To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
PSR B1828–11 is a young pulsar once thought to be undergoing free precession and recently found instead to be switching magnetospheric states in tandem with spin-down changes. Here we show the two extreme states of the mode-changing found for this pulsar and comment briefly on its interpretation.
During 2016 February, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science and the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy installed, commissioned, and carried out science observations with a phased array feed receiver system on the 64-m diameter Parkes radio telescope. Here, we demonstrate that the phased array feed can be used for pulsar observations and we highlight some unique capabilities. We demonstrate that the pulse profiles obtained using the phased array feed can be calibrated and that multiple pulsars can be simultaneously observed. Significantly, we find that an intrinsic polarisation leakage of −31 dB can be achieved with a phased array feed beam offset from the centre of the field of view. We discuss the possibilities for using a phased array feed for future pulsar observations and for searching for fast radio bursts with the Parkes and Effelsberg telescopes.
Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness. We report the collaborative investigative efforts of US and Canadian public health officials during the 2013–2014 international outbreak of multiple Salmonella serotype infections linked to sprouted chia seed powder. The investigation included open-ended interviews of ill persons, traceback, product testing, facility inspections, and trace forward. Ninety-four persons infected with outbreak strains from 16 states and four provinces were identified; 21% were hospitalized and none died. Fifty-four (96%) of 56 persons who consumed chia seed powder, reported 13 different brands that traced back to a single Canadian firm, distributed by four US and eight Canadian companies. Laboratory testing yielded outbreak strains from leftover and intact product. Contaminated product was recalled. Although chia seed powder is a novel outbreak vehicle, sprouted seeds are recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness; firms should follow available guidance to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination during sprouting.
Post-traumatic symptomatology is one of the signature effects of the pernicious exposures endured by responders to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11), but the long-term extent of diagnosed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its impact on quality of life are unknown. This study examines the extent of DSM-IV PTSD 11–13 years after the disaster in WTC responders, its symptom profiles and trajectories, and associations of active, remitted and partial PTSD with exposures, physical health and psychosocial well-being.
Master's-level psychologists administered sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Range of Impaired Functioning Tool to 3231 responders monitored at the Stony Brook University World Trade Center Health Program. The PTSD Checklist (PCL) and current medical symptoms were obtained at each visit.
In all, 9.7% had current, 7.9% remitted, and 5.9% partial WTC-PTSD. Among those with active PTSD, avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms were most commonly, and flashbacks least commonly, reported. Trajectories of symptom severity across monitoring visits showed a modestly increasing slope for active and decelerating slope for remitted PTSD. WTC exposures, especially death and human remains, were strongly associated with PTSD. After adjusting for exposure and critical risk factors, including hazardous drinking and co-morbid depression, PTSD was strongly associated with health and well-being, especially dissatisfaction with life.
This is the first study to demonstrate the extent and correlates of long-term DSM-IV PTSD among responders. Although most proved resilient, there remains a sizable subgroup in need of continued treatment in the second decade after 9/11.
Depressive symptoms are prominent psychopathological features of Huntington's disease (HD), making a negative impact on social functioning and well-being.
We compared the frequencies of a history of depression, previous suicide attempts and current subthreshold depression between 61 early-stage HD participants and 40 matched controls. The HD group was then split based on the overall HD group's median Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression score into a group of 30 non-depressed participants (mean 0.8, s.d. = 0.7) and a group of 31 participants with subthreshold depressive symptoms (mean 7.3, s.d. = 3.5) to explore the neuroanatomy underlying subthreshold depressive symptoms in HD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
Frequencies of history of depression, previous suicide attempts or current subthreshold depressive symptoms were higher in HD than in controls. The severity of current depressive symptoms was also higher in HD, but not associated with the severity of HD motor signs or disease burden. Compared with the non-depressed HD group DTI revealed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula and cerebellum of the HD group with subthreshold depressive symptoms. In contrast, VBM measures were similar in both HD groups. A history of depression, the severity of HD motor signs or disease burden did not correlate with FA values of these regions.
