To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To further understand the contribution of feedstuff ingredients to gut health in swine, gut histology and intestinal bacterial profiles associated with the use of two high-quality protein sources, microbially enhanced soybean meal (MSBM) and Menhaden fishmeal (FM) were assessed. Weaned pigs were fed one of three experimental diets: (1) basic diet containing corn and soybean meal (Negative Control (NEG)), (2) basic diet + fishmeal (FM; Positive Control (POS)) and (3) basic diet + MSBM (MSBM). Phase I POS and MSBM diets (d 0 to d 7 post-wean) included FM or MSBM at 7.5%, while Phase II POS and MSBM diets (d 8 to d 21) included FM or MSBM at 5.0%. Gastrointestinal tissue and ileal digesta were collected from euthanised pigs at d 21 (eight pigs/diet) to assess gut histology and intestinal bacterial profiles, respectively. Data were analysed using Proc Mixed in SAS, with pig as the experimental unit and pig (treatment) as the random effect. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of stomach and small intestinal tissue using haematoxylin–eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff/Alcian blue and inflammatory cell staining did not reveal detectable differences in host response to dietary treatment. Ileal bacterial composition profiles were obtained from next-generation sequencing of PCR generated amplicons targeting the V1 to V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Lactobacillus-affiliated sequences were found to be the most highly represented across treatments, with an average relative abundance of 64.0%, 59.9% and 41.80% in samples from pigs fed the NEG, POS and MSBM diets, respectively. Accordingly, the three most abundant Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were affiliated to Lactobacillus, showing a distinct abundance pattern relative to dietary treatment. One OTU (SD_Ssd_00001), most closely related to Lactobacillus amylovorus, was found to be more abundant in NEG and POS samples compared to MSBM (23.5% and 35.0% v. 9.2%). Another OTU (SD_Ssd_00002), closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii, was more highly represented in POS and MSBM samples compared to NEG (14.0% and 15.8% v. 0.1%). Finally, OTU Sd_Ssd-00011, highest sequence identity to Lactobacillus delbrueckii, was found in highest abundance in ileal samples from MSBM-fed pigs (1.9% and 3.3% v. 11.3, in POS, NEG and MSBM, respectively). There was no effect of protein source on bacterial taxa to the genus level or diversity based on principal component analysis. Dietary protein source may provide opportunity to enhance presence of specific members of Lactobacillus genus that are associated with immune-modulating properties without altering overall intestinal bacterial diversity.
We reconstructed the late Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) evolution of the ancient harbour of Naples, one of the largest coastal conurbations in the Mediterranean. We carried out multiproxy investigations, coupling archaeological evidence with biological indicators. Our data robustly constrain 2000 yr of non-monotonic changes in sea level, chiefly controlled by the complex volcano-tectonic processes that characterize the area. Between ~200 BC and AD ~0, a subsidence rate of more than ~1.5 mm/yr enhanced the postglacial RSL rise, while negligible or moderate land uplift < ~0.5 mm/yr triggered a RSL stabilization during the Roman period (first five centuries AD). This stabilization was followed by a post-Roman enhancement of the sea-level rise when ground motion was negative, attested by a subsidence rate of ~0.5 to ~1 mm/yr. Our analysis seems to indicate very minor impacts of this nonmonotonic RSL evolution on the activities of the ancient harbour of Naples, which peaked from the third century BC to the second century AD. After this period, the progressive silting of the harbour basin made it impossible to safely navigate within the basin, leading to the progressive decline of the harbour.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Wildlife-based tourism poses opportunities and challenges for species conservation. Minimizing potential negative impacts of tourism is critical to ensure business and conservation enterprises can coexist. In north-western Namibia tourism is used as a conservation tool for the Critically Endangered black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis. However, black rhinoceroses are susceptible to human disturbance and may become displaced by tourist activities, which threatens not only the security and health of the rhinoceros population but also the sustainability of the business. We examined areas avoided by black rhinoceroses to understand how they respond to the type and extent of tourism development, and to evaluate management alternatives. We used spatial data on use of water sources by rhinoceroses to create a series of a priori candidate models that described the negative influences of tourist activities on rhinoceros habitat use. A model selection approach strongly supported a cumulative zones of influence model comprised of a 6 km buffer around the airstrip combined with a 1 km buffer around roads used daily. We compared alternative management scenarios using the best-performing model and found that an optimal road-use policy combined with airstrip relocation could minimize the total area avoided by the black rhinoceros to 7.1% and loss of high quality habitat to 20.7%. Under the worst-case scenario the area avoided and loss of high quality habitat were 153 and 85% greater, respectively, than under the scenario with optimal management. Our findings provide a novel framework and a practical, policy-relevant decision support tool to improve the contribution of tourism to wildlife conservation.
