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In this paper, a novel dynamic navigational planning strategy is proposed for single as well as multiple humanoids in intricate environments on a glowworm-based optimization method. The sensory information regarding the obstacle distances and target information are supplied as inputs to the navigational model. The essential turning angle is generated as the output of the controller to avoid obstacles present in the environment and reach the target location with ease. The proposed model is certified in a V-REP simulation software, and the simulation results are authenticated in a real-time setup arranged under testing conditions.
The eastern Arabian Sea is influenced by both the advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea and winter convective mixing. Therefore, sediments collected from the eastern Arabian Sea can help to understand the long-term seasonal hydrographic changes. We used the planktonic foraminifera census and stable isotopic ratio (δ18O) from sediments drilled during the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 to reconstruct surface hydrographic changes in the eastern Arabian Sea during the last 350 kyr. The increased abundance of Globigerina bulloides suggests enhanced advection of upwelled water during the latter half of MIS7 and the beginning of MIS6, as a result of a strengthened summer monsoon. A large drop in upwelling and/or advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea is inferred during the subsequent interval of MIS6, based on the rare presence of G. bulloides. The comparable relative abundance of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, G. bulloides and Globigerinoides ruber suggests that during the early part of MIS5, hydrographic conditions were similar to today. The upwelling decreased and winter convection increased with the progress of the glacial interval. A good coherence between planktonic foraminiferal assemblage-based monsoon stacks from both the eastern and western Arabian Sea suggests a coeval response of the entire northern Arabian Sea to the glacial–interglacial changes. The glacial–interglacial difference in δ18Osw-ivc was at a maximum with 4–5 psu change in salinity during Termination 2 and 3, and a minimum during Termination 4. The significantly reduced regional contribution to the glacial–interglacial change in δ18Osw-ivc during Termination 4 suggests a lesser change in the monsoon.
Navigation and path analysis in a cluttered environment is a challenging task over the last few decades. In this paper, a behavior-based neural network (BNN) and reactive control architecture have been presented for navigation of the mobile robot. Two different reactive behaviors have been taken as inputs function. Obstacle position is the first reactive behavior given by u(o), whereas obstacle angle u(n) according to the target position is the second reactive behavior. The angular velocity and steering angle are the output of the controller. The backpropagation architecture reduces the errors of weight function and records the best weight data that match the BNN controller. Using the BNN algorithm, the robot reacts quickly as compared to other developed techniques. To validate the performance of the controller, simulation and experimental results have been compared in the common platforms. The deviation in results for both the scenarios is found to be within 10%. The results of the BNN algorithm have also been compared with other existing techniques. Effectiveness of the proposed technique is measured in terms of smoothness of the realistic path, collision point detection, path length, and performance time.
Growth in the immediate postnatal period for extremely low birth weight (ELBW, birth weight < 1000 g) infants is an important topic in neonatal medicine. The goal is to ensure adequate postnatal growth and to minimize complications resulting from suboptimal growth. Past efforts have focused on postnatal nutrition as well as on minimizing comorbidities. It has not been systematically assessed whether antenatal factors play a role in postnatal growth. In this report, we conducted a retrospective study on 91 maternal–neonatal pairs. We prospectively collected maternal and neonatal demographic data, neonatal nutrition in the first 7 days of life and after enteral nutrition is fully established, comorbidity data, as well as weight data from birth to 50 weeks corrected gestational age. We developed a linear mixed-effects model to examine the role of placental insufficiency, as defined by fetal Doppler studies, in postnatal weight z-score trajectory over time in the ELBW population. We relied on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) for model selection. Interestingly, the selected model included a quadratic term of time and a placental insufficiency-by-time interaction term. In a covariate analysis, AIC and BIC both favored a model that included calories intake in the first 7 days of life and the total duration of antibiotics as fixed-effects, but not their interaction terms with time. Overall, we demonstrated for the first time that placental insufficiency, an antenatal factor, is a major determinant of postnatal weight trajectory in the ELBW population. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm our findings.
Despite the global importance of Capsicum species, there is limited information on the indigenous endomycorrhizal fungal association in this crop. Therefore, the diversity and colonization patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots of Naga King chilli (Capsicum chinense) were assessed during pre-flowering, flowering and fruit ripening growth stages under a sub-tropical shifting cultivation system of North Eastern India. All the roots examined had AMF colonization and the presence of Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizal morphology is reported for the first time in C. chinense. A total of 11 AMF spore morphotypes were isolated from both field and trap culture soils. Maximum AMF spore density and root colonization were recorded during the pre-flowering and flowering stages, respectively. The influence of Funneliformis geosporum, individually or in combination with Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azotobacter chroococcum, on growth and yield of C. chinense, was evaluated in a pot experiment using sterilized and non-sterilized soils. The application of AMF and P. fluorescens to sterilized soil significantly increased the growth, flower and fruit production, and nutrient content of C. chinense. The highest growth rates and yields of C. chinense in non-sterilized soils were achieved when AMF was combined with both P. fluorescens and A. chroococcum. The results of the current study indicate the value of applying microorganisms to improve plant growth and performance in chillies. One of the mechanisms for this could be the facilitated assimilation of nutrients promoted by AMF and bacterial bioinoculants.
