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Ed Zigler was a champion for underprivileged youth, one who worked alongside communities to fight for long-lasting systemic changes that were informed by his lifespan and ecological perspective on the development of the whole child. This paper reports on the development, implementation, and preliminary outcomes of an intervention that embodied the Zigler approach by adopting a community participatory research lens to integrate complementary insights across community-based providers (promotoras), Latinx immigrant families, and developmental psychologists in the service of promoting parent–child relationship quality and preventing youth aggression and violence. Analyses from the first 112 Latinx mother–youth dyad participants (46% female children, ages 8–17) in the resultant, Confía en mí, Confío en ti, eight-week intervention revealed significant pre–post increases in purported mechanisms of change (i.e., attachment security, reflective functioning) and early intervention outcomes (i.e., depressive, anxiety, and externalizing problems). Treatment responses varied by youth age. A case analysis illustrated the lived experiences of the women and children served by this intervention. We discuss future directions for the program, as well as challenges to its sustainability. Finally, we consider Ed's legacy as we discuss the contributions of this work to developmental science and our understanding of attachment relationships among low-income immigrant Latinx families.
The coast of Aragua is a home of bottlenose dolphins (BND), Atlantic spotted dolphins (ASD) and fishermen (FIS) from four towns. A photo-identification study was carried out on BND to estimate their home ranges. From 2004 to 2008, 100 field surveys were carried out along 30 km of coastline (92.12 km2). In each sighting of BND, information regarding date, time, latitude/longitude and photographs were registered (ASD and FIS were registered without photography). The data were analysed using a Geographic Information System to estimate Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP) and Fixed Kernel (FK) at 95%. The home ranges of BND were estimated for seven individuals. This included three females (29–31 sightings) with estimated areas ranging from 33.90–39.90 km2 with MCP (36.79–43.31% of the study area) and from 80.47–101.31 km2 with FK (109.97–104.26%). For the remaining four dolphins (14–20 sightings) the estimated areas ranged from 9.67–22.34 km2 (MCP), the predominant depth of these home ranges varied from 51–100 m (χ2 = 24.5, df = 2, P = 4.785 × 10−6). For the pods of ASD the estimated area ranged 75.23 km2 with MCP (81.66%) and 119.86 km2 with FK (130.11%) with predominant depths of 101–200 m (χ2 = 24.5, df = 2, P = 4.785 × 10−6). The area used by FIS ranged 93.27 km2 by MCP and 228.49 km2 by FK. Finally, the overlap area of BND, ASD and FIS ranged 24.75 km2 (26.86%). We point out this locality presents important oceanographic and ecological aspects which deserve to be the subject of application of management plans for the conservation of its habitat and species.
Epidemiological studies have reported that the increased risk of developing psychosis in cannabis users is dose related. In addition, experimental research has shown that the active constituent of cannabis responsible for its psychotogenic effect is Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Murray et al, 2007). Recent evidence has suggested an increased in potency (% TCH) in the cannabis seized in the UK (Potter et al, 2007).
We predicted that first episode psychosis patients are more likely to use higher potency cannabis and more frequently than controls.
We collected information concerning socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and cannabis use (age at first use, frequency, length of use, type of cannabis used) from a sample of 191 first-episode psychosis patients and 120 matched healthy volunteers. All were recruited as part of the Genetic and Psychosis (GAP) study which studied all patients who presented to the South London and Maudsley Trust.
There was no significant difference in the life-time prevalence of cannabis use or age at first use between cases and controls. However, cases were more likely to be regular users (p=0.05), to be current users (p=0.04) and to have smoked cannabis for longer (p=0.01). Among cannabis users, 86.8% of 1st Episode Psychosis Patients preferentially used Skunk/Sinsemilla compared to 27.7% of Controls. Only 13.2 % of 1st Episode psychosis Patients chose to use Resin/Hash compared to 76.3% of controls. The concentration of TCH in these in South East London, ranges between 8.5 and 14 % (Potter et al, 2007). Controls (47%) were more likely to use Hash (Resin) whose average TCH concentration is 3.4% (Potter et al, 2007).
Patients with first episode psychosis have smoked higher potency cannabis, for longer and with greater frequency, than healthy controls.
This study investigates the effect of sex and childhood trauma on affective processing in bipolar disorder (BPD) patients.
