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The study area belongs to the Singhbhum metamorphic belt of Jharkhand, situated in the eastern part of India. The spatial distribution of the index minerals in the pelitic schists of the area shows Barrovian type of metamorphism. Three isograds, viz. garnet, staurolite and sillimanite, have been delineated and the textural study of the schists has revealed a time relation between crystallization and deformation. Series of folds with shifting values of plunges in the supracrustal rocks having axial-planar schistosity to the folds have been widely cited. Development of these folds could be attributed to the second phase of deformation. In total, two phases of deformation, D1 and D2, in association with two phases of metamorphism, M1 and M2, have been lined up in the study area. Chemographic plots of reactant and product assemblages corresponding to various metamorphic reactions suggest that the pattern of metamorphic zones mapped in space is in coherence with the temporal-sequential change during prograde metamorphism. The prograde P–T evolution of the study area has been obtained using conventional geothermobarometry, internally consistent winTWQ program and Perple_X software in the MnNCKFMASHTO model system. Our observations suggest that the progressive metamorphism in the area is not related to granitic intrusion or migmatization but that it was possibly the ascending plume that resulted in the M1 phase of metamorphism followed by D1 deformation. The second and prime metamorphic phase, M2, with its possible heat source generated by crustal overloading, was preceded by D1 and it lasted until late- to post-D2 deformation.
A comprehensive study of the fundamental characteristics of leading-edge separation in rarefied hypersonic flows is undertaken and its salient features are elucidated. Separation of a boundary layer undergoing strong expansion is typical in many practical hypersonic applications such as base flows of re-entry vehicles and flows over deflected control surfaces. Boundary layer growth under such conditions is influenced by effects of rarefaction and thermal non-equilibrium, thereby differing significantly from the conventional no-slip Blasius type. A leading-edge separation configuration presents a fundamental case for studying the characteristics of such a flow separation but with minimal influence from a pre-existing boundary layer. In this work, direct simulation Monte Carlo computations have been performed to investigate flow separation and reattachment in a low-density hypersonic flow over such a configuration. Distinct features of leading-edge flow, limited boundary layer growth, separation, shear layer, flow structure in the recirculation region and reattachment are all explained in detail. The fully numerical shear layer profile after separation is compared against a semi-theoretical profile, which is obtained using the numerical separation profile as the initial condition on existing theoretical concepts of shear layer analysis based on continuum flow separation. Experimental studies have been carried out to determine the surface heat flux using thin-film gauges and computations showed good agreement with the experimental data. Flow visualisation experiments using the non-intrusive planar laser-induced fluorescence technique have been performed to image the fluorescence of nitric oxide, from which velocity and rotational temperature distributions of the separated flow region are determined.
Monolithic integrated thin film tandem solar cells consisting of a high bandgap perovskite top cell and a low bandgap thin film bottom cell are expected to reach higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) with lower manufacturing cost and environmental impacts than the market-dominant crystalline silicon photovoltaics. There have been several demonstrations of 4-terminal and 2-terminal perovskite tandem devices with CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) or CuInSe2 (CIS) and, similar to the other tandem structures, the optimization of this device relies on optimal choice for the perovskite bandgap and thickness. Therefore, further advancement will be enabled by tuning the perovskite absorber to maximize the photocurrent limited by the current match condition. Here, we systematically study the optical absorption and transmission of perovskite thin films with varying absorber band gap. Based on these results, we model the photocurrent generations in both perovskite and CIS subcells and estimate the performances of projected tandem devices by considering the ideally functioning perovskite and CIS device. Our results show that for perovskite layers with 500 nm thickness the optimal bandgap is around 1.6 eV. With these configurations, PCEs above 20% could be achieved by monolithically integrated perovskite/CIS tandem solar cells. Also by modelling the absorption at every layer we calculate the quantum efficiency at each subcell in addition to tracking optical losses.
Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been used to study the defect levels in thin film copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2, CIS) which we are developing as the absorber layer for the bottom cell of a monolithically grown perovskite/CuInSe2 tandem solar cell. Temperature and laser power dependent PL measurements of thin film CIS for two different Cu/In ratios (0.66 and 0.80) have been performed. The CIS film with Cu/In = 0.80 shows a prominent donor-to-acceptor peak (DAP) involving a shallow acceptor of binding energy ∼22 meV, with phonon replica at ∼32 meV spacing. In contrast, PL measurement of CIS film for Cu/In = 0.66 taken at 20 K exhibited an asymmetric and broad PL spectrum with peaks at 0.845 eV and 0.787 eV. Laser intensity dependent PL revealed that the observed peaks 0.845 eV and 0.787 eV shift towards higher energy (aka j-shift) at ∼11.7 meV/decade and ∼ 8 meV/decade with increase in laser intensity respectively. The asymmetric and broad spectrum together with large j-shift suggests that the observed peaks at 0.845 eV and 0.787 eV were related to band-to-tail (BT) and band-to-impurity (BI) transition, respectively. Such a band-tail-related transition originates from the potential fluctuation of defect states at low temperature. The appearance of band related transition in CIS film with Cu/In = 0.66 is the indicator of the presence of large number of charged defect states.
