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To compare endoscopic assisted powered adenoidectomy with conventional curettage adenoidectomy.
A randomised controlled trial was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Fifty patients with a symptom complex pertaining to adenoid hypertrophy and requiring adenoidectomy were chosen and divided into 2 groups of 25 each. Patients in group A underwent conventional curettage adenoidectomy and those in group B underwent endoscopic assisted powered adenoidectomy. Comparison was based on the parameters of surgical time, intra-operative bleeding, post-operative pain and completeness of adenoid removal.
The surgical time was significantly longer with the powered instrument. Mean blood loss was greater in the powered group, but was statistically insignificant. The powered procedure fared significantly better, with lower pain scores and more instances of complete tissue resection.
A curved microdebrider blade can be used safely and precisely for adenoidectomy under endoscopic vision. It enables complete resection of adenoid tissue. This method also proves to be an excellent teaching aid.
This paper follows the progress made in India for research and farmer adoption of conservation agriculture (CA) since the publication of Erenstein (2012), who contested the idea that zero-till (ZT) establishment of wheat in rice–wheat systems could be further developed into full CA systems. Data presented in this paper show that research has successfully found solutions for both the wheat and rice phases of the rice–wheat systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in the past 8 years. It shows that by finding solutions in both the rice and wheat phases, yields, water use efficiency and profits increased, while labour needs reduced. Indian scientists have also confirmed these benefits in participatory on-farm research in various locations, both east and west regions of the IGP. Farmers see for themselves through experimentation that they get higher yields with less cost and with more efficient use of inputs and water. A key factor has been the development of improved seed drills with the help of Indian private sector manufacturers of agricultural equipment. Indian scientists have also successfully conducted CA research on several other crops and in other regions besides the IGP. The paper shows that it is better to introduce parts of the CA management practices in a step-wise fashion first, rather than introducing the entire package at once since farmers first have to test and evaluate a new technology to understand how it benefits them personally before they will adopt it. The paper concludes that in the rice–wheat systems of South Asia, adoption of CA is indeed possible to achieve although it is still a work in progress. CA is a complex technology package and it takes time to overcome all of the contested issues mentioned in Erenstein (2012).
A problem of two equal, semi-permeable, collinear cracks, situated normal to the edges of an infinitely long piezoelectric strip is considered. Piezoelectric strip being prescribed out-of-plane shear stress and in-plane electric-displacement. The Fourier series and integral equation methods are adopted to obtain analytical solution of the problem. Closed-form analytic expressions are derived for various fracture parameters viz. crack-sliding displacement, crack opening potential drop, field intensity factors and energy release rate. An numerical case study is considered for poled PZT–5H, BaTiO3 and PZT–6B piezoelectric ceramics to study the effect of applied electro-mechanical loadings, crack-face boundary conditions as well as inter-crack distance on fracture parameters. The obtained results are presented graphically, discussed and concluded.
We present the first results from multi-site observations of the δ Scuti star XX Pyx (CD–24°7599). The observations were carried out as the 17th run of the Delta Scuti Network. We collected 583 hr of B, V time-series photometry, resulting in a detection level (4σ) in the amplitude spectrum of 0.5 mmag. We detect 6 new pulsation frequencies, bringing the total number of frequencies known in this star up 19.
Kamala Das was neither a precursor of “women's writing in India” in general, nor of “poetry by Indian women” in particular. Indian Writing has been indelibly marked with writings of Indian women, as a cursory glance through the voluminous Women Writing in India: 600 BC to the Present would show. Why is Das, then, accorded such importance in modern Indian Literature? There have been women poets in India before and after her, but for none of them were their lives and their writing as closely interwoven as in the case of Das. Das's life and her writing flow into, and are an extension of, each other. They are two sides of the same coin. While the life that she lived fed her writing, the writing, in turn, may be said to have fed the life. That is to say, Das chose to live her life in a way that notoriously earned her the label of “confessional poet” and caused her readers (especially heterosexual male readers) to focus on her sexual life. However, while Das has occasionally maintained that her poems have nothing to do with her, but merely a poetic persona that resembles her, she has, in truth, vacillated on the issue, and has sometimes willfully suggested (especially in her autobiography My Story) that the poems are factual and autobiographical.
Kamala Das was born in March 1934 in South Malabar, Kerala, India. She belonged to a matrilineal (if not matriarchal) family, with her mother, Balamani Amma, descended from the royal Nalapat clan. Both Balamani Amma's father and grandfather were maharajas. Das's father, by contrast, was a Nayar, a peasant whose family tilled the soil. The fact that she came from a matrilineal family, with royal blood on her mother's side, would have a bearing on the later Das who always chose to be in control, both as a poet and a human being, except when she voluntarily relinquished it. Das lived her life in Kerala, and in the metro cities of Calcutta, Bombay, and Delhi, alternating among these four locations at different times of her life.
Poor adherence to recommended intake protocols is common and a top challenge for micronutrient powder (MNP) programmes globally. Identifying modifiable predictors of intake adherence could inform the design and implementation of MNP projects.
We assessed high MNP intake adherence among children who had received MNP ≥2 months ago and consumed ≥1 sachet (n 771). High MNP intake adherence was defined as maternal report of child intake ≥45 sachets. We used logistic regression to assess demographic, intervention components and perception-of-use factors associated with high MNP intake.
Four districts of Nepal piloting an integrated infant and young child feeding and MNP project.
