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The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.
To report the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium surveillance data from 40 hospitals (20 cities) in India 2004–2013.
Surveillance using US National Healthcare Safety Network’s criteria and definitions, and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium methodology.
We collected data from 236,700 ICU patients for 970,713 bed-days
Pooled device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates for adult and pediatric ICUs were 5.1 central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)/1,000 central line–days, 9.4 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAPs)/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days, and 2.1 catheter-associated urinary tract infections/1,000 urinary catheter–days
In neonatal ICUs (NICUs) pooled rates were 36.2 CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days and 1.9 VAPs/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days
Extra length of stay in adult and pediatric ICUs was 9.5 for CLABSI, 9.1 for VAP, and 10.0 for catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Extra length of stay in NICUs was 14.7 for CLABSI and 38.7 for VAP
Crude extra mortality was 16.3% for CLABSI, 22.7% for VAP, and 6.6% for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult and pediatric ICUs, and 1.2% for CLABSI and 8.3% for VAP in NICUs
Pooled device use ratios were 0.21 for mechanical ventilator, 0.39 for central line, and 0.53 for urinary catheter in adult and pediatric ICUs; and 0.07 for mechanical ventilator and 0.06 for central line in NICUs.
Despite a lower device use ratio in our ICUs, our device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates are higher than National Healthcare Safety Network, but lower than International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Report.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):172–181
Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors, EDLC, using Cobalt sulfide- Graphene (CoSG) composite electrodes, were fabricated and the storage process was studied. CoSG composite was prepared by a simple chemical route. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Field Emission Scanning Electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterized the as prepared composites which indicated formation of Co S phase. Solutions of perfluorosulfonic acid and Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) were used as electrode binding material. The storage capacitance of the composites were studied in 1M KCl and 6M KOH electrolytes using standard electrochemical techniques like cyclic voltammetry, CV, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS, and discharge profiles. The capacitance was estimated for various binder concentrations for both the electrolytes. The concentration of perflurosulfonic acid binder of 0.8 wt% and PVDF of 0.04 wt% showed optimized specific capacitances of 657.8 F/gm and 1418.8 F/g, respectively. Some of the problems in storage density in activated carbon, like varying micro or meso pores, poor ion mobility due to varying pore distribution, low electrical conductivity, can be overcome by using Graphene and composites of Graphene. Graphene in various structural nomenclatures have been used by different groups for charge storage. Optimization of the electrode structure in terms of blend percentage, binder content and interface character in the frequency and time domain provides insights to the double layer interface structure.
A high-power millimetre wave (w1, k1) propagating through a magnetized plasma in the presence of a wiggler magnetic field (0, k0) produces density perturbations at (w1, K1 +K0). The density perturbations couple with the oscillatory velocity at (wl, K1) to produce a nonlinear current at (2w1, 2K1 +K0) driving second-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. The amplitude of the generated wave is sensitive to cyclotron resonance.
OH masers spots are observed with the VLBA at 1612, 1665 and 1667 MHz. The orientation of the ellipses resulting from scattering are all nearly aligned perpendicular to the galactic plane. These ordered orientation could be due to the galactic magnetic field.
Diamond like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on Si and then patterned to form 40 nm features as nanoimprint templates. A plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system with CH4 precursor was used to deposit DLC films on Si and quartz substrates. Then these films were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), nanoindentation, and contact angle measurement. By varying the RF power and pressure of the PECVD, DLC films with good uniformity, smooth surfaces (<0.2 nm RMS), low surface energy (∼40 mJ/m2), and high hardness (∼22 GPa) were achieved. Nanoimprint lithography and liftoff process were used to pattern Cr mask on DLC films. An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching process was performed with CF4 to transfer the patterns into the DLC films to form nanostructured template for nanoimprint. Water contact angles on the patterned DLC templates were measured and it was stable at about 70° under thermal annealing at 180 °C for more than 12 hours. With these DLC templates, UV and reversal UV nanoimprint lithography were carried out on SU-8 at typical imprint conditions and then the fidelity of pattern-transfer was investigated. These experimental results indicate that DLC is an excellent material for nanoimprint templates because of its high wear resistance, robust low surface energy, UV transparency, and ease of patterning.