Background: The antiquated standard reference range of 0.15–0.45 g/L for cerebrospinal fluid total protein (CSF-TP) is well entrenched in medical literature and laboratory operating procedures across the world. Methods: We conducted a web-based survey with a response rate of 34.9% through the listserv of the Canadian Neurological Sciences Federation. Additional laboratory reference data were collated by telephone interview of hospital laboratory technologists across Canada. Results: A total of 142 site responses were obtained: 64.1% from academic/tertiary hospitals and 35.9% from community hospitals. A strong majority (80.4%) of both types of institutions reported using a CSF-TP upper reference limit of 0.45 g/L or less. As a rule, no age adjustments were implemented in CSF-TP-level interpretation. Conclusions: Recent well-powered laboratory reference studies have documented CSF-TP upper reference limits that are above 0.6 g/L starting at age 50, with incremental limits partitioned by subsequent decades of age. The conventional 0.45 g/L limit could lead to false positive results. Our survey suggests there is a need to consider a wide adoption of data-driven, rather than historical, reference values.
Patients treated with antipsychotics, regardless of psychiatric diagnosis, are at risk for developing tardive dyskinesia (TD), a potentially debilitating drug-induced movement disorder. Valbenazine (INGREZZA; VBZ) is a novel vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor approved to treat TD in adults. Data from KINECT 4 (NCT02405091) were analyzed to evaluate the long-term effects of VBZ in adults with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZD) or mood disorder (MD) and moderate or severe TD.
KINECT 4 included open-label treatment (48weeks) followed by washout (4weeks). Entry requirements included: moderate or severe TD, qualitatively assessed at screening by a blinded, external reviewer; DSM diagnosis of SZD or MD; psychiatric stability (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale score <50). Stable concomitant psychiatric medications were allowed. Dosing was initiated at 40mg, with escalation to 80mg at Wk4 if participants had a Clinical Global Impression of Change-TD score of ≥3 (minimally improved to very much worse) and tolerated 40mg. A reduction to 40mg was allowed if 80mg was not tolerated (80/40mg); participants unable to tolerate 40mg were discontinued. Safety was the primary focus, but the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) total score (sum of items 1–7) was used to evaluate changes in TD. Mean changes from baseline (BL) in AIMS total score (rated by on-site investigators) were analyzed descriptively. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and psychiatric scales (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS], Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia [CDSS], Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS], Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS], and Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale [C SSRS]).
Of 163 participants in the analyses, 103 completed the study. Adverse events (n=26) was the most common reason for discontinuation. Analyses included 119 participants with SZD (40mg=37; 80mg=76; 80/40mg=6) and 44 with MD (40mg=8; 80mg=31; 80/40mg=5). At Wk48, mean improvements from BL in AIMS total score were: SZD (40mg, –10.1; 80mg,–10.7); MD (40mg, 10.2; 80mg: –11.6). AIMS total scores at Wk52 (end of washout) indicated a return toward BL levels. Compared to SZD, the MD subgroup had a higher incidence of any TEAE (84% vs 61% [all doses]) but fewer TEAEs leading to discontinuation (7% vs 18%). Urinary tract infection was the most common TEAE in the MD subgroup (18%); somnolence and headache were most common in the SZD subgroup (7% each). Psychiatric status remained stable from BL to Wk48: SZD (PANSS positive, –0.7, PANSS negative, –0.6; CDSS, –0.7); MD (MADRS, –0.3; YMRS, –0.3). Most participants (95%) had no change in C-SSRS score during the study.
Sustained and clinically meaningful TD improvements were observed with VBZ, regardless of primary psychiatric diagnosis. VBZ was generally well tolerated and no notable changes in psychiatric status were observed.
Funding Acknowledgements: Supported by Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.