In a sample of fifty-six BPD patients, we administered the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Affective Go/No-Go (AGNG) to measure affective processing. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the effect of sex and childhood trauma on IGT; Repeated-Measures ANOVAs to measure accuracy and bias measures across conditions on the AGNG.
In the context of childhood abuse, females evidenced a more conservative cognitive style than males by selecting fewer cards from the disadvantageous decks [F(1, 49) = 14.218; P < 0.001] and showed an improvement throughout the task, as noted in a normal learning curve [F(1.49) = 4.385; P = 0.041)]. For the AGNG, an interaction specific to the negative valence stimuli on response bias measures was found. Abused females scored higher (mean = 8.38; SD = 6.39) than abused males (mean = 0.69; SD = 1.19) [F(1.46) = 6.348; P = 0.015].
Severity of childhood trauma was significantly different between sexes. In the context of a history of emotional abuse, male bipolar patients tended toward a more risk-taking behavior compared to female. Further investigations are needed to elucidate potential pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this interaction.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a recognized first-line treatment for psychological trauma. However its neurobiological bases have not been disclosed yet.
Electroencephalography was used for the first time to fully monitor neuronal activation during whole EMDR sessions including the autobiographical script. Nine clients with major psychological trauma were investigated during the first EMDR session and during the last one performed after processing the index trauma. Comparisons between the EEG of the first and last EMDR session and between the EEG of the clients at the first session and those of 9 controls undergoing the same EMDR procedure were performed.
During both script listening and bilateral stimulation EEG showed significantly higher activity in the prefrontal limbic cortex (Brodmann Areas, BA 9–10) at the first as compared to the last EMDR session. The opposite comparison showed a shift of the prevalent activity towards temporal, parietal and occipital cortical regions (BAs 20, 21, 22, 37, 17, 18, 19) with leftward lateralisation. The comparison between the 9 clients and the 9 controls confirmed the maximal activation in the limbic cortex in the clients before processing the trauma.
The implemented methodology made possible to image for the first time the specific activations associated with the therapeutic actions contemplated by EMDR. The findings suggest cognitive processing of traumatic events following successful EMDR therapy supporting the evidence of distinct neurobiological patterns of brain activations during bilateral ocular stimulation associated with a significant relieve from negative emotional experiences.
The “schizophrenia spectrum” concept allowed better identifying the psychopathology underpinning disorders including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder (SZA) and cluster A personality disorders (PD).
To compare the clinical portrait of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders, focusing on the impact of the affective dimension.
Inpatients at the acute psychiatric ward of Perugia (Umbria-Italy) were evaluated with the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders and diagnosed with a “schizophrenia spectrum” disorder according to DSM-IV-TR. The clinical evaluation was conducted using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). Pearson correlations of the different subscales in the three groups and between the negative scales with the affective symptom “depression” were conducted.
The sample consisted of 72 inpatients (schizophrenia 55.6%, SZA 20% and cluster A PD 19.4%). The negative and the general psychopathology scales directly correlated at different degrees in the three groups (schizophrenia: r = 0.750; P < 0.001; SZA: r = 0.625, P = 0.006; cluster A PD: r = 0.541, P = 0.046). The symptom “depression” directly correlated with 5 out of 7 negative symptoms: blunted affect (r = 0.616, P < 0.001), emotional withdrawal (r = 0.643, P < 0.001), poor rapport (r = 0.389, P = 0.001), passive/apathetic social withdrawal (r = 0.538, P < 0.001), lack of spontaneity & flow of conversation (r = 0.399, P = 0.001).
Our study confirmed the existence of the “schizophrenia spectrum” with combined different disorders lying on a continuum in which negative symptoms mainly correlated with the psychopathological functioning. Noteworthy, the symptoms of the negative scale strongly correlated with the “depression” symptom, underlying the impact of the affective symptoms on the severity of the “schizophrenia spectrum” disorders.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We reconstructed the late Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) evolution of the ancient harbour of Naples, one of the largest coastal conurbations in the Mediterranean. We carried out multiproxy investigations, coupling archaeological evidence with biological indicators. Our data robustly constrain 2000 yr of non-monotonic changes in sea level, chiefly controlled by the complex volcano-tectonic processes that characterize the area. Between ~200 BC and AD ~0, a subsidence rate of more than ~1.5 mm/yr enhanced the postglacial RSL rise, while negligible or moderate land uplift < ~0.5 mm/yr triggered a RSL stabilization during the Roman period (first five centuries AD). This stabilization was followed by a post-Roman enhancement of the sea-level rise when ground motion was negative, attested by a subsidence rate of ~0.5 to ~1 mm/yr. Our analysis seems to indicate very minor impacts of this nonmonotonic RSL evolution on the activities of the ancient harbour of Naples, which peaked from the third century BC to the second century AD. After this period, the progressive silting of the harbour basin made it impossible to safely navigate within the basin, leading to the progressive decline of the harbour.