Current subthreshold depressive symptoms in early HD are associated with microstructural changes – without concomitant brain volume loss – in brain regions known to be involved in major depressive disorder, but not those typically associated with HD pathology.
Anomalously broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 5780.5, 5797.1, 6196.0, and 6613.6 Å are found in absorption along the line of sight to Herschel 36, an O star system next to the bright Hourglass nebula of the Hii region Messier 8. Excited lines of CH and CH+ are seen as well. We show that the region is very compact and itemize other anomalies of the gas. An infrared-bright star within 400 AU is noted. The combination of these effects produces anomalous DIBs, interpreted by Oka et al. (2013, see also this volume) as being caused predominantly by infrared pumping of rotational levels of relatively small molecules.
The future of centimetre and metre-wave astronomy lies with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a telescope under development by a consortium of 17 countries that will be 50 times more sensitive than any existing radio facility. Most of the key science for the SKA will be addressed through large-area imaging of the Universe at frequencies from a few hundred MHz to a few GHz. The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a technology demonstrator aimed in the mid-frequency range, and achieves instantaneous wide-area imaging through the development and deployment of phased-array feed systems on parabolic reflectors. The large field-of-view makes ASKAP an unprecedented synoptic telescope that will make substantial advances in SKA key science. ASKAP will be located at the Murchison Radio Observatory in inland Western Australia, one of the most radio-quiet locations on the Earth and one of two sites selected by the international community as a potential location for the SKA. In this paper, we outline an ambitious science program for ASKAP, examining key science such as understanding the evolution, formation and population of galaxies including our own, understanding the magnetic Universe, revealing the transient radio sky and searching for gravitational waves.
The first direct detection of gravitational waves may be made through observations of pulsars. The principal aim of pulsar timing-array projects being carried out worldwide is to detect ultra-low frequency gravitational waves (f ∼ 10−9–10−8 Hz). Such waves are expected to be caused by coalescing supermassive binary black holes in the cores of merged galaxies. It is also possible that a detectable signal could have been produced in the inflationary era or by cosmic strings. In this paper, we review the current status of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project (the only such project in the Southern hemisphere) and compare the pulsar timing technique with other forms of gravitational-wave detection such as ground- and space-based interferometer systems.
A ‘pulsar timing array’ (PTA), in which observations of a large sample of pulsars spread across the celestial sphere are combined, allows investigation of ‘global’ phenomena such as a background of gravitational waves or instabilities in atomic timescales that produce correlated timing residuals in the pulsars of the array. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) is an implementation of the PTA concept based on observations with the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. A sample of 20 ms pulsars is being observed at three radio-frequency bands, 50 cm (~700 MHz), 20 cm (~1400 MHz), and 10 cm (~3100 MHz), with observations at intervals of two to three weeks. Regular observations commenced in early 2005. This paper describes the systems used for the PPTA observations and data processing, including calibration and timing analysis. The strategy behind the choice of pulsars, observing parameters, and analysis methods is discussed. Results are presented for PPTA data in the three bands taken between 2005 March and 2011 March. For 10 of the 20 pulsars, rms timing residuals are less than 1 μs for the best band after fitting for pulse frequency and its first time derivative. Significant ‘red’ timing noise is detected in about half of the sample. We discuss the implications of these results on future projects including the International Pulsar Timing Array and a PTA based on the Square Kilometre Array. We also present an ‘extended PPTA’ data set that combines PPTA data with earlier Parkes timing data for these pulsars.
We report here on two years of timing of 168 pulsars using the Parkes radio telescope. The vast majority of these pulsars have spin-down luminosities in excess of 1034 erg s−1 and are prime target candidates to be detected in gamma-rays by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. We provide the ephemerides for the ten pulsars being timed at Parkes which have been detected by Fermi in its first year of operation. These ephemerides, in conjunction with the publicly available photonlist, can be used to generate gamma-ray profiles from the Fermi archive. We will make the ephemerides of any pulsars of interest available to the community upon request. In addition to the timing ephemerides, we present the parameters for 14 glitches which have occurred in 13 pulsars, seven of which have no previously known glitch history.The Parkes timing programme, in conjunction with Fermi observations, is expected to continue for at least the next four years.