This paper presents a new technique for the enhancement of axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of a circularly polarized dielectric resonator antenna with a single feeding. To enhance the AR bandwidth, adjacent 3-dB AR passbands are merged by inserting the notches and conductive coating in the dielectric resonator. The dimensions of the notches and conductive coating are selected in such manner that impedance bandwidth remains approximately unchanged. The antenna provides the measured AR and impedance bandwidths of 55.22% and 66.45%, respectively.
Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. These cellular activations resulted in upregulation of host-protective cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and tumour growth factor-β. This immune polarization was also evidenced by upregulation of nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells p50 and regulated expression of suppressor of mother against decapentaplegic protein-4. rLd-iPGAM stimulation also promoted lymphocyte proliferation and boosted the leishmaniacidal activity of macrophages by upregulating reactive oxygen species. It also induced 1·8-fold higher release of nitric oxide (NO) by promoting the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. Besides, in silico analysis suggested the presence of major histocompatibility complex class I and II restricted epitopes, which can proficiently trigger CD8+ and CD4+ cells, respectively. This study reports rLd-iPGAM as an effective immunoprophylactic agent, which can be used in future vaccine design.
A possible role of the APC/beta-catenin pathway in the pathogenesis of sporadic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has been suggested. This paper presents its current status and clinical association in our patients.
A prospective observational study was conducted at King George Medical University and Central Drug Research Institute, in Lucknow, India. Western blot analysis was undertaken in 16 cases to examine beta-catenin expression. The clinical details were recorded along with follow up observations, to determine associations.
Up-regulation of beta-catenin expression was seen in 69 per cent of cases. The clinical variables did not reveal significant differences between patients with extremes of expression (extreme under- vs over-expression). However, absent expression was shown exclusively in young adults aged over 18 years, while enhanced expression was associated with an altered facial profile.
Although a beta-catenin association was seen in a subset of our sporadic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma cases, its expression was not homogeneous. This is in contrast to the Western literature that suggests a universal (homogenous) enhanced expression in the majority. Hence, further research is required to better define its molecular cascade.
Background: Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiological Abnormality (SCIWORA) is underreported and poorly recognized in adults. This entity is an important subtype of spinal cord injury (SCI) with relatively good outcomes. Despite this, few studies have been performed to determine specific imaging-related prognostic factors. Methods: A retrospective review of adult patients with cervical SCI admitted to two University hospitals from January 2000 to December 2010 was performed. Only patients with an MRI performed within 72 hours after trauma were included. All patients with bony injury or traumatic malalignment were excluded. Data gathered on the remaining patients included demographics, mechanism of injury, severity of SCI, long-term patient outcome, improvement in neurological condition and MRI results. Results: 49 patients selected. Patients with extramedullary hemorrhage showed worse neurological status at initial examination. Disruption of either the anterior longitudinal ligament or ligamentum flavum was associated with worse outcomes at initial examination and at 1-year follow up. Lesion length was also significantly associated with outcomes at 1 year evaluation and initial evaluation. Conclusions: Early MRI has an important prognostic value in patients suffering SCIWORA. Lesion length is a powerful predictor of outcome. Soft tissue injury and spinal cord changes play a role in the severity of injury as well as the ability to recover.
As indicated by the sporadic Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases reported from the districts of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, the disease is endemic in the state despite the fact that a JE vaccination programme has been ongoing in the state since 2006. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the annual trend of JE in UP during January 2011 to December 2013. CSF and/or serum samples collected from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases were referred to the virology laboratory at King George's Medical University, Lucknow and were tested for anti-JEV IgM antibodies by JEV MAC-ELISA kit. The study reveals that 26·9%, 9·9% and 14·8% of AES cases were positive for anti-JEV IgM in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of the total JE confirmed cases, 30% were adults. Males were more commonly affected than females. A distinct peak of JE was seen in the monsoon and post-monsoon season, although sporadic cases were also reported in other months. JE vaccination by district in UP is discussed. This study reports that the proportion of JE positives in AES cases is decreasing in UP although the number of AES cases has not decreased. The study also discusses the probable causes of this decrease, including JE vaccination and natural periodicity due to herd immunity.
The synthesis of biocompatible noble metal nanoparticles dispersible in a wide range of biological media with control of polycrystalinity and nanogeometry, pH sensitivity and salt tolerance has been a challenging requirements. The role of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-APTMS) and organic reducing reagents for real time synthesis of amphilic noble metal nanoparticles meeting these requirements are demonstrated justifying the following; (1) 3-APTMS capped noble metal ions are converted into respective metal nanoparticles in the presence of one of organic reducing agents i.e., cyclohexanone, tetrahydrofuran hydroperoxide (THF-HPO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, t-buty dimethyl keotone, 3-Glycidoxy-propyltrimethoxysilane (3-GPTMS); (2) 3-APTMS acts as micelle, promotes the interaction of metal ions with organic reducing agent, precisely controls the size of metal nanoparticles, pH sensititvity and salt tolerance and also provides a suitable medium for nanoparticles suspension, (3) the use of suitable organic reagent precisely controls the polarity of as made noble metal nanoparticles allowing specific biological interactions, and (4) 3-APTMS significantly increases the stability and controls the pH sensitivity and salt tolerance of metal nanoparticles. The as synthesized nanomaterials show potential viability in biomedical applications from many angles i.e. (a) as potential bioelectrocatalyst, (b) selective interaction with active proteins and cellular components, and (c) peroxidase mimetic.