Objectives: To report our experience in providing cardiac technician led paediatric echocardiography services in a district general hospital in the United Kingdom. Methods: We have collected prospectively the numbers of referrals, and the proportion of abnormal echocardiograms, since inception of the service in 2000. In additional, for a period of 12 months, we have audited in detail the patterns of referral to the service, and outcomes, assessing the effect of the service on the outreach clinic run by a visiting paediatric cardiologist. Results: Use of the system resulted in detection of a wide range of abnormalities, with our audit showing that the patients received appropriate management. The total referrals to the service increased 10 fold over the 4 year period of the study. The proportion of abnormal hearts detected by echocardiography, however, dropped from 90 per cent to 16 per cent over the same period. The numbers of patients seen in the outreach cardiology clinic remained unaltered. Conclusions: Having been proved to be an effective model for the triage of children with suspected congenital cardiac disease, adoption of a cardiac technician led echocardiographic service has seen a dramatic increase in the numbers of echocardiograms requested, without decreasing the workload of the visiting paediatric cardiologist.
A 19-year-old farmer was referred by his general practitioner as an emergency to our otolaryngology department complaining of marked breathlessness of a few hours duration. He gave a three-day history of painful swelling and hair loss in the beard area of the right side of the neck. His upper airway was compromised unless extension of the neck was maintained. Larynx and pharynx were normal. The acute symptoms settled with intravenous antibiotics and hydrocortisone. Culture of skin scrapings revealed a growth of Tricophyton verrucosum. The neck swelling subsided after a course of oral griseofulvin followed by terbinafine. Difficulty in breathing due to fungal infection of the neck has not been previously reported in the English literature.
Temporal lobe abscess as a complication of parotid abscess is not described in the English literature. In this case report a 66-year-old gentleman is described who presented with a left-sided parotid abscess, which extended to other deep neck spaces, and advanced to develop a temporal lobe abscess and subdural parietal empyema. Treatment included intravenous antibiotics, incision and drainage of parotid abscess, and burr hole aspiration of the temporal lobe abscess. The importance of imaging to evaluate the extent of deep neck abscess and brain abscess is highlighted in this report.
The feasibility of preparing glasses and developing glass-ceramic materials that display magnetic characteristics using the simulated compositions of Lunar and Martian regoliths have been demonstrated. The reported results are preliminary at this time, and are part of a larger ongoing research activity at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with an overall goal aimed at (i) developing glass, ceramic and glass-ceramic type materials from the Lunar and Martian soil compositions in their respective simulated atmospheric conditions, (ii) exploring the potential application areas of these materials through extensive materials characterization, and (iii) further improving the related materials properties through a variation of the processing methods. This research activity is an important component of NASA's current space exploration program, which encourages feasibility studies for materials development using in situ resources on planetary bodies to meet the technological and scientific needs of future human habitats on these extra terrestrial outposts. This paper presents an overview of this on-going work at NASA (MSFC) and reports on a few selected results obtained to date.
Spasm of the pharyngo-oesophageal segment is one of the important causes of tracheo-oesophageal voice failure. Traditionally it has been managed by either prolonged speech therapy, surgical pharyngeal myotomy or pharyngeal plexus neurectomy with varying degrees of success. Botulinum neurotoxin has been found to be effective in relieving pharyngo-oesophageal segment spasm. Since 1995, we have used botulinum toxin injection on 10 laryngectomees with either aphonia or hypertonicity due to pharyngo-oesophageal segment spasm. Early results were analysed by the Sunderland Surgical Voice Restoration Rating scale. Seven of the 10 patients, who were previously completely aphonic, developed voice following this therapy and are using their valve choice as their only method of communication. Out of the three patients who were treated for hypertonic voice, two did derive some benefit from the procedure. One patient developed a hypotonic voice, which lasted for a few months.