Valbenazine (VBZ) is a novel vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor approved to treat tardive dyskinesia (TD) in adults. It has been evaluated in 2 long-term studies (KINECT 3, KINECT 4) in which participants received VBZ (40 or 80mg) for up to 48weeks. This long-term rollover study (NCT02736955) was conducted to evaluate global TD improvement and patient satisfaction with once-daily VBZ.
Key eligibility criteria: age 18 to 85 years; completion of KINECT 3 or KINECT 4; maintenance medications (for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or mood disorder) at stable doses; Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale score <50; no significant risk of active suicidal ideation or behavior. Following washout of prior VBZ treatment (Weeks 48 to 52 of KINECT 3 and KINECT 4), participants were re-initiated at 40mg (4weeks) and escalated to 80mg based on tolerability and clinical assessment of TD; dose was reduced to 40mg if 80mg was not tolerated (80/40mg). If unable to tolerate the 40mg dose, the participant was discontinued. Participants received open-label VBZ for up to 72weeks or until commercial availability. Assessments included Clinical Global Impression of Severity-TD (CGIS-TD: range, 1[“normal, not at all ill”] to 7[“among the most extremely ill patient”]) and Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ: range, 1[“very satisfied”] to 5[“very dissatisfied”]).
160 participants with available data were included in analyses (40mg =35; 80mg =117; 80/40mg =8); 138 were receiving treatment when VBZ became commercially available. The percentages of participants who completed visits at Wks 12, 24, 36, and 48 were 96.3%, 78.1%, 56.9% and 35.0%, respectively. Few reached Wk 60 (n=4) or Wk 72 (n=0) due to commercial availability. The percentage of participants with CGIS-TD score ≤2 (“normal, not at all ill” or “borderline ill”) increased from baseline (before restarting VBZ) (40mg, 5.7%; 80mg, 18.1%) to Wk 48 (40mg , 41.7%; 80mg , 74.4%). At baseline, almost all participants rated their prior VBZ experience with a PSQ score ≤2 (“very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied”) (40mg , 100%, 80mg , 99.1%). Similar results were seen at the Wk 48 visit, with most participants continuing to express satisfaction with VBZ (40mg , 100%; 80mg , 97.4%).
A clinician-based global assessment indicated ongoing, meaningful TD improvements in adults who received once-daily VBZ in the current study. In participants treated for >1 year, continued patient satisfaction rates with VBZ were high.
Funding Acknowledgements: Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.
Based on the data from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS), we statistically study the photometric properties of globular clusters (GCs), ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) and dwarf nuclei in the Virgo core (M87) region. We found an obvious negative color (g - z) gradient in GC system associate with M87, i.e. GCs in the outer regions are bluer. However, such color gradient does not exist in UCD system, neither in dwarf nuclei system around M87. In addition, we found that many UCDs are surrounded by extended, low surface brightness envelopes. The dwarf nuclei and UCDs show different spatial distributions from GCs, with dwarf nuclei and UCDs (especially for the UCDs with visible envelopes) lying at larger distances to the Virgo center. These results support the view that UCDs (at least for a fraction of UCDs) are more tied to dwarf nuclei than to GCs.
Archaeological sites in the Canadian Arctic often contain substantial quantities of marine mammal bones and in some cases completely lack terrestrial mammal bones. A distrust of radiocarbon (14C) dates on marine mammal bones among Arctic archaeologists has caused many sites to be insufficiently dated. The goal of this study was to investigate the marine reservoir effect on Atlantic walrus in the Foxe Basin region of the Canadian Arctic through a two-pronged approach: dating of live-harvested specimens of known age collected prior to AD 1955 and dating of pairs of animal remains (walrus and caribou) from stratigraphically contemporaneous levels within archaeological features. 14C dates on pre-bomb, live-harvested walrus indicate that a ΔR value of 160±50 yr be used in calibrating dates on walrus from this region. These results differed significantly from a similar set of pre-bomb mollusks, which argues against applying mollusk-based corrections to marine mammals. The results of comparative dating of caribou and walrus from archaeological features provided maximum estimates of reservoir ages that were more varied than the directly measured ages. Although about half of inferred ΔR values overlap the museum specimen results, the others indicate that the assumption of contemporaneity does not hold true.
