that choline has a positive effect on liver lipid metabolism, whereas it appears to have little effect on transcript levels in mammary gland of various proteins involved in lipid metabolism. Nevertheless, the current results were obtained from a limited number of animals, and choline requirement and function in lactating dairy ruminants deserve further investigation.