Subcutaneous fat thickness and fatty acid composition (FAC) play an important role on seasoning loss and organoleptic characteristics of seasoned hams. Dry-cured ham industry prefers meats with low contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) because these negatively affect fat firmness and ham quality, whereas consumers require higher contents in those fatty acids (FA) for their positive effect on human health. A population of 950 Italian Large White pigs from the Italian National Sib Test Selection Programme was investigated with the aim to estimate heritabilities, genetic and phenotypic correlations of backfat FAC, Semimembranosus muscle intramuscular fat (IMF) content and other carcass traits. The pigs were reared in controlled environmental condition at the same central testing station and were slaughtered at reaching 150 kg live weight. Backfat samples were collected to analyze FAC by gas chromatography. Carcass traits showed heritability levels from 0.087 for estimated carcass lean percentage to 0.361 for hot carcass weight. Heritability values of FA classes were low-to-moderate, all in the range 0.245 for n-3 PUFA to 0.264 for monounsaturated FA (MUFA). Polyunsaturated fatty acids showed a significant genetic correlation with loin thickness (0.128), backfat thickness (−0.124 for backfat measured by Fat-O-Meat’er and −0.175 for backfat measured by calibre) and IMF (−0.102). Obviously, C18:2(n-6) shows similar genetic correlations with the same traits (0.211 with loin thickness, −0.206 with backfat measured by Fat-O-Meat’er, −0.291 with backfat measured by calibre and −0.171 with IMF). Monounsaturated FA, except with the backfat measured by calibre (0.068; P<0.01), do not show genetic correlations with carcass characteristics, whereas a negative genetic correlation was found between MUFA and saturated FA (SFA; −0.339; P<0.001). These results suggest that MUFA/SFA ratio could be increased without interfering with carcass traits. The level of genetic correlations between FA and carcass traits should be taken into account in dealing with the development of selection schemes addressed to modify carcass composition and/or backfat FAC.
The activity and circulation of influenza viruses in Argentina was studied during 2012 as part of the Argentinean Surveillance for Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses, in the context of Global Influenza Surveillance. The antigenicity and molecular characteristics of haemagglutinins (HA) of circulating influenza A and B viruses were analysed to assess the emergence of virus variants. Susceptibility to oseltamivir and zanamivir was evaluated by enzymatic assay and results were backed-up by sequencing of the neuraminidase (NA) genes. During the 2012 season, influenza virus circulation in Argentina was detected from weeks 24 to 51. The HA sequences of the studied A(H1N1)pdm09 subtype viruses segregated in a different genetic group compared to those identified during the 2009 pandemic, although they were still closely related antigenically to the vaccine virus A/California/07/2009. The HA sequences of the A(H3N2) viruses analysed fell into the A/Victoria/208/2009 clade, genetic group 3C. A mixed circulation of virus variants belonging to B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages was detected, with B/Victoria being dominant. All viruses tested were sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir except one. This isolate, an A(H1N1)pdm09 virus possessing the substitution NA-N295S, showed highly reduced inhibition by oseltamivir and reduced inhibition by zanamivir. Virological and epidemiological surveillance remains critical for detection of evolving influenza viruses.
Although risk for psychosis in velocardiofacial (22q11.2 deletion) syndrome (VCFS) is well established, the cognitive and familial factors that moderate that risk are poorly understood.
A total of 75 youth with VCFS were assessed at three time points, at 3-year intervals. Time 1 (T1) psychiatric risk was assessed with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). Data reduction of BASC scores yielded avoidance–anxiety and dysregulation factors. Time 2 (T2) neuropsychological and family function and time 3 (T3) prodromal/overt psychosis were assessed. Poisson regression models tested associations between T3 positive prodromal symptoms/overt psychosis and T1 psychiatric risk, T2 cognitive and familial factors, and their interactions.