Hf-family compounds have been widely studied as high k gate dielectric materials, they can be elaborated in a wide range of deposition techniques but ALD and MOCVD are the most advanced. In this contribution, the deposition of pure HfO2 is performed by Atomic Vapour Deposition, which is a sort of pulsed-mode MOCVD. The precursor, diluted into a solvent, is pulsed through specific injectors (TriJet®), micro-droplets are vaporised and distributed to the substrate through a showerhead. ATR-FTIR and Hg-probe measurements have been extensively used to evaluate the materials. The advantage of this specific MOCVD system is that it allows working within a wide range of liquid injection frequencies. Thus, we have been able to show that the frequency of injection has a huge impact on the structural and electrical properties of the material. It has been evidence that working at low frequencies is crucial in order to get good electrical behaviour. Higher temperature deposition shows also a clear benefit. An EOT of 1.15 nm with 6.10−2 A/cm2 at |Vfb| + 1 V, that is to say about 3 orders of magnitude below what is obtained with SiO2 has been obtained on capacitors with TiN gate. This is a very good achievement fore pure HfO2 deposited by MOCVD.
This work has been made in the frame of MEDEA + T207 European project with the help of Air Liquide and Epichem.
ZrO2 and HfO2 and their alloys with SiO2 are currently among the leading high-k materials for replacing SiOxNy as the gate dielectric for the sub-100 nm technology nodes. International SEMATECH (ISMT) is currently investigating integration issues associated with this required change in materials. Our work has focused on the integration of ALCVD deposited ZrO2 and HfO2 with an industry standard conventional MOSFET process flow with poly-Si electrode. Since the impact of contamination by these new high-k materials introduced in a production fab has not yet been established, it becomes very critical to prevent cross- contamination through the process tools in the fab. A baseline study was completed within ISMT's fab and appropriate protocols for handling high-k materials have been established. The integrated high-k gate stack in a conventional transistor flow should not only meet all the performance requirements of scaled transistors, but the gate dielectric film should be able withstand high-temperature anneal steps. Reactions between ZrO2 and Si have been observed at temperatures as low as 560°C (during the amorphous Si deposition process). Various wet chemistries were also evaluated for removing the high-k film inadvertently deposited on wafer backside, and it was found that ZrO2 etches at extremely slow rates in the majority of the common wet etch chemistries available in a fab. A new hot HF based process was found to be successful in lowering Zr contamination on the wafer backside to as low as 1.8 E10 atoms/cm2. The patterning of a high-k gate stack with poly-Si electrode is another area that required considerable focus. Various dry (plasma) etch and wet etch chemistries were evaluated for etching ZrO2 using both blanket films as well as wafers with patterned poly-Si gate over the high-k films. On the full CMOS flow device wafers, most of these wet chemistries resulted in severe pitting in the ZrO2 film remaining over the source/drain (S/D) areas, as well as in the Si substrate and the field oxide. A poly-Si gate over ZrO2 gate dielectric film was successfully patterned using the standard poly-Si gate etch (Cl2/HBr) for the main etch, followed by a combination of HF and H2SO4 clean for removing all of the ZrO2 remaining over the S/D area. This allowed the fabrication of low-resistance contacts to transistor S/D areas, which ultimately resulted in demonstration of functional transistors with high-k gate dielectric films.
Tungsten silicide (WSix) films, deposited by chemical vapour deposition are normally amorphous in nature, and need to be annealed at high temperature to obtain low resistivity required for interconnections and metallization layers in VLSI circuits. In this paper, we focus on this annealing process for films deposited on Si and SiO2 substrate, and having Si/W ratio of 2.4. The characterization methods used were time-resolved X-ray diffraction, Resistivity measurement, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy analysis. We observe that 30 minutes is not sufficient for complete transformation of the WSi2.4 films on Si substrate. We also report on the dependence of annealing behaviour of nonstoichiometric WSixfilm on the substrate type.
