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From foraging patterns in a single tree to social interactions across a home range, how primates use space is a key question in the field of primate behavioral ecology. Drawing on the latest advances in spatial analysis tools, this book offers practical guidance on applying geographic information systems (GIS) to central questions in primatology. An initial methodological section discusses niche modelling, home range analysis and agent-based modelling, with a focus on remote data collection. Research-based chapters demonstrate how ecologists apply this technology to study intensity of range use and travel routes, as well as to population-level questions; how GIS can help to assess the impact of logging, mining and hunting, as well as to inform primate conservation strategies. Offering best practice guidelines on cutting-edge technologies, this is an indispensable resource for any primatologist or student of animal behaviour.
Cognitive impairment is considered a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD) and research into psychological treatments aiming to address cognitive impairment are gaining momentum. Compared with the well-established research base of cognitive treatment trials in schizophrenia, including meta-analyses, mood disorder research is much more preliminary.
To focus on identifying the important factors to consider in developing larger-scale psychological treatment trials targeting cognitive impairment in mood disorders. Trial design recommendations have been published for cognitive treatment trials in bipolar disorder.
An in-depth discussion of methodological considerations in the development of cognitive treatment trials for MDD.
Methodological considerations include: screening for, and defining, cognitive impairment; mood state when cognitive intervention begins; medication monitoring during cognitive interventions; use of concomitant therapy; level of therapist involvement; duration and dose of treatment; choice of specific cognitive training exercises; home practice; improving adherence; appropriate comparison therapies in clinical trials; and choice of primary outcomes.
As well as guidance for clinical trial development, this review may be helpful for clinicians wanting to provide cognitive interventions for individuals with MDD.
Cellular mitochondrial function has been suggested to contribute to variation in feed efficiency (FE) among animals. The objective of this study was to determine mitochondrial abundance and activities of various mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (complex I (CI) to complex IV (CIV)) in liver and muscle tissue from beef cattle phenotypically divergent for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of FE. Individual DM intake (DMI) and growth were measured in purebred Simmental heifers (n = 24) and bulls (n = 28) with an initial mean BW (SD) of 372 kg (39.6) and 387 kg (50.6), respectively. All animals were offered concentrates ad libitum and 3 kg of grass silage daily, and feed intake was recorded for 70 days. Residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test BW0.75 and backfat (BF), using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked within sex, by RFI into high (inefficient; top third of the population), medium (middle third of population) and low (efficient; bottom third of the population) terciles. Statistical analysis was carried out using the MIXED procedure of SAS v 9.3. Overall mean ADG (SD) and daily DMI (SD) for heifers were 1.2 (0.4) and 9.1 (0.5) kg, respectively, and for bulls were 1.8 (0.3) and 9.5 (1.02) kg, respectively. Heifers and bulls ranked as high RFI consumed 10% and 15% more (P < 0.05), respectively, than their low RFI counterparts. There was no effect of RFI on mitochondrial abundance in either liver or muscle (P > 0.05). An RFI × sex interaction was apparent for CI activity in muscle. High RFI animals had an increased activity (P < 0.05) of CIV in liver tissue compared to their low RFI counterparts; however, the relevance of that observation is not clear. Our data provide no clear evidence that cellular mitochondrial function within either skeletal muscle or hepatic tissue has an appreciable contributory role to overall variation in FE among beef cattle.
Subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) play a significant role in obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation. High-fat diet (HFD) is known to induce inflammatory changes in both scAT and PBMC. However, the time course of the effect of HFD on these systems is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the time course of the effect of HFD on PBMC and scAT. New Zealand white rabbits were fed HFD for 5 or 10 weeks (i.e. HFD-5 and HFD-10) or regular chow (i.e. control (CNT)-5 and CNT-10). Thereafter, metabolic and inflammatory parameters of PBMC and scAT were quantified. HFD induced hyperfattyacidaemia in HFD-5 and HFD-10 groups, with the development of insulin resistance in HFD-10, while no changes were observed in scAT lipid metabolism and inflammatory status. HFD activated the inflammatory pathways in PBMC of HFD-5 group and induced modified autophagy in that of HFD-10. The rate of fat oxidation in PBMC was directly associated with the expression of inflammatory markers and tended to inversely associate with autophagosome formation markers in PBMC. HFD affected systemic substrate metabolism, and the metabolic, inflammatory and autophagy pathways in PBMC in the absence of metabolic and inflammatory changes in scAT. Dietary approaches or interventions to avert HFD-induced changes in PBMC could be essential to prevent metabolic and inflammatory complications of obesity and promote healthier living.
