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We report the bivariate
-stellar mass distributions of local galaxies in addition of an inventory of galaxy mass functions, MFs, for
, cold gas, and baryonic mass, separately into early- and late-type galaxies. The MFs are determined using the
conditional distributions and the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF). For the conditional distributions we use the results from the compilation presented in Calette et al. [(2018) RMxAA, 54, 443.]. For determining the GSMF from
, we combine two spectroscopic samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at the redshift range
. We find that the low-mass end slope of the GSMF, after correcting from surface brightness incompleteness, is
, consistent with previous determinations. The obtained
MFs agree with radio blind surveys. Similarly, the
MFs are consistent with CO follow-up optically-selected samples. We estimate the impact of systematics due to mass-to-light ratios and find that our MFs are robust against systematic errors. We deconvolve our MFs from random errors to obtain the intrinsic MFs. Using the MFs, we calculate cosmic density parameters of all the baryonic components. Baryons locked inside galaxies represent 5.4% of the universal baryon content, while
mass inside galaxies reside in late-type morphologies. Our results imply cosmic depletion times of
and total neutral H in late-type galaxies of
and 7.2 Gyr, respectively, which shows that late type galaxies are on average inefficient in converting
into stars and in transforming
. Our results provide a fully self-consistent empirical description of galaxy demographics in terms of the bivariate gas–stellar mass distribution and their projections, the MFs. This description is ideal to compare and/or to constrain galaxy formation models.
Residual strain in electrodeposited Li films may affect safety and performance in Li metal battery anodes, so it is important to understand how to detect residual strain in electrodeposited Li and the conditions under which it arises. To explore this Li films, electrodeposited onto Cu metal substrates, were prepared under an applied pressure of either 10 or 1000 kPa and subsequently tested for the presence or absence of residual strain via sin2(ψ) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of Li films required preparation and examination within an inert environment; hence, a Be-dome sample holder was employed during XRD characterization. Results show that the Li film grown under 1000 kPa displayed a detectable presence of in-plane compressive strain (−0.066%), whereas the Li film grown under 10 kPa displayed no detectable in-plane strain. The underlying Cu substrate revealed an in-plane residual strain near zero. Texture analysis via pole figure determination was also performed for both Li and Cu and revealed a mild fiber texture for Li metal and a strong bi-axial texture of the Cu substrate. Experimental details concerning sample preparation, alignment, and analysis of the particularly air-sensitive Li films have also been detailed. This work shows that Li metal exhibits residual strain when electrodeposited under compressive stress and that XRD can be used to quantify that strain.
Describe Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder's (ADHD) prevalence in Bipolar Disorders (BD) and relatives.
78 admissions for Bipolar Disorder (DSM-IV) in Impatient Psychiatric Unit, in Hospital Clínico Universitario of Valladolid (Spain). Only 36/78 patients participate in study. Demographic, social and clinical information were registered. ADHD symptomatology was evaluated from patient and descendant (Conners short version).
ADHD symptomatology suggestive in childhood/adolescence were detected in 13,9% (5/36). Conners score were negative (below 15) in all case.
ADHD symptomatology suggestive in their children were detected in 6,25% (n=3). Conner score were positive in 2,1%. Family psychiatry history in 72,2% (n=26), affective disorder in 60,52% (n=23). No family history with ADHD diagnosis. Only one case (2,8%) with symptomatology suggestive of ADHD in relatives.
The ADHD prevalence in our sample of BD and relatives weren’t higher than general population.
- Frontiers Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. Cathryn A. Galanter, MDa, Ellen Leibenluft, MD. Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am 17 (2008) 325-346.
- Co-occurrence of bipolar and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in children.
Previous studies have suggested structural and physiological changes in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Unfortunately, there isn’t a consensus when defining the neuropathophysiology of depression. Hence, there isn’t a biological measure used in the clinical practice to define the differences between patients with depression and controls.
To test differences in Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) values between patients with major depression and controls.
Comparison of spontaneous oscillatory neuromagnetic activity using MEG between groups.