The dynamics of perturbations to large-amplitude internal solitary waves (ISWs) in two-layered flows with thin interfaces is analysed by means of linear optimal transient growth methods. Optimal perturbations are computed through direct–adjoint iterations of the Navier–Stokes equations linearized around inviscid, steady ISWs obtained from the Dubreil-Jacotin–Long (DJL) equation. Optimal perturbations are found as a function of the ISW phase velocity
(alternatively amplitude) for one representative stratification. These disturbances are found to be localized wave-like packets that originate just upstream of the ISW self-induced zone (for large enough
) of potentially unstable Richardson number,
. They propagate through the base wave as coherent packets whose total energy gain increases rapidly with
. The optimal disturbances are also shown to be relevant to DJL solitary waves that have been modified by viscosity representative of laboratory experiments. The optimal disturbances are compared to the local Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) approximation for spatially growing Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) waves through the
zone. The WKB approach is able to capture properties (e.g. carrier frequency, wavenumber and energy gain) of the optimal disturbances except for an initial phase of non-normal growth due to the Orr mechanism. The non-normal growth can be a substantial portion of the total gain, especially for ISWs that are weakly unstable to K–H waves. The linear evolution of Gaussian packets of linear free waves with the same carrier frequency as the optimal disturbances is shown to result in less energy gain than found for either the optimal perturbations or the WKB approximation due to non-normal effects that cause absorption of disturbance energy into the leading face of the wave. Two-dimensional numerical calculations of the nonlinear evolution of optimal disturbance packets leads to the generation of large-amplitude K–H billows that can emerge on the leading face of the wave and that break down into turbulence in the lee of the wave. The nonlinear calculations are used to derive a slowly varying model of ISW decay due to repeated encounters with optimal or free wave packets. Field observations of unstable ISW by Moum et al. (J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 33 (10), 2003, pp. 2093–2112) are consistent with excitation by optimal disturbances.
Background: Neurolymphomatosis is a process of neoplastic endoneurial invasion, most strongly associated with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It must be distinguished from paraneoplastic, metabolic, nutritional and treatment-related causes of neuropathy that are common in this patient population. Methods: This brief case series illustrates the protean manifestations of neurolymphomatosis of the brachial plexus, ranging from focal distal mononeuropathy to multifocal brachial plexopathy, either as the index manifestation of lymphoma or as a complication of relapsing disease. Results: Prominent asymmetry, pain and nodular involvement on neuroimaging may help distinguish neurolymphomatosis from paraneoplastic immune demyelinating radiculoneuropathy. MR neurography criteria for the diagnosis of neurolymphomatosis include hyperintensity on T2 and STIR sequences, focal and diffuse nerve enlargement with fascicular disorganization and gadolinium enhancement. No specific anatomical distribution within the brachial plexus has, however, been found to be characteristic. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging is the imaging modality with the highest sensitivity for detection of nodal or extranodal spread in lymphoma. Conclusions: Brachial plexus neuropathy in neurolymphomatosis is highly protean in its distribution, semiology and relation to lymphoma staging. Dedicated MRI and PET-CT imaging are leading diagnostic modalities.
Background: Optimal surgical management for flexion--distraction cervical spine injuries remains controversial with anterior, posterior, and circumferential fixation being accepted. Here, we examined risk factors for clinical and radiographic failure in patients with one segment cervical flexion-distraction injuries having undergone anterior surgical fixation. Methods: A retrospective review of 57 consecutive patients undergoing anterior fixation for cervical flexion-distraction injuries between 2008-2012 was performed. The primary outcome was the number of patients requiring additional surgical stabilization and/or radiographic failure. Data collected inlcuded age, gender, mechanism and level of injury, facet pattern injury, and vertebral endplate fracture. Results: Six patients failed clinically and/or radiographically (11%). Four patients (7%) required additional posterior fixation. Two patients identified met radiographic failure criteria, however had fused radiographically, were stable clinically, and no further treatment was pursued. Progressive kyphosis and translation correlated with need for revision (p<0.05 and p=0.02, respectively). No differences were identified for all other clinical and radiological factors assessed. Conclusions: This study supports the growing body of evidence for anterior fixation alone for flexion-distraction injuries. Findings suggest that measurements including segmental translation and kyphosis may predict radiographic failure and need for further surgical stabilization in some patients. Assessment for independent risk factors for anterior approach failure with a validated predictive scoring model should be considered.
