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The study area belongs to the Singhbhum metamorphic belt of Jharkhand, situated in the eastern part of India. The spatial distribution of the index minerals in the pelitic schists of the area shows Barrovian type of metamorphism. Three isograds, viz. garnet, staurolite and sillimanite, have been delineated and the textural study of the schists has revealed a time relation between crystallization and deformation. Series of folds with shifting values of plunges in the supracrustal rocks having axial-planar schistosity to the folds have been widely cited. Development of these folds could be attributed to the second phase of deformation. In total, two phases of deformation, D1 and D2, in association with two phases of metamorphism, M1 and M2, have been lined up in the study area. Chemographic plots of reactant and product assemblages corresponding to various metamorphic reactions suggest that the pattern of metamorphic zones mapped in space is in coherence with the temporal-sequential change during prograde metamorphism. The prograde P–T evolution of the study area has been obtained using conventional geothermobarometry, internally consistent winTWQ program and Perple_X software in the MnNCKFMASHTO model system. Our observations suggest that the progressive metamorphism in the area is not related to granitic intrusion or migmatization but that it was possibly the ascending plume that resulted in the M1 phase of metamorphism followed by D1 deformation. The second and prime metamorphic phase, M2, with its possible heat source generated by crustal overloading, was preceded by D1 and it lasted until late- to post-D2 deformation.
New δ13Ccarb and microfacies data from Hereford–Worcestershire and the West Midlands allow for a detailed examination of variations in the Homerian carbon isotope excursion (Silurian) and depositional environment within the Much Wenlock Limestone Formation of the Midland Platform (Avalonia), UK. These comparisons have been aided by a detailed sequence-stratigraphic and bentonite correlation framework. Microfacies analysis has identified regional differences in relative sea-level change and indicates an overall shallowing of the carbonate platform interior from Hereford–Worcestershire to the West Midlands. Based upon the maximum δ13Ccarb values for the lower and upper peaks of the Homerian carbon isotope excursion (CIE), the shallower depositional setting of the West Midlands is associated with values that are 0.7 ‰ and 0.8 ‰ higher than in Hereford–Worcestershire. At the scale of parasequences the effect of depositional environment upon δ13Ccarb values can also be observed, with a conspicuous offset in the position of the trough in δ13Ccarb values between the peaks of the Homerian CIE. This offset can be accounted for by differences in relative sea-level change and carbonate production rates. While such differences complicate the use of CIEs as a means of high-resolution correlation, and caution against correlations based purely upon the isotopic signature, it is clear that a careful analysis of the depositional environment can account for such differences and thereby improve the use of carbon isotopic curves as a means of correlation.
Acute tonsillitis represents a significant proportion of admissions to ENT departments nationally. Given current hospital pressures, it is vital to look for safe alternatives to admission. This study explores the safe management of patients in an ambulatory medical unit, without the need for admission.
A retrospective review of 48 patients’ notes was carried out. Following the development and implementation of a guideline for acute tonsillitis, a prospective re-audit of 41 patients was carried out, measuring length of stay, overnight admissions and re-admissions.
The rate of overnight admission following implementation of the guideline fell from 0.75 to 0.29, and average length of stay dropped from 19.2 to 9.5 hours. There were two re-admissions in each cycle of the audit, which represents a non-significant increase.
The tonsillitis guideline has significantly reduced admissions and length of stay. Re-admissions remain low, demonstrating that this is a safe and cost-effective intervention.
All intensity data in a powder XRD pattern can be used to provide useful results for the interpretation of the mineralogical variability of geological samples. Simple statistical methods using Bonferroni's theorem permit the recognition of areas usually associated with mineral peaks where sample patterns are different at a predetermined level of confidence. Intensity/frequency histograms reveal subtle differences in low intensity regions of the XRD patterns that are also indicative of sample variability. These procedures facilitate the comparison of samples and may reduce the total analytical error because the weight percent determination can be eliminated.