20 patients matching DSM IV-TR criteria for MDD, and 19 sex- and age-matched controls.
We found a significant positive correlation between age and LZC values within controls. This correlation was not found in MDD patients. Depressive subjects showed a tendency of higher LZC values when compared to controls. We found significant differences between groups in anterior and right regions. After six months of treatment with Mirtazapine (30 mg V.O. O.D.), we studied the Hamilton-17 rating scale values and found that this treatment was clinically effective in most patients. The main pharmacological treatment's effect was besides reducing the LZC values in patients, to recuperate the tendency observed in controls.
We could suggest that there is a relationship between a physiological metric and depression as well as symptom relief or remission after an effective treatment. According to our results we found physiological changes in the brain dynamic in depressive patients when compared to controls which means there are neurophysiological changes in depressive patients with time.
Suicide is one of the most frequent causes of death. In 1993, Bleuler emphasized its importance in his “Suicidal behavior is the most serious symptom of schizophrenia”. Since then, various studies have confirmed importance of suicide in schizophrenia, and today it's clear that his research and knowledge is one of the great challenges of psychiatry.
- Establish clinical-socio-demographic profile and risk factors for psychotic people with autolytic behaviors.
- Determine frequency of suicides in psychotic disorders in our area of care.
Material and methods
Retrospective study(3 years evolution) that includes psychotic patients(diagnosed according DSM IV-TR) admitted to the HCU of Valladolid. With data provided by hospital medical records, analyzed socio-demographic variables and clinics. Study consists of two groups:group of cases(those patients who have suicidal behavior) and control group (those that haven't autolytic gesture during the study period). Statistical evaluation was performed with SPSS.
- The sample includes 191 patients:41(21%) have attempted suicide.
- Of them:73% are males;88% singles;51% have basic studies;61% we re unemployed;37% were 31-40 aged;54% started disease 21-30 aged and 63.5% are schizophrenic.
- Considering statistical study we find that suicidal patient profile is male(p = 0.039),diagnosed with schizophrenia(p = 0.033),with previous suicide attempts(p = 0.009)and lack of social support(p = 0.007).
- 21% of hospitalized psychotic patients have presented some autolytic attempt.
- Profile of suicidal psychotic patient is a male, single, 21-40 aged, primary education, unemployed, with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia, particularly paranoid, with ten years evolution,without acceptable social support, number of revenues higher than non-suicidal psychotic and a personal history of previous autolytic attempts.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in subjects with cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment and dementia). It is also widely known that there are many cognitive differences between men and women. The aim of this study is to describe the neuropsychiatric profile of elderly subjects visited in a dementia unit and to estimate the gender differences in this sample.
We conducted a retrospective study in a sample of outpatients visited for the first time in a specialized dementia unit during 2008. The clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were compiled through a structured interview and neuropsychiatric tests. Yesavage scale was used for depression assessment and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated using NPI-Q test.
144 subjects were analyzed, 72.2% were women (n=104) and 27.8% were men (n=40). Mean age at diagnosis was 79.15 +/− 6.58 years. Mean score in Yesavage was higher in women (4.34) than in men (3.9) although not statistically significant. Male subjects showed greater anxiety and aggressiveness than women (p< 0.05) analyzed with NPI-Q. Prior to the first assessment interview 73.6% of the subjects had used psychiatric drugs: women were found to take more SSRI (12,5% vs 5%) while men were using more benzodiazepines (22,5% vs 14,4%) although not statistically significant.
We have found that anxiety and aggressiveness defines male neuropsychiatric profile in our sample. More results pointed towards other different features defining genders although not statistically significant. Further studies, with larger samples and more exhaustive assessment, are needed to determine sex differences in subjects with cognitive impairment.
