We have studied the genomic organization and transcription of the histone H2A genes in the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. In the parasite genome 2 gene clusters exist, each containing 3 H2A gene copies. Sequence analysesNucleotide sequence data reported in this paper are available in the GenBank™, EMBL and DDBJ databases under the accession numbers AJ419625, AJ419626 and AJ419627. showed the existence of significant sequence divergence among the H2A genes, mainly in their 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs). Also, the existence of allelic alternatives has been evidenced. Based on the divergence in the 3′UTR regions, we have defined 3 classes of H2A transcripts, which are present at different levels in L. infantum promastigotes. However, transcription of the 3 classes of H2A genes occurs at similar levels, as measured by nuclear run-on assays, indicating that their abundance is regulated post-transcriptionally. Also, differences in regulation were observed among the H2A transcripts: the levels of transcripts with 3′-UTR type I and type III are affected by growth phase whereas transcripts with 3′-UTR type II, that are barely detected, remain constant. It is likely that the complexity, in both gene organization and differential expression exhibited by the L. infantum H2A genes, is imposed by the nature of the post-transcriptional mechanisms of regulation operating in this parasite.