T1 avoidance–anxiety ratings predicted T3 prodromal/overt psychosis. T2 verbal learning scores moderated this association, such that individuals with low avoidance–anxiety scores and stronger verbal learning skills were the least likely to demonstrate prodromal/overt psychosis at T3. Low scores on a T2 visual vigilance task also predicted T3 prodromal/overt psychosis, independently of the effect of T1 avoidance–anxiety scores. T1 dysregulation scores did not predict T3 prodromal/overt psychosis in a linear manner. Instead, the association between dysregulation and prodromal/overt psychosis was amplified by T2 levels of family organization, such that individuals with low dysregulation scores and low family organization scores were the most likely to exhibit T3 prodromal/overt psychosis.
Significant moderators of psychiatric risk in VCFS include verbal learning skills as well as levels of family organization, carrying implications for early identification and preventative treatment of youth with VCFS at highest risk for psychosis.
Familial aggregation of isolated abdominal aortic and isolated intracranial aneurysms have been described. Therefore, districtual aneurysm without a systemic genetic disease (e.g. Marfan, Ehlers Danlos etc.) can have a genetic basis. The authors are reporting on the development, in the sixth decade of life, of popliteal aneurysm in two identical twins E.U. and E.C. Zygosity was established on the basis of blood-group determinations, HLA haplotypes and cytogenetic variants. Mild clinical symptoms (intermittent claudication, calf cramps) had begun in E.C. at 21 years of age. Later, at 52 years of age, a thrombosis of the aneurysmatic sac on one side required surgical treatment. E.U. showed no clinical symptoms until the age of 60, when, within the interval of a few months, bilateral thrombosis had developed. The weight difference in the two subjects (E.C. 72 Kg, E.U. 64 Kg) may explain the difference between them as regards the age of onset of symptoms and body sides (one or both) affected. Angiographic, macroscopic and histologic aspects are documented. On surgical intervention, the aneursym was found at the biforcation of the popliteal artery, but no anomalous insertion of gas-trocnemii appeared to cause pressure on the artery leading to aneurysmatic dilatation. The aneurysmatic sac measured 2.5 cm in diameter and on histological examination, using haematoxylin-eosin and Van Gieson stain, showed fragmented elastic, collagen fibres.
The coexistence of Limb body wall complex (LBWC) and Sirenomelia sequence (SS) is present in only two studies in the literature on the topic. Tang et al (1991) and Martinez-Frias et al (1992) examined single fetuses and pointed out that the association of these two phenomena is extremely rare. The present study further contributes to the investigation and description of this particular association in a pair of twins. Both twins presented abdominal defects, urogenital anomalies and persistence of the primitive cloaca, but did not show craniofacial (CF) defects or amniotic band related defects. One twin had one leg only. In a previous study on LBWC we identified two morphologically and pathogenetically different phenotypes which, among other characteristics, are identifiable by the presence or absence of CF defects. (Russo et al. 1993; Russo et al. in press). Our twin pair belongs to the LBWC group without CF defects. This group, like SS cases, is usually characterized by the presence of lower limb anomalies. Aside from this, they also share a similar pattern of anomalies involving the urogenital tract and the cloaca. Analysis of the anomalies present in the twin pair leads us to suggest that the Sirenomelia pattern might be at the extreme end in a spectrum of lower limb defects within the LBWC group that does not present CF defects. In brief, we suggest that the coexistence of this LBWC type and SS is not related to the occurrence of two different defects but is the consequence of a common maldevelopmental process occurring during blastogenesis.
Recent data suggest trait-like neurocognitive impairments in bipolar disorder (BPD), with deficits about 1 s.d. below average, less severe than deficits noted in schizophrenia. The frequency of significant impairment in BPD is approximately 60%, with 40% of patients characterized as cognitively spared. This contrasts with a more homogeneous presentation in schizophrenia. It is not understood why some BPD patients develop deficits while others do not.
A total of 136 patients with BPD completed the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery and data were entered into hierarchical cluster analyses to: (1) determine the optimal number of clusters (subgroups) that fit the sample; and (2) assign subjects to a specific cluster based on individual profiles. We then compared subgroups on several clinical factors and real-world community functioning.
Three distinct neurocognitive subgroups were found: (1) an intact group with performance comparable with healthy controls on all domains but with superior social cognition; (2) a selective impairment group with moderate deficits on processing speed, attention, verbal learning and social cognition and normal functioning in other domains; and (3) a global impairment group with severe deficits across all cognitive domains comparable with deficits in schizophrenia.