Depersonalization (DP) is a common and complex clinical phenomenon in neurology and psychiatry. It is defined as an experience in which the individual feels a sense of unreality and detachment from him/herself. Prevalence and clinical correlates of dissociative symptoms in general, and DP in particular have been associated to panic disorder (Hunter et al., 2004). Moreover, DP has been associated with certain personality traits, specifically “harm-avoidant” temperament dimension, immature defenses, and overconnection and disconnection cognitive schemata (Simeon et al., 2002).
To investigate the prevalence of DP syndrome in panic disorder and its relationship with personality.
One-hundred-four consecutive adult patients with panic disorder were assessed with the Semi- Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Axis I and II. All participants were evaluated with the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (Sierra and Berrios, 2000) and the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory. The severity of panic disorder was measured with the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale.
Seventeen patients (16.3%) had a DP syndrome. There were not socio-demographic differences between both groups with and without DP syndrome. Patients with DP syndrome showed a higher score in “self-transcendence” character dimension (p< .001), higher prevalence of personality disorders (p=.007) and greater severity of panic disorder (p=.007). A logistic regression analysis showed that severity of panic disorder (p=.031) and higher “self-transcendence” personality dimension (p=.019) predicts DP syndrome in panic disorder patients. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed the goodness-of-fit of the model.
The study confirms the association of DP syndrome with panic disorder and their relationship with “self-transcendence” personality dimension.
Impulsivity is associated with different types of disorders, included substance used disorders. The purposed of this study is get to know if alcohol and cocaine affect in the same way to the impulsivity paradigms or if they strength each other or if there are specific bias associated to each one of the substances.
Material and methods
This is a 380 heavy drinker patient's sample recruited from twelve primary care centers. The patients were screened using The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT > 8). Neuropsicological tests done at the base line and after the 4 years of the study were the Continous Performance Test (CPT) and the Barrat Impulsivity scale. The alcohol and cocaine consume accumulated along the four years was also study.
The two variables of the CPT (ommission and commission errors) had a significant correlation with the alcohol and cocaine use accumulated in these four years. The variable that was associated with a greater risk of making more commission and ommission errors was the cocaine risk consumption. The years of study were protective variable.
The most important conclusion of this study is that alcohol and cocaine use produces a modification in the conductual paradigm of impulsivity characterized by the inhibition difficulties measured by the CPT. Also, the cocaine use effects are added respect to the alcohol ones and finally that cocaine plus alcohol effects over the number of ommission and commission errors are more potent that the ones made only with alcohol.
UPD is a regional referral hospital psychiatric care unit, endowed with multidisciplinary equipment. It provides care to people with light/moderate/severe intellectual incapacity coexisting with mental disease and/or severe behavioral disorders. It offers attention to patients who need a protected therapeutical environment for correcting behavior disorders. It was opened in September 2008.
Description of:therapeutic goals, inclusion/exclusion criteria, admission protocol and psychotherapeutic/pharmacological interventions.
Analysis of inpatients's sociodemographic/clinical characteristics and preliminary assessment of therapy goals.
Retrospective study(13-month) of patients admitted to UPD of Leon Hospital from its inception to date. Data are collected from medical histories.
47 referrals have been received,5 of them have been rejected not to fulfill criteria. We’ve 16 patients on waiting list.32 incomes have been realized and 22 discharges have occurred.
19 of the incomes correspond to Mild,6 to Moderate,6 to Severe and 1 to Profound mental Retardation.
Regarding co-morbidity:22 patients presented serious behavioral disorder. From this group, 2 met criteria for autistic disorder, 5 had schizophrenia or unspecific psychotic disorders, 5 presented Personality Disorder and one ADHD.
10 patients did’nt present any important behavioral disturbance. From this group 2 were diagnosed with OCD,3 presented problems due to Alcohol and Substance-related Disorders,3 had Psychotic Disorders, one met criteria for Impulse Control Disorder and one presented Mood Disorder.
Before admission, 12 patients resided in specific handicappeds center, 5 intermittently at selected centers and in family, and 15 lived with family.
Psychotherapeutic intervention and treatment were useful in most cases. It was particularly helpful in treatment of behavioral disturbances. Now we must determine effectiveness in maintenance of improvement when they return to their community.