1.1. Definition. Let λ ≡ λ(ω) be continuous, differentiable, and monotonic increasing in (0, ∞) and let it tend to infinity as ω → ∞. Suppose that ∑ an (we write ∑ for throughout the present paper) is a given infinite series and let
The series ∑ an is said to be summable |R, λ, r|, where r > 0, if
where A is a fixed positive number (6, Definition B). Now, for r > 0, m < ω < m + 1,
Hence, ∑ an is summable |R, λ, r|, where r > 0, if
Recently, several incidents of glyphosate failure on junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] have been reported in the midsouthern United States, specifically in Mississippi and Tennessee. Research was conducted to measure the magnitude of glyphosate resistance and to determine the mechanism(s) of resistance to glyphosate in E. colona populations from Mississippi and Tennessee. ED50 (dose required to reduce plant growth by 50%) values for a resistant MSGR4 biotype, a resistant TNGR population, and a known susceptible MSGS population were 0.8, 1.62, and 0.23 kg ae ha−1 of glyphosate, respectively. The resistance index calculated from the these ED50 values indicated that the MSGR4 biotype and TNGR population were 4- and 7-fold, respectively, resistant to glyphosate relative to the MSGS population. The absorption patterns of [14C]glyphosate in the TNGR and MSGS populations were similar. However, the MSGS population translocated 13% more [14C]glyphosate out of the treated leaf compared with the TNGR population at 48 h after treatment. EPSPS gene sequence analyses of TNGR E. colona indicated no evidence of any point mutations, but several resistant biotypes, including MSGR4, possessed a single-nucleotide substitution of T for C at codon 106 position, resulting in a proline-to-serine substitution (CCA to TCA). Results from quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses suggested that there was no amplification of the EPSPS gene in the resistant populations and biotypes. Thus, the mechanism of resistance in the MSGR population (and associated biotypes) is, in part, due to a target-site mutation at the 106 loci of the EPSPS gene, while reduced translocation of glyphosate was found to confer glyphosate resistance in the TNGR population.
The Acrididæ are characterised by a very uniform karyotype. With a few exceptions, the species so far studied contain 23 chromosomes in the male, which are very similar in size and structure. Attempts to deduce the probable mechanism of speciation within the Acrididæ were restricted only to metrical studies of chromosomes. Recently, however, Coleman (1943) has established in two species the subterminal position of the primary constriction or centromere and the variation in the length of the two arms in different chromosomes of the same karyotype. In the present paper additional evidence is presented which shows a linear differentiation of some chromosomes of the Acrididæ. Furthermore, in view of the fact that chromosome behaviour during meiosis is a more reliable criterion of ascertaining linear differentiation, the meiosis was studied in three genera.
Three species belonging to three different genera were studied. They are Spathosternum prasiniferum Walker, Oxya sp. and Phlœoba sp. The former two belong to the sub-family Catantopinæ and the latter one to Acrididæ. Adult male specimens have been captured from the field adjoining the Biological Departments, Calcutta University, mostly in the months of August and September 1943–44. The testes were dissected out in Ringer's solution (cold-blooded formula) and fixed in Medium Flemming, Belling's, and Kahle's fixatives. The two latter were very suitable for smear preparations. Sections were cut at 25 to 30 micra in thickness and stained in iodine-crystal violet and in Heidenhain's hæmatoxylin. A 2 per cent, solution of safranin also gave good results. Squash preparations were stained by Feulgen's method. Diplotene stages in Phlœoba were studied from temporary aceto-carmine preparations.
Visual vertigo is defined as a condition in which there is worsening or triggering of vestibular symptoms in certain visual environments. Previous studies have associated visual vertigo with an increased prevalence of underlying white matter lesions on brain imaging.
This study evaluated the magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain from a cohort of patients with visual vertigo, and compared the outcomes to an age- and gender-matched group of healthy volunteers.
Results and conclusion
White matter lesions were observed in 17.9 per cent of the patient group and in 16.3 per cent of the control group. The prevalence of white matter lesions in the patient group was not too different to that expected based on age.
Following large declines in tuberculosis transmission the United States, large-scale screening programs targeting low-risk healthcare workers are increasingly a source of false-positive results. We report a large cluster of presumed false-positive tuberculin skin test results in healthcare workers following a change to 50-dose vials of Tubersol tuberculin.
Herbicide resistance, and in particular multiple-herbicide resistance, poses an ever-increasing threat to food security. A biotype of junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] with resistance to four herbicides, imazamox, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, quinclorac, and propanil, each representing a different mechanism of action, was identified in Sunflower County, MS. Dose responses were performed on the resistant biotype and a biotype sensitive to all four herbicides to determine the level of resistance. Application of a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, malathion, with the herbicides imazamox and quinclorac resulted in increased susceptibility in the resistant biotype. Differential gene expression analysis of resistant and sensitive plants revealed that 170 transcripts were upregulated in resistant plants relative to sensitive plants and 160 transcripts were upregulated in sensitive plants. In addition, 507 transcripts were only expressed in resistant plants and 562 only in sensitive plants. A subset of these transcripts were investigated further using quantitative PCR (qPCR) to compare gene expression in resistant plants with expression in additional sensitive biotypes. The qPCR analysis identified two transcripts, a kinase and a glutathione S-transferase that were significantly upregulated in resistant plants compared with the sensitive plants. A third transcript, encoding an F-box protein, was downregulated in the resistant plants relative to the sensitive plants. As no cytochrome P450s were differentially expressed between the resistant and sensitive plants, a single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis was performed, revealing several nonsynonymous point mutations of interest. These candidate genes will require further study to elucidate the resistance mechanisms present in the resistant biotype.