Based on our examination of the characteristics of about 280 known pulsars and 40 millisecond pulsars (MSPs), we have derived selection criteria for MSP candidates: steep spectrum, highly linearly polarized point sources. The first sample of 14 candidates from the NVSS at 1.4 GHz and the WENSS at 325 MHz has been observed by the WSRT using PuMa at both 92 and 21 cm in May 1999. We have finished processing all data and find no evidence for MSPs for a dispersion measure range of 0 —- 200 cm−3 pc in this first sample.
Seven millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have been identified from the NVSS by positional coincidence. Our examination of the characteristics of about, 280 known pulsars and 40 MSPs has shown that they have high polarization and a steep spectrum. We identify likely MSP candidates from both the NVSS at 1.4 GHz and the WENSS at 325 MHz. The first sample of 14 candidates has been observed by the WSRT using PuMa at both 92 and 21 cm in May 1999. From our preliminary analysis of the 382 MHz data, we find no evidence for MSPs in the first sample.
We have built a pulsar machine (PuMa) for operation at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The combination of PuMa and WSRT is capable of many types of pulsar research. We show the coherent dedispersion capabilities and the flexible frequency resolution. We discuss pulsar searching and simultaneous multifrequency observations.
The fact that the majority of the youngest radio pulsars are surrounded by expanding supernova remnants is strong evidence that neutron stars are produced in the supernovae of massive stars. In many cases, the pulsar appears significantly offset from the geometric centre of the supernova remnant, indicating that the neutron star has moved away from the site of the explosion with a substantial space velocity since birth. Here we show that the these offsets show an overwhelming preference for one sign in terms of Galactic longitude, a result that has important implications for the number of genuine associations. The origin of this statistically significant effect may lie in a differential Galactic rotational velocity between stars and gas in the interstellar medium.
PuMa is a fully digital PulsarMachine the operation at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Its design is based on the use of Digital Signal Processors. It has two modes of operation: a baseband recording mode and a digital filterbank mode.
Silicon nanocrystals have made a recent appearance in the literature because of their potential importance in microelectronic and optoelectronic  devices. For example, replacing the traditional Si floating gate in nonvolatile memory field effect transistors with nanocrystals has been shown to produce more reliable and lower power memory devices than traditional transistors . Controlled oxidation of Si nanocrystals is desirable in the processing of Si quantum dots for these devices. If controlled oxidation is attainable, then it could be used to control nanocrystal size, achieve high nanocrystal density, and achieve a high quality interface between Si dot and SiO2 gate oxide layer in nanocrystal based memory. In this work, we report the oxidation properties of various sized silicon nanocrystals, deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, in different oxidizing environments. In the literature, when a Si column or dot is oxidized below the viscoelastic temperature of SiO2 (950 oC), the oxidation will self-limit to a Si core size that is dependent on the oxidizing conditions and the initial particle size. This self-limiting phenomenon is said to occur because of the presence of a compressive stress in the oxide layer that limits the diffusion of the oxidizing agent through the SiO2 to the Si- SiO2 interface. This compressive stress is present at the interface because of the difference in the density of the oxide and the Si and is enhanced by the radius of curvature of the dot. This self- limiting oxidation phenomenon will be studied experimentally using microscopy techniques and the effect of the constrained structure will be characterized.
Radio signals, during their passage through the intervening medium, are scattered due to irregularities in the density of free electrons in the interstellar medium. Signals from distant sources undergo, most often, strong & multiple scattering while the signals from nearby sources may be only weakly scattered even at meter wavelengths. It is likely that the scattering of signals from some nearby sources is possibly non-multiple in nature and hence may show a distinct signature of single or discrete scattering events. In such a situation we receive, along with the direct unscattered signal, only a few discrete delayed versions of the signal. In such a case, it appears possible to probe the properties (such as the size and the density contrast) of the discrete density-irregularities responsible for the scattering, if the associated delays can be measured.