Brief Psychotic Disorder (BPD) is a disease characterized by sudden onset of psychotic symptoms. This disturbance lasts at least 1 day but less than 1 month, and the subject fully recovered premorbid level. In the literature there are few data on its prevalence, established between 4-10% of all psychotic disorders. Although a female preponderance has been postuled, gender differences have not been well studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examined sex differences in brief psychotic disorder.
We conducted a retrospective study to estimate the gender differences in an inpatient psychiatric sample. This sample (n=39) included acute patients admitted in a psychiatry ward with diagnosis of brief psychotic disorder. The clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were analysed for males and females separately.
Of a total of 39 patients with BPD, 74.4% were women (n = 29) and 25.6% male (n = 10). Mean age at diagnosis was 33 +/- 8.65 years. Of the clinical variables studied, none was significantly different between male and female. Men had a higher consumption of alcohol (p< 0’05); there were no differences in axis II. Males had more psychiatric family history (70% vs 48.3%), although not statistically significant. Women had more frequent family history of mood disorders and men of psychotic disorders (p < 0.05).
We found higher prevalence of BPD in women. Males had more family history (mostly psychotic) and more toxic dependence. Further studies are needed with larger samples to determine the existence of sex differences.
Two studies to date have been published regarding the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients. The unadjusted prevalence rates reported were 30% and 32%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of 142 bipolar patients from Spain.
Bipolar patients (ICD-10 criteria) from 11 centres in Spain were assessed cross-sectionally for metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP ATP III criteria.
The mean age was 47.3 (SD 14.5), 51.1% were male. On average, patients were receiving 2.8 (SD 1.3) drugs for the treatment of their bipolar disorder. Ninety-one percent were receiving mood stabilizers, 63.4% antipsychotics and 29.6 antidepressants. Eighty-seven percent of the antipsychotics prescribed were atypicals. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our sample was 24.6% Fifty-seven percent of the sample met the criterion for abdominal obesity, 37.4% for met the criterion for hypertriglyceridemia, 36.4% for low HDL-cholesterol, 25.2% for high blood pressure and 12.5% for high fasting glucose. No statistically significant difference was found between with and without the metabolic syndrome for gender, illness status (acute versus in remission), CGI-S-BP scores and number of medications used. Patients taking tow mood stabilizers had significantly higher metabolic syndrome rates than patients taking one mood stabilizer and than patients without mood stabilizer treatment (40% versus 17.8% and 11.1% respectively, p .02).
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients is high. It appears to be higher than that estimated for the Spanish general population.
To know prevalence of depression in Spanish nursing home(NH) by analysing the clinical profile of residents from RESYDEM study (Identification of patients with cognitive deterioration and dementia in NH).
A multicentral, transversal, observational study was carried out in April 2005. 71 geriatrician from 54 NH representing the Spanish state participated. Depression was analysed in patient´s history and determined by NPI of Cummings, NH version.
1037 residents were randomized, 1020 were used by clinical data analysis. 941 were used to determine depression prevalence. Median age 83,4yo, 66.6% were women, 70.9% with basic educational level, 57.4% widows, 25.7% single, 41.5% had some degree of functional deterioration, 22.1% had delirium. In 26.4% were documented Stroke(17,9% TIA). 61.7% had dementia.
Depression appears in 31.4% of elderly institutionalized with the only diagnosis of depression or independent of others. There were no significant differences in age groups. However, was most frequent in women. 95.7% of patients with diagnosis of dementia had at least one drug for depression. Most used anti-depressants were trazadone (23%), citalopram (20.9%), sertraline (15.8%), fluoxetine (10.1%). No tricyclical anti-depressant reached 1% of consumption.
Depression affects practically one in three institutionalized elderly in Spain
Institutionalized elderly with depression are largely treated with ISRS. It is believed that the use of trazadone is linked with the effects on sleep and anxiety.