Children aged 6–23 months were eligible to receive sixty MNP sachets every 6 months with suggested intake of one sachet daily for 60 d. Cross-sectional surveys representative of children aged 6–23 months were conducted.
Receiving a reminder card was associated with increased odds for high intake (OR=2·18, 95 % CI 1·14, 4·18); exposure to other programme components was not associated with high intake. Mothers perceiving ≥1 positive effects in their child after MNP use was also associated with high intake (OR=6·55, 95 % CI 4·29, 10·01). Perceiving negative affects was not associated; however, the child not liking the food with MNP was associated with lower odds of high intake (OR=0·12, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·20).
Behaviour change intervention strategies tailored to address these modifiable predictors could potentially increase MNP intake adherence.
Cobalamin (Cbl) is an essential B vitamin involved in the normal functioning of the nervous system, the formation of key components of blood, DNA synthesis and methylation, and energy production. Physiological levels of Cbl vary greatly within populations, although the basis for this variability remains largely unknown. We conducted a twin study to characterise the basis of variation in plasma Cbl levels and to test whether common genetic polymorphisms in genes known to cause defects in inborn errors of Cbl metabolism and transport are also associated with mean plasma Cbl levels in the general population. The present results showed that plasma levels of Cbl were heritable, with genetic and phenotypic variance increasing with age, and levels significantly correlated with age, BMI, exercise, alcohol consumption, smoking status, social class and folate levels, which collectively accounted for up to 15 % of Cbl variation. Of eight genes responsible for the defects of the Cbl metabolic pathway (cblA–G and mut), MMAA, MMACHC, MTRR and MUT harboured polymorphisms that showed evidence of association with Cbl levels. Characterisation of the heritable component of variation in Cbl levels can facilitate the early diagnosis and prognosis of Cbl insufficiency/deficiency in individuals at a higher risk of associated diseases.
The properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are closely dependent on their structures, and therefore may be tailored by controllably introducing defects in the nanotube systems. In this work, we have investigated the effects of energetic ions (H+ and He+) on the thermal stability of single wall nanotubes (SWNTs) against oxidation in air. SWNTs were irradiated with MeV ions to various doses in the range 1013-1016 cm−2. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the loss of CNT masses as a result of oxidation processes. As opposed to the case of pristine SWNTs for which the temperature (Tmax) corresponding to maximum oxidation rate was found to be ∼ 495 °C, ion beam processing significantly enhanced the thermal stability of nanotubes, e.g., Tmax increased by about 30 °C after H+ implantation (dosage: 1015 cm−2) and 17 °C after He+ implantation (dosage: 1013 cm−2). The activation energies for thermal oxidation under various conditions were also extracted from TGA data, with values ranging from 1.13 eV (for pristine SWNTs) to 1.37 eV, depending on ion doses and species. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristics of the G band (C-C stretching mode) and D band (disorder induced mode) in CNTs. The work suggests that the SWNTs modifies to more stable structure (may be cross-linked SWNTs) at small doses. Once the number of defects exceeds some critical value (depending on the type and dosage of bombarding ion) the bonding energy in CNTs weakens, leading to the reduced thermal stability of CNTs against oxidation.
Tensile tests were conducted on an extruded Ni-30(at.%)Al-20Fe-0.05Zr intermetallic alloy in the temperature range 300–1200 K and the microstructures were characterized by optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The alloy did not exhibit any room temperature ductility and failed by transgranular cleavage at a stress of about 710 MPa. This mode of fracture was observed at and below 873 K with the total ductility being less than 2.5%. However, the failure mode changed to dimpled fracture, triple point cracking and rupture above 873 K. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces revealed that transgranular cleavage failure had always originated at pre-existing defects. In these cases, the fracture stress exhibited a good correlation with the defect size in accordance with linear elastic fracture mechanics, where the critical stress intensity factor was estimated to be about 4 MPa m1/2.
This study focuses on the sequential formation of aluminide phases during annealing of titanium and aluminum thin film bilayers. The formation of titanium-rich intermetallic phases at higher annealing temperatures is emphasized. Using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) analysis, and x-ray diffraction, phases formed as a function of temperature have been identified. The phases Al3Ti through Ti3Al were observed over the temperature range 450–750°C, where reaction with the SiO2 substrate occurred. All phases were present as discreet layers within the samples with several layered phases coexisting at the higher temperatures.
Self supporting thin films of amorphous alumina and zirconia were irradiated with light and heavy ions at various temperatures(25–430°C). Irradiation was found to result in the formation of 10–30 nm large grains well below conventional crystallization temperatures. These grains were quite stable against subsequent thermal growth. Crystallization, grain size, and growth depended on ion species as well as on ‘stabilizing’ additives (yttria or Pt).
Tensile superplastic deformation was studied using ceramic specimens that had a cross section of approximately 1 μm × 10–50 μm, and a length of 4 mm. These fibers were prepared by physical vapor deposition of oxides on a predefined pattern made by lithography.
Experiments with Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 fibers and spinel fibers showed two characteristic features of flow behavior: serrations and a threshold stress. The serrations were explained by a flow model based on discrete sliding events distributed in time and space throughout the polycrystal. These fluctuations in flow stress were detected in our microfiber specimens due to relatively few grains in the gage section. Experimental results of the effect of sample size, grain size and strain rate on the serration behavior are discussed in the frame of the new model.