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The modification of film properties in evaporated tungsten was studied as a function of deposition environment. Using concurrent argon ion bombardment of the growing film, the stress varied in the same manner at all ion energies and substrate temperatures. Initial increases in tensile stress are followed by a monotonic trend toward compressive stress, for all sets of films. On the other hand, the qualitative changes in film resistivity with concurrent bombardment were dependent on the ion energy and substrate temperature, showing increases at high temperature and energy and decreases at low temperature and energy. Changes in the microstructure and impurity content in deposited films were found to be strongly linked to stress and resistivity changes. The trend toward compressive stress induced by high levels of ion bombardment is primarily reflected in an increase in (110) orientation. Increased resistivity is related to decreased grain size, increased (110) texture, and increased levels of film argon and oxygen content. By choice of deposition conditions, both the resistivity and stress can be minimized.
The development of microstructure in metal films deposited by ion-assisted evaporation has been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Films of Ni, Co, and Fe of about 350 to 500 nm thickness were deposited by electron beam evaporation with concurrent argon ion bombardment during growth. Films grown at high ion/atom ratios develop compressive stress as revealed by lattice dilatation. The trends in grain size, orientation, and shape as a function of ion bombardment are documented by TEM.
The microstructure of tungsten films deposited by ion-assisted evaporation (IAE) has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. It is proposed that grain shape is strongly associated with stress and texture changes in IAE films. Evidence is also found of stress induced damage in the substrate due to stress transfer from the deposited tungsten films.
The modification of film stress in evaporated tungsten was studied as a function of deposition environment. Using concurrent ion bombardment of the growing film, the stress was seen to vary systematically with ion energy, ion flux, and substrate temperature. The qualitative behavior fits the model of stress modification developed for niobium films. X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of the films, and a clear correlation between crystallographic texture and film stress is found. The original structure/impurity model for film stress modification due to ion bombardment has been modified to account for the relationship between film stress and texture.
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