The high prevalence of depression, its overlapping with other processes and the comorbility of residents requires a careful search and approach in NH which implies a challenge for professionals in order to treat it.
Investigation of the occurrence of psychotic symptoms in non-psychiatric population may help to identify population at risk of psychosis. The aim of our study was to find out lifetime and current prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the general population of the Czech Republic. Study sample consisted of a stratified population. All participants were administered the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire and the data on psychiatric treatment and diagnosis according to the M.I.N.I. were recorded. In total, 3244 subjects responded (48.1% males and 51.9% females). The most frequently reported symptom was paranoia (7.7%), followed by hypomania (6.2%), strange experiences (5.2%), thought insertion (3.8%), and hallucinations (1.7%). Lifetime prevalence of minimum 1 psychotic symptom was 17.9%. The highest proportion of responders reported only one symptom (13.5%). Significantly more males than females experienced paranoia (p=0.002). In the subset of individuals with a history of at least one psychotic symptom, 70.6% never visited a psychiatrist, 78.9% did not meet diagnostic criteria of psychotic disorder according to the M.I.N.I., and 67.0% failed to have any psychiatric diagnosis at all. The results suggest a high frequency of psychotic experience among the ethnically homogeneous Czech population. Only the longitudinal follow-up could confirm whether the symptomatic subjects are at risk of development of psychotic disorder. More likely, our findings support a hypothesis of the presence of psychiatric symptoms in the general population as a continuum of psychotic spectrum, from normality and sanity through unique psychotic experiences to fully expressed illness.
Clozapine is an atypical dibenzodiazepine antipsychotic used for resistant schizophrenia. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy are rarely reported complications of clozapine treatment. The incidence of clozapine-related myocarditis has been variably reported at between 0.03% and 0.19% Myocarditis is a potentially life-threatening complication of clozapine.
We reported a case of a 30-year-old female patient who developed reversible myocarditis a few weeks after we began the treatment with clozapine for chronic resistant schizophrenia (as specified in DSM-IVTR), characterized by severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction that resulted in congestive heart failure.
After the immediate discontinuation of the clozapine, along with aggressive supportive care, resulted in almost complete recovery to baseline.
Patients taking clozapine who develop dyspnoea, fatigue, chest pain or collapse should be screened for myocarditis, especially during the first weeks of treatment. Health professionals should be aware of this uncommon but serious side effect of clozapine since failure to recognize the association may result in adverse clinical outcome. Myocarditis should be suspected when cardiac dysfunction appears suddenly, and appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies must be undertaken promptly.
Self-perceived health is a well-recognised predictor of later health outcomes and mortality, but its relationship to incident dementia has been scarcely explored.
To analyze self- perceived health as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD) in a population- based survey of the elderly (NEDICES) Study.
Participants were evaluated at baseline (1994-1995) with a standardized questionnaire that included subjective and objective (chronic disorders) health status and screening questions for depression and neurologic disorders. At follow-up (a median of 3.2 years later in 1997-1998) an analogous protocol and neurological assessment were performed.
Of 5,278 participants evaluated at baseline there were 306 prevalent dementia cases, and 161 incident dementia cases were identified among 3,891 individuals assessed at follow-up (D: 115).
Cox hazard ratio analyses showed that age, stroke and illiteracy were independent risk factors for dementia and AD. Aggregation of vascular risk factors was related to a higher risk of both dementia and AD. Good (and very good) versus less than good (fair, bad and very bad) self-perceived health was an independent risk factor for dementia (CI 95% 1.13- 2.16; p= .006) and AD (CI 95% 1.02- 2.18; p= .038) after adjusting by age, sex education and vascular risk factors.
Self-perceived health increased the risk for incident dementia and AD in the NEDICES cohort as it was previously described in the United Kindom MRC- CFA Study of dementia incidence. Global health measurements (self-perceived health, quality of life) needs farther studies as risk for dementia and AD.