In birds, after natural mating or artificial insemination (AI), sperms are transported through cloaca or vagina at the utero-vaginal junction (UVJ) of oviduct. Only 1% of the deposited sperm passes through the selection process in the vagina to reach the UVJ. In the UVJ, sperm enter the tubular invagination of the surface epithelium of the mucosa collectively called ‘sperm storage tubules’ (SSTs) where they are stored for longer duration retaining their fertilising capacity. The storage capacity and duration varies from species to species. This enables the birds to produce fertile eggs continuously. Shortly before and during egg production, sperm residing in the SST upon release will ascend the oviduct to the site of fertilisation in the infundibulum. Within the SSTs, sperm motility is suppressed and is initiated at some stage before fertilisation. Restoration of sperm motility is necessary for the release of spermatozoa from the SSTs. The exact mechanism by which sperm are stored in these tubules and released has not been established and hence, this is the focus of this review.
In this study, an atmospheric pressure cold plasma jet has been generated based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma. The double ring electrode configuration is used and analysis has been performed subjected to wide range of supply frequencies up to 25 kHz and supply voltage up to 6 kV. The electrical characterization of the plasma jet has been carried out using a high voltage probe. The V-I characteristics of the developed cold plasma jet have been studied and the consumption of the power has been analyzed at various input combinations of supply frequency and applied voltage. Consequently, the supply voltage and supply frequency are optimized with respect to the discharge current and jet length for optimum power consumption. The peak power consumed for glow discharge operation has been found to be 1.27 W in the optimized configuration.
This paper describes the characteristics of damage, introduced under different conditions of diamond wire sawing, on the Si wafer surfaces. The damage occurs in the form of frozen-in dislocations, phase changes, and microcracks. The in-depth damage was determined by conventional ways such as TEM, SEM and angle-polishing/defect-etching, which only provide local information. We have also applied a new technique based on sequential measurement of the minority carrier lifetime after etching thin layers from the surfaces to determine average damage depth and its in-depth distribution. The lateral spatial damage variations, which seem to be mainly related to wire reciprocation process, were observed by photoluminescence and lifetime mapping. Our results show a strong correlation of damage depth on the diamond grit size and wire usage.
Computed tomography (CT) is an important tool in clinical diagnostic imaging enabling three-dimensional anatomic imaging at high spatial resolution with short scan times. However, X-ray attenuation differences in physiological fluids and soft tissues are relatively small, requiring the use of contrast agents to achieve sufficient imaging contrast. Recent advances in energy-sensitive X-ray detectors have made spectral (color) CT commercially feasible by unmixing the energy-dependent attenuation profile of different materials and will potentially enable molecular imaging in CT. In order to leverage these capabilities for diagnostic imaging, we are developing a spectral library of nanoparticle contrast agents with K-shell absorption edges spaced at least 10 keV apart. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the ability of spectral CT to simultaneously detect up to three different contrast agents and unmixed their signals to create color images. Gadolinium oxide (Gd), hafnium oxide (Hf) and gold (Au) were chosen due to exhibiting K-edges spaced 10-20 keV apart. Core-shell nanoparticles of each composition were synthesized by various methods to have a core diameter of 15-20 nm and were coated with a silica shell at least 2-4 nm in thickness to create a common platform for surface functionalization. The contrast agents were imaged in a soft tissue equivalent phantom using source-side method for spectral CT imaging. The source-side approach utilized monochromatic synchrotron radiation at the Argonne National Laboratory which, while not clinically applicable, served as a gold standard due to providing the highest spectral resolution. The nanoparticles designed for this study have broad applications in biomedical imaging due to their modular assembly, potential for enabling multi-modal detection, and surface functionalization with biomolecules (e.g., antibodies, peptides or enzymes) for active targeting.
We have studied the influence of experimental factors and specimen geometry on the quality of the mass spectra in copper (Cu) during pulsed-laser atom-probe tomography. We have evaluated the effects of laser pulse energy, laser pulse frequency, specimen base temperature, specimen tip radius, and specimen tip shank half-angle on the effects of mass resolving power, (m/Δm), at full-width at half-maximum and at full-width at tenth-maximum, the tail size after the major mass-to-charge state (m/n) ratio peaks, and the mass spectra. Our results indicate that mass resolving power improves with decreasing pulse energy between 40 and 80 pJ and decreasing base temperature between 20 and 80 K. The mass resolving power also improves with increasing tip radius and shank half-angle. A pulse frequency of 250 kHz slightly improves the mass resolving power relative to 100 or 500 kHz. The tail size decreases with increasing pulse energy. The mass resolving power improves when the cooling time is reduced, which is influenced by the thermal diffusivity of Cu and the specimen base temperature.