An extension to the classical shallow-water equation (SWE) is derived that exactly satisfies the bed condition and can be regarded as an approximation to wave scattering at the next order in the small parameter
(depth to wavelength ratio squared). In the frequency domain, the extended SWE shares the same simple structure as the standard SWE with coefficients modified by terms relating to the bed variation. In three dimensions the governing equation demonstrates that variable topography gives rise to anisotropic effects on wave scattering not present in the standard SWE, with consequences for the design of water wave metamaterials. Numerical examples illustrate that approximations to wave scattering using the extended SWE are significantly improved in comparison with the standard SWE.
Amílcar Cabral is the founding father of two countries: the island nation of Cabo Verde and the mainland state of Guinea-Bissau. As the first and most influential leader of the Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cabo Verde, or PAIGC), Cabral spent much of his life trying to achieve independence for two places that he considered home. While they are two separate countries today, the revolutionary Cabral envisioned a single postcolonial nation that would unite the former Portuguese possessions. The metropole had for centuries viewed the colonies as uniquely interrelated, using the more assimilated and racially mixed populations of the islands of Cabo Verde to help administer the mainland in Guinea, where relatively few Europeans had settled. Cabral was born in Portuguese Guinea to Cabo Verdean parents filling such intermediary roles, and it therefore seemed natural for him to envision a united struggle. Cabral fought to bring independence to two colonies connected—not separated—by water and shared history.
Cabral's biography is important here because his revolutionary ideology owes much to his ambiguous relationship with his own island identity. Cabo Verde had not been permanently inhabited when the Portuguese first settled the archipelago in the fifteenth century. The culture that surrounded Cabral during his formative years grew from the intermixing of Europeans and enslaved Africans brought from the mainland. By the time of Cabral's birth, a majority of its population claimed a mixed-race heritage and received privileges associated with Portuguese citizenship, though insufficient education and dire poverty on the drought-prone islands prevented any claims to true equality with the metropolis. Rather, the archipelago existed somewhere between Europe and Africa. By embracing this latter heritage, Cabral rejected Portuguese domination, claiming an historically informed identity that tied the islands directly to the African continent despite centuries acting as an intermediary. This vision of unity proved vital for the success of the revolution. The archipelago was too closely controlled by the Portuguese to launch a large-scale guerrilla movement, so the PAIGC looked to Guinea-Bissau when planning its armed independence struggle. In 1963, the PAIGC launched a revolution on the mainland with an army of mostly local soldiers led disproportionately by Cabo Verdeans.
Among 469 US military veterans with an Escherichia coli clinical isolate (2012–2013), we explored healthcare and non-healthcare risk factors for having E. coli sequence type 131 and its H30 subclone (ST131-H30). Overall, 66 (14%) isolates were ST131; 51 (77%) of these were ST131-H30. After adjustment for healthcare-associated factors, ST131 remained positively associated with medical lines and nursing home residence. After adjustment for environmental factors, ST131 remained associated with wild animal contact (positive), meat consumption (negative) and pet cat exposure (negative). Thus, ST131 was associated predominantly with healthcare-associated exposures, while non-ST131 E. coli were associated with some environmental exposures.