The goal of the present study was to use a methodology that accurately and reliably describes the availability, price and quality of healthy foods at both the store and community levels using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S), to propose a spatial methodology for integrating these store and community data into measures for defining objective food access.
Two hundred and sixty-five retail food stores in and within 2 miles (3·2 km) of Flint, Michigan, USA, were mapped using ArcGIS mapping software.
A survey based on the validated NEMS-S was conducted at each retail food store. Scores were assigned to each store based on a modified version of the NEMS-S scoring system and linked to the mapped locations of stores. Neighbourhood characteristics (race and socio-economic distress) were appended to each store. Finally, spatial and kernel density analyses were run on the mapped store scores to obtain healthy food density metrics.
Regression analyses revealed that neighbourhoods with higher socio-economic distress had significantly lower dairy sub-scores compared with their lower-distress counterparts (β coefficient=−1·3; P=0·04). Additionally, supermarkets were present only in neighbourhoods with <60 % African-American population and low socio-economic distress. Two areas in Flint had an overall NEMS-S score of 0.
By identifying areas with poor access to healthy foods via a validated metric, this research can be used help local government and organizations target interventions to high-need areas. Furthermore, the methodology used for the survey and the mapping exercise can be replicated in other cities to provide comparable results.
Phased Array Feed (PAF) technology is the next major advancement in radio astronomy in terms of combining high sensitivity and large field of view. The Focal L-band Array for the Green Bank Telescope (FLAG) is one of the most sensitive PAFs developed so far. It consists of 19 dual-polarization elements mounted on a prime focus dewar resulting in seven beams on the sky. Its unprecedented system temperature of ~17 K will lead to a 3 fold increase in pulsar survey speeds as compared to contemporary single pixel feeds. Early science observations were conducted in a recently concluded commissioning phase of the FLAG where we clearly demonstrated its science capabilities. We observed a selection of normal and millisecond pulsars and detected giant pulses from PSR B1937+21.
In an effort to greatly improve the measurement precision of VLBI observables used to determine geodetic baselines, the potential of utilizing fringe phase has been investigated. The 245-km baseline between Mojave and Owens Valley (in CA) has been most thoroughly studied for this purpose. In trying several different experimental designs it appears that source scheduling is not the critical factor in determining when phase connection can be established. Normally, instrumental instabilities are also not limiting (although nominal functioning of the instrumentation is essential). The most serious factor in limiting opportunities for phase connection seems to be atmospheric variability. However, when the observation SNR is made large (> 50) to give very precise group delays (and hence enhance the chance of resolving phase ambiguities), the improvement in baseline uncertainty obtained using phase delays is only marginal compared with the corresponding group delay solution. For this case, the baseline error budget is dominated by stochastic variations in clock and atmospheric delay contributions rather than by observation noise.
To determine the impact of an environmental disinfection intervention on the incidence of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).
A multicenter randomized trial.
In total,16 acute-care hospitals in northeastern Ohio participated in the study.
We conducted a 12-month randomized trial to compare standard cleaning to enhanced cleaning that included monitoring of environmental services (EVS) personnel performance with feedback to EVS and infection control staff. We assessed the thoroughness of cleaning based on fluorescent marker removal from high-touch surfaces and the effectiveness of disinfection based on environmental cultures for C. difficile. A linear mixed model was used to compare CDI rates in the intervention and postintervention periods for control and intervention hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of healthcare-associated CDI.
Overall, 7 intervention hospitals and 8 control hospitals completed the study. The intervention resulted in significantly increased fluorescent marker removal in CDI and non-CDI rooms and decreased recovery of C. difficile from high-touch surfaces in CDI rooms. However, no reduction was observed in the incidence of healthcare-associated CDI in the intervention hospitals during the intervention and postintervention periods. Moreover, there was no correlation between the percentage of positive cultures after cleaning of CDI or non-CDI rooms and the incidence of healthcare-associated CDI.
An environmental disinfection intervention improved the thoroughness and effectiveness of cleaning but did not reduce the incidence of healthcare-associated CDI. Thus, interventions that focus only on improving cleaning may not be sufficient to control healthcare-associated CDI.