The composition of co-precipitated and collocated NbC carbide precipitates, Fe3C iron carbide (cementite), and Cu-rich precipitates are studied experimentally by atom-probe tomography (APT). The Cu-rich precipitates located at a grain boundary (GB) are also studied. The APT results for the carbides are supplemented with computational thermodynamics predictions of composition at thermodynamic equilibrium. Two types of NbC carbide precipitates are distinguished based on their stoichiometric ratio and size. The Cu-rich precipitates at the periphery of the iron carbide and at the GB are larger than those distributed in the α-Fe (body-centered cubic) matrix, which is attributed to short-circuit diffusion of Cu along the GB. Manganese segregation is not observed at the heterophase interfaces of the Cu-rich precipitates that are located at the periphery of the iron carbide or at the GB, which is unlike those located at the edge of the NbC carbide precipitates or distributed in the α-Fe matrix. This suggests the presence of two populations of NiAl-type (B2 structure) phases at the heterophase interfaces in multicomponent Fe–Cu steels.
One of the most successful method in quantifying the structures in the Cosmic Web is the Minkowski Functionals. In 3D, there are four minkowski Functionals: Area, Volume, Integrated Mean Curvature and the Integrated Gaussian Curvature. For defining the Minkowski Functionals one should define a surface. We have developed a method based on Marching cube 33 algorithm to generate a surface from a discrete data sets. Next we calculate the Minkowski Functionals and Shapefinder from the triangulated polyhedral surface. Applying this methodology to different data sets , we obtain interesting results related to geometry, morphology and topology of the large scale structure
Three Critically Endangered Gyps vultures endemic to South Asia continue to decline due to the use of diclofenac to treat livestock. High nephrotoxicity of diclofenac to Gyps vultures, leading to death, has been established by experiment and observation, in four out of five Gyps vulture species which occur in South Asia. Declines have also been observed in South Asia’s four other non-Gyps vulture species, but to date there has been no evidence about the importance of diclofenac as a potential cause. Neither is there any evidence on the toxicity of diclofenac to the Accipitridae other than vultures. In this study, gross and microscopic lesions and diclofenac tissue levels in Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis found at a cattle carcass dump in Rajasthan, India, show evidence of the toxicity of diclofenac for this species. These findings suggest the possibility that diclofenac is toxic to other accipitrid raptors and is therefore a potential threat to much wider range of scavenging species in South Asia.
In this paper, we will describe the nature of defects and impurities in thick epitaxial-Si layers and their influence on the cell efficiency. These wafers have very low average dislocation density. Stacking faults (SFs) are the main defect in epi layers. They can occur in many configurations—be isolated, intersecting, and nested. When nested, they can be accompanied by formation of coherent twins resulting in dendritic growth, with pyramids protruding out of the wafer surface. Such pyramids create large local stresses and punch out dislocations. The main mechanism of dislocation formation is through pyramids. Stacking faults degrade solar cell performance. Analyses of the solar cells have revealed that the nested SFs have a controlling effect on the solar cell performance. A well-controlled growth can minimize defect generation and produce wafers that can yield cell efficiencies close to 20%.
We investigated an unprecedented outbreak of fulminant hepatitis B virus (HBV) that occurred in Modasa, Gujarat (India) in 2009. Genomic analysis of all fulminant hepatic failure cases confirmed exclusive predominance of subgenotype D1. A1762T, G1764A basal core promoter (BCP) mutations, insertion of isoleucine after nt 1843, stop codon mutation G1896A, G1862T transversion plus seven other mutations in the core gene caused inhibition of HBeAg expression implicating them as circulating precore/BCP mutant virus. Two rare mutations at amino acids 89 (Ile→Ala) and 119 (Leu→Ser) in addition to other mutations in the polymerase (pol) gene may have caused some alteration in either of four pol gene domains to affect encapsidation of pregenomic RNA to enhance pathogenicity. Sequence similarity among patients' sequences suggested an involvement of a single hepatitis B mutant strain/source to corroborate the finding of gross and continued usage of HBV mutant-contaminated syringes/needles by a physician which resulted in this unprecedented outbreak of fulminant hepatitis B. The fulminant exacerbation of the disease might be attributed to mutations in the BCP/precore/core and pol genes that may have occurred due to selection pressure during rapid spread/mutation of the virus.