The TaqIA polymorphism linked to the DRD2 gene has been associated with alcoholism. The aim of this work is to study attention and inhibitory control as per the continuous performance test and the stop task in a sample of 50 Spanish male alcoholic patients split into two groups according to the presence of the TaqIA1 allele in their genotype. Our results show that alcoholics carrying the TaqIA1 allele present lower sustained attention and less inhibitory control than those patients without such allele.
Different neuropsychological studies have consistently found an attention, memory and executive function deficit in schizophrenic patients. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) evaluates different clinical aspects of schizophrenia. Factor analyses of this scale suggest the existence of a “cognitive factor”, constituted by several items pertaining to the different subscales. In order to have an acceptable concurrent validity, this “cognitive factor” should correlate with the execution of neuropsychological tasks. Our objective was to study the correlation between the PANSS “cognitive factor” and the execution of neuropsychological tasks evaluating attention, memory and executive functions.
Thirty-five schizophrenic patients were evaluated using the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (Rey CFT) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Bivariate partial correlation between the neuropsychological variables and the PANSS “cognitive factor” was examined. In order to obtain this cognitive component, and based on previous studies, items P2, N5, PG10 and PG11 were used.
The PANSS “cognitive factor” was significantly correlated to CPT omission errors (r=0.45; p=0.006), Rey CFT recall after 5 minutes (r=-0.34; p=0.049), Rey CFT recall after 30 minutes (r=-0.40; p=0.020), WCST perseverative responses (r=0.36; p=0.035), and WCST perseverative errors (r=0.35; p=0.041).
The existence of significant correlations between the PANSS “cognitive factor” and performance on neuropsychological tasks evaluating attention (CPT), memory (Rey CFT) and executive functions (WCST) supports the concurrent validity of this factor.
A high prevalence of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) history has been found in alcoholic patients. Patients with this history have an earlier onset and greater intensity of alcohol use, more polysubstance use and a poorer prognosis. Our objective was to study differences in neuropsychological functioning in a group of alcoholic patients according to the presence or absence of a history of childhood ADHD.
A sample of 136 male alcoholic patients and 56 male control subjects were evaluated using the Continuous Performance Test (CPT); execution in both groups was compared. The sample of alcoholic patients was then divided into two subgroups according to the presence or absence of a history of childhood ADHD, namely the ADHD+ OH subgroup (61 patients with childhood ADHD history) and the ADHD- OH subgroup (75 patients without this history); CPT execution in these two subgroups was also compared.
The group of alcoholic patients made more omission (p=0.008) and commission (p=0.009) errors in the CPT than the control group. When comparing subgroups, ADHD+ OH patients made more omission and commission errors than ADHD- OH patients, although the differences did not reach statistical significance.
Alcoholic patients perform more poorly on the CPT than control subjects. In the sample of alcoholic patients, a history of childhood ADHD was not associated to significant differences in the execution of this test.
Computer programs are used in rehabilitation of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can directly affect cortical excitability and metabolism of prefrontal lobe and subsequently affect cognition. The objective of our study was to investigate augmentation of cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia with rTMS. Study subjects were stabilized patients with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia, treated with second-generation antipsychotics, except for clozapine (total N=34). Study with rTMS was double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, with 2 parallel arms. All subjects participated in eight-week computer-assisted cognitive training, during first 2 weeks Group 1 (N=8) received rTMS and Group 2 (N=8) inactive sham stimulation. Patients who refused stimulation participated in rehabilitation program only. Data were assessed fo the totatl study sample and for each group separately. The results showed that computer-assisted cognitive training significantly improved severity of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia in many domains, especially executive functions: attention shift – flexibility, attention control, and working memory. The output was faster, more precise, and more reliable. We did not detect to effect of rTMS on the change of cognition, there was no significant difference between active and sham stimulation. This finding can be explained by a significantly lower initial score in Raven test found in actively stimulated group or by a smaller sample size in a double-blind study. The study confirmed efficacy of computer-assisted rehabilitation in remediation of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia.
Supported by the projects IGA MZ CR NF7571-3 and MSMT CR CNS 1M0517