The role of ferroelectric LiNbO3 (LNB) in altering the frequency dependence of the capacitance of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films has been investigated. A cost effective spin coating deposition process was used to integrate the oxide heterostructures onto silicon substrates. This study showed that the frequency stability of the CCTO/LNB structure was much improved when the crystallization conditions and physical dimension of each layer were optimized. To integrate this structure with current silicon technology, heterostructures of CCTO and LNB thin films were fabricated on HF terminated Si using chemical solution deposition. It was found that the order of deposition of the two layers was important for the structural quality of the heterostructures with the CCTO layer followed by the LNB layer being the preferred structure. In addition to improvement of the capacitance variation with frequency, the heterostructures also provide a path to tuning the frequency of operation.
Epigenetic mechanisms appear to play an important role in neurodevelopment. We investigated the effects of acute ethanol exposure on anxiety measures and function of histone deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) in the amygdala and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) of adolescent rats. One hour after ethanol exposure, rats were subjected to anxiety measures. A subset of adolescent rats was exposed to two doses (24 h apart) of ethanol (2 g/kg) to measure rapid ethanol tolerance to anxiolysis. The HDAC and DNMT activities and mRNA levels of DNMT isoforms were measured in the amygdala and BNST. The lower dose of ethanol (1 g/kg) produced neither anxiolysis, nor inhibited the HDAC and DNMT activities in the amygdala and BNST, except DNMT activity in BNST was attenuated. Anxiolysis by ethanol was observed at 2 and 2.25 g/kg, whereas higher doses (2.5 and 3 g/kg) were found to be sedative. DNMT activity in the amygdala and BNST, and nuclear HDAC activity in the amygdala, but not in the BNST were also inhibited by these doses of ethanol. A lack of tolerance was observed on ethanol-induced inhibition of DNMT activity in the amygdala and BNST, and nuclear HDAC activity in the amygdala, as well to anxiolysis produced by ethanol (2 g/kg). The DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b mRNA expression in the amygdala was not affected by either 1or 2 doses of 2 g/kg. However, DNMT1 and DNMT3a expression in the BNST was increased, whereas DNMT3l mRNA was decreased in the amygdala, after 2 doses of 2 g/kg ethanol. These results suggest that reduced sensitivity to anxiolysis and the lack of rapid tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of ethanol and inhibition of HDAC and DNMT functions may play a role in engaging adolescents in binge drinking patterns.
Kerria lacca (Kerr) is commercially harnessed for lac resin, which is principally an ester complex of aleuritic acid (9,10,16-trihydroxyhexadecanoic acid) and jalaric acid. The present study is an attempt made to identify the possible pathways involved in the biosynthesis of lac resin. It is proposed that acetyl-CoA is the common precursor for the biosynthesis of aleuritic acid and sesquiterpenic acids (jalaric acid). Prenyltransferases are involved in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes; hydroxylation of hexadecanoic acid, after chain elongation, appears to occur through the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Two related genes as proposed above were identified and sequenced. The diurnal rhythm of resin secretion and protein concentrations were also studied and correlated for ascertaining the active secretory phase.
Three Critically Endangered Gyps vultures endemic to South Asia continue to decline due to the use of diclofenac to treat livestock. High nephrotoxicity of diclofenac to Gyps vultures, leading to death, has been established by experiment and observation, in four out of five Gyps vulture species which occur in South Asia. Declines have also been observed in South Asia’s four other non-Gyps vulture species, but to date there has been no evidence about the importance of diclofenac as a potential cause. Neither is there any evidence on the toxicity of diclofenac to the Accipitridae other than vultures. In this study, gross and microscopic lesions and diclofenac tissue levels in Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis found at a cattle carcass dump in Rajasthan, India, show evidence of the toxicity of diclofenac for this species. These findings suggest the possibility that diclofenac is toxic to other accipitrid raptors and is therefore a potential threat to much wider range of scavenging species in South Asia.
Since 1997, and following our detection of the first mm afterglow, we have followed-up 70
GRBs, mainly with the IRAMś Plateau de Bure Interferometer, what can be considered as the
IRAM Legacy GRB Sample. 66 events were observed at 3 mm, with 19 of them being detected
(with another 3 having marginal detections). 32 GRBs were followed up at 1 mm, with 6 of
them being detected. Redshifts for the GRB afterglows lie in the range z = 0.03–8.3, with
measured flux densities (at 3 mm) varying between 0.25 and 60 mJy (but usually <1.5
mJy) with first observations taking place around 1–2 days after the GRB. Forward shock
emission expleains the observations with the exception of one particular case (GRB 090423
at z = 8.2) for which reverse shock emission is required.