The silicide formation for Ni/Pd and Pd/Ni bilayers on Si(100) substrates was investigated. X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling have been applied to study the phase formation of the silicide. We found that with addition of Pd into Ni/Si, a uniform layer of ternary Ni1−xPdxSi layer formed and kept stable for a wide temperature range. The lattice parameter of Ni1−xPdxSi as a function of Pd addition was calculated. The nucleation temperature of NiSi2 was delayed due to the addition of Pd. The higher the Pd addition, the larger the increase in NiSi2 nucleation temperature. We also studied the effect on the addition of Ni to the Pd/Si reaction. For pure Pd/Si reaction PdSi nucleated from Pd2Si at 750°C or above. For Ni/Pd/Si reaction, Pd2Si changed to Ni1−xPdxSi at temperature lower than 750°C due to the incorporation of Ni. The phenomena were explained by classic nucleation theory taking into account the effect of mixing entropy effect.
The morphology of nickel-containing phases at each stage during the treatment of a 12%Ni/SiO2 catalyst was studied. Liquid impregnated catalyst initially shows nickel nitrate uniformly dispersed on the surface of the silica in the form of a film. After calcining, large rafts of NiO with faceted surface pits are seen. The reduced catalyst contains bunched nickel particles or large rafts on the surface of the silica.
The lattice relaxation of strained Si1-xGex layers on Si (001) substrates has been examined. Single layers having a nominal composition of x = 0.14 were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy to thicknesses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 μm, all of which are greater than the critical thickness where misfit-dislocation generation commences. Double-crystal and white-radiation topographic methods were used to reveal the misfit dislocation structure and distribution. The misfit dislocations were shown to extend from heterogeneous nucleation sites along the four available <110> directions in the plane of the interface. A symmetric distribution of dislocations between the orthogonal < 110> directions was observed. Secondary branching of the misfit dislocations was also observed which accelerates the relaxation process.
AlAs/Si heterostructures grown by atomic layer epitaxy have been evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The hetero-interface is found to be extremely abrupt as compared with the case of GaAs/Si heterostructures grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. It is also noted that atomic steps are clearly observed at the interface and that no amorphous or alloyed regions are found. At the very initial stage of growth, a three dimensional island growth mode is dominant. However, two-dimensional growth takes place after depositing only 36 atomic layers of AlAs. Two types of defects are observed in the AlAs layer: stacking faults and microtwins. Although the density of these defects is high, they tend to self-annihilate at the interface between the AlAs layer and the upper GaAs thick layer. These results lead us to conclude that using an AlAs layer grown by atomic layer epitaxy as a buffer layer is very promising for achieving high quality GaAs/Si heterostructures with low defect density.
Ti-Ni alloys have been made amorphous over a broad composition range by sputter deposition, ion implantation and electron irradiation. Structural analysis of these alloys was made by electron diffraction techniques. Microdensitometer traces of diffraction patterns produced scattering profiles from which radial distribution functions (RDF's) were derived. The results from this analysis were comparable to those from x-ray diffraction studies on similar alloys. It was found that the positions of the intensity maxima vary systematically with alloy composition. However, values of coordination number were less precise due to experimental uncertainties. Furthermore, no dramatic differences were observed in the RDF's of the samples amorphized by the three techniques.
CdTe-ZnTe strained-layer superlattices (SLSs) were used to reduce the density of threading dislocations in CdTe epilayers on GaAs substrates. Three types of SLSs were characterized by double-crystal X-ray rocking curves and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SLS blocked dislocations when the thickness of both the individual layers and the total SLS does not exceed the critical layer thicknesses. TEM images of both cross-section and plan-view show that the twothirds of the maximum number of threading dislocations were blocked by the SLS and, on average, half of these were blocked. While, in the other SLSs, new defects (threading dislocations and/or stacking faults) were generated in layers that exceeded the critical thickness. These defects offset the effect of any dislocation bending.