Many types of weeds occur in cassava fields causing enormous yield losses due to competition for nutrients, light and space. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth and yield of four traditional varieties of cassava (Bonoua Blanc, Tambou, Yassé and Six mois) produced in Côte d'Ivoire and select the highest tolerant variety to weed competition. Six treatments were induced by varying the period in which cassava varieties were grown with weeds. Varieties and exposure time to competition with weeds significantly affected the productivity of cassava. The number of leaves per plant (NLP), the number of tuberous roots per plant (NTRP) and the weight of tuberous roots per plant (WTRP) declined with increasing duration of weed presence. After an initial period of weeding, the first four months of grassing proved critical for the four varieties. Despite the presence of weeds, Bonoua Blanc has higher growth and yield than Tambou, Yasse and Six mois. This suggests that Bonoua Blanc was more tolerant to weed competition than the others from planting to harvest, being a suitable variety in intercropping systems.
Mineral requirements of pregnant dairy goats are still not well defined; therefore, we investigated the net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for pregnancy and for maintenance during pregnancy in two separate experiments. Experiment 1 was performed to estimate the net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements in goats carrying single or twin fetuses from 50 to 140 days of pregnancy (DOP). The net mineral requirements for pregnancy were determined by measuring mineral deposition in gravid uterus and mammary gland after comparative slaughter. In total, 57 dairy goats of two breeds (Oberhasli or Saanen), in their third or fourth parturition, were randomly assigned to groups based on litter size (single or twin) and day of slaughter (50, 80, 110 and 140 DOP) in a fully factorial design. Net mineral accretion for pregnancy did not differ by goat breed. The total daily Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for pregnancy were greatest in goats carrying twins (P<0.05), and the requirements increased as pregnancy progressed. Experiment 2 was performed to estimate net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for dairy goat maintenance during pregnancy. In total, 58 dairy goats (Oberhasli and Saanen) carrying twin fetuses were assigned to groups based on slaughter day (80, 110 and 140 DOP) and feed restriction (ad libitum, 20% and 40% feed restriction) in a randomized block design. The net Ca, P and Mg requirements for maintenance did not vary by breed or over the course of pregnancy. The daily net requirements of Ca, P and Mg for maintenance were 60.4, 31.1 and 2.42 mg/kg live BW (LBW), respectively. The daily net Na requirement for maintenance was greater in Saanen goats (11.8 mg/kg LBW) than in Oberhasli goats (8.96 mg/kg LBW; P<0.05). Daily net K requirements increased as pregnancy progressed from 8.73 to 15.4 mg/kg LBW (P<0.01). The findings of this study will guide design of diets with adequate mineral content for pregnant goats throughout their pregnancy.
Engagement and training of educators in student mental health holds promise for promoting access to care as a task sharing strategy but has not been well-studied in low-income regions.
We used a prospective and convergent mixed methods design to evaluate a customized school mental health 2½ day training for teachers in rural Haiti (n = 22) as the initial component of formative research developing a school-based intervention to promote student mental health. Training prepared teachers to respond to student mental health needs by providing psychoeducational and practical support to facilitate access to care. We examined level of participation and evaluated feasibility, acceptability, and perceived effectiveness by calculating mean scores on self-report Likert-style items eliciting participant experience. We examined effectiveness of the training on improving mental health knowledge and attitudes by comparing mean scores on an assessment administered pre- and post-training. Finally, we examined self-report written open-ended responses and focus group discussion (FGD) interview data bearing on perceived feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness to contextualize participant ratings of training and to identify recommendations for enhancing the utility of mental health training locally for educators.
Mean scores of knowledge and attitudes significantly improved between the pre-test and post-tests; e.g., knowledge improved from 58% correct at baseline to 68% correct on the second post-test (p = 0.039). Mean ratings of the training were favorable across all categories and FGD data demonstrated widespread participant endorsement of training acceptability and effectiveness; participants recommended extending the duration and number of training sessions.
Findings support feasibility, acceptability, and a limited scope of effectiveness of brief mental health training for secondary school teachers in Haiti. Further development of approaches to engage teachers in promoting school mental health through training is warranted.
SITELLE is the new imaging Fourier transform spectrograph of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. It produces an impressive 4 million spectra in a single datacube in selected bandpasses from 350 to 900 nm. Its large FOV (11′x11′) and its high spatial sampling (0.32′′/pixel, seeing limited) allow us to study extended objects with an unprecedented view (Drissen et al. 2014). SITELLE’s first observations of nearby galaxies revealed its capabilities to conduct detailed studies of emission line regions.