These results suggest the presence of multiple cognitive subgroups in BPD with unique profiles and begin to address the relationships between these subgroups, several clinical factors and functional outcome. Next steps will include using these data to help guide future efforts to target these disabling symptoms with treatment.
Graded Al-doped ZnO layers, constituted by a mesoporous forest-like system evolving into a compact transparent conductor, were synthesized by Pulsed Laser Deposition with different morphologies to study the correlation with functional properties. Morphology was monitored by Scanning Electron Microscopy images and by measuring the resulting surface roughness. Its effects on electrical conductivity – especially carrier mobility, which significantly decreases with increasing roughness – allow to discuss the limitations in conduction mechanisms. Significant changes in light scattering capability due to variations in morphology are also investigated and discussed to study the correlation between morphology and functional properties.
Although DSM-IV attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be associated with numerous adverse outcomes, uncertainties exist about how much these associations are mediated temporally by secondary co-morbid disorders.
The US National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescents aged 13–17 years (n = 6483 adolescent–parent pairs), assessed DSM-IV disorders with the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Statistical decomposition was used to compare direct effects of ADHD with indirect effects of ADHD through temporally secondary mental disorders (anxiety, mood, disruptive behavior, substance disorders) in predicting poor educational performance (suspension, repeating a grade, below-average grades), suicidality (ideation, plans, attempts) and parent perceptions of adolescent functioning (physical and mental health, interference with role functioning and distress due to emotional problems).
ADHD had significant gross associations with all outcomes. Direct effects of ADHD explained most (51.9–67.6%) of these associations with repeating a grade in school, perceived physical and mental health (only girls), interference with role functioning and distress, and significant components (34.5–44.6%) of the associations with school suspension and perceived mental health (only boys). Indirect effects of ADHD on educational outcomes were predominantly through disruptive behavior disorders (26.9–52.5%) whereas indirect effects on suicidality were predominantly through mood disorders (42.8–59.1%). Indirect effects on most other outcomes were through both mood (19.8–31.2%) and disruptive behavior (20.1–24.5%) disorders, with anxiety and substance disorders less consistently important. Most associations were comparable for girls and boys.
Interventions aimed at reducing the adverse effects of ADHD might profitably target prevention or treatment of temporally secondary co-morbid disorders.
Several genetic and physiological factors increase the risk of DNA damage in mammalian oocytes. Two critical events are: (i) meiosis progression, from maturation to fertilization, due to extensive chromatin remodelling during genome decondensation; and (ii) aging, which is associated with a progressive oxidative stress. In this work, we studied the transcriptional patterns of three genes, RAD51, APEX-1 and MLH1, involved in DNA repair mechanisms. The analyses were performed by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in immature and in vitro matured oocytes collected from 17 ± 3-month-old heifers and 94 ± 20-month-old cows. Batches of 30–50 oocytes for each group (three replicates) were collected from ovarian follicles of slaughtered animals. The oocytes were freed from cumulus cells at the time of follicle removal, or after in vitro maturation (IVM) carried out in M199 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, 10 IU luteinising hormone (LH)/ml, 0.1 IU follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)/ml and 1 μg 17β-oestradiol/ml. Total RNA was extracted by Trizol method. The expression of bovine GAPDH gene was used as the internal standard, while primers for bovine RAD51, APEX-1 and MLH1 genes were designed from DNA sequences retrieved from GenBank. Results obtained indicate a clear up-regulation of RAD51, APEX-1 and MLH1 genes after IVM, ranging between two- and four-fold compared with germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes. However, only RAD51 showed a significant transcript increase between the immature oocytes collected from young or old individuals. This finding highlights RAD51 as a candidate gene marker for discriminating bovine immature oocytes in relation to the donor age.
Fourteen ‘treatment resistant’ problem gamblers received 9 weeks of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) at specialist problem gambling services delivered in Melbourne, Australia. This study is the first to investigate the effectiveness of a brief DBT treatment for problem gambling, with a focus on measuring change in the four DBT process skills (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion dysregulation, and negative relationships). Although there were no statistically significant improvements in measures of gambling behaviour, 83% of participants were abstinent or reduced their gambling expenditure pre- to post-treatment. Participants also reported statistically and clinically significant improvements in psychological distress, mindfulness, and distress tolerance. Moreover, there were no increases in alcohol or substance use. These results are discussed in the context of focusing on a single DBT process skill, and the benefits of using group-based approaches.