We present a case study of GG Carinae (GG Car), a Galactic B[ e ] supergiant binary having significant eccentricity (0.28), based on Global Jet Watch spectroscopy data which has been collecting high-time-sampled optical spectra since early 2015. GG Car has so far not been observed in the X-ray band, however it is of similar phenomenology to known X-ray binaries and may therefore be an obscured X-ray source. We have discovered that the absorption component of the H-alpha line displays a ∼62-478-day period in both equivalent width and wavelength centroid indicating cycles in the dynamics of the circumstellar environment, such as precession of the circumbinary or circumprimary disk. Circumbinary disk precession is an as-of-yet underexplored origin of super-orbital variations in the X-ray flux of X-ray binaries, since the rate of precession is generally much longer than the orbital period of the inner binary.
The extensive heterogeneity both between and within the medulloblastoma (MB) subgroups underscores a critical need for variant-specific biomarkers and therapeutic strategies. We previously identified a role for the CD271/p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in regulating stem/progenitor cells in the SHH MB subgroup. Here, we demonstrate the utility of CD271 as a novel diagnostic and prognostic marker for SHH MB using immunohistochemical analysis as well as transcriptome data across 763 primary tumors. Characterization of CD271+ and CD271- cells by RNA sequencing revealed that these two subpopulations are molecularly distinct, co-existing cellular subsets both in vitro and in vivo. MAPK/ERK signaling is upregulated in the CD271+ population and inhibiting this pathway reduced CD271 levels, stem/progenitor cell proliferation and cell survival as well as cell migration in vitro. Importantly, the MEK inhibitor selumetinib extends survival and reduces CD271 levels in vivo. Our study demonstrates the clinical utility of CD271 as both a diagnostic and prognostic tool for SHH MB tumors and reveals a novel role for MEK inhibitors in targeting CD271+ SHH MB cells.
The morphology of englacial drainage networks and their temporal evolution are poorly characterised, particularly within cold ice masses. At present, direct observations of englacial channels are restricted in both spatial and temporal resolution. Through novel use of a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) system, the interior geometry of an englacial channel in Austre Brøggerbreen, Svalbard, was reconstructed and mapped. Twenty-eight laser scan surveys were conducted in March 2016, capturing the glacier surface around a moulin entrance and the uppermost 122 m reach of the adjoining conduit. The resulting point clouds provide detailed 3-D visualisation of the channel with point accuracy of 6.54 mm, despite low (<60%) overall laser returns as a result of the physical and optical properties of the clean ice, snow, hoar frost and sediment surfaces forming the conduit interior. These point clouds are used to map the conduit morphology, enabling extraction of millimetre-to-centimetre scale geometric measurements. The conduit meanders at a depth of 48 m, with a sinuosity of 2.7, exhibiting teardrop shaped cross-section morphology. This improvement upon traditional surveying techniques demonstrates the potential of TLS as an investigative tool to elucidate the nature of glacier hydrological networks, through reconstruction of channel geometry and wall composition.
Background: Dysphagia is a common and devastating complication after acute stroke. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are often placed for persistent dysphagia. However, little is known regarding outcomes after PEG tube placement. Methods: We used a 10-year Ontario Stroke Registry to shed light on the clinical outcomes of patients with PEG tube insertion after ischemic stroke or intracranial hemorrhage compared to patients with only NG tubes, including rate of pneumonia, disability, and mortality. Results: Using propensity score matching, 1,793 patients were successfully matched and had similar baseline characteristics. Compared with NG, patients with PEG had a higher rate of pneumonia (32.6% vs. 20.6%; RR 1.59), higher disability at discharge (modified Rankin Scale Score 3-5; 74.0% vs. 65.4%; RR 1.13), and higher rate of long-term care placement (27.1% vs. 9.3%; RR 2.9). >From stroke onset, there was a lower rate of death in patients with PEG compared to NG at 30 days (15.3% vs. 34.3%; RR 0.45) but no difference at 2 years (52.8% vs. 53.5%; RR 0.99, p=0.71). *All significant p <0.0001. Conclusions: In conclusion, PEG tube placement after stroke may prolong survival in patients with poor outcomes. Our study provides a framework for discussions between physicians, patients, and families with regards to expected prognosis after PEG tube placement.