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South Tyrol is a province of Italy bordering on Austria with 500.000 inhabitants, comprising three different ethnic- linguistic groups (German, Italian and Ladin) whose suicide rate is two times higher than the Italian average.
Goal of the research: The following ecological research tries analyse the existence of some risk factors that differentiate South Tyrol from the rest of Italy explaining the greater number of suicides.
Between 1999 and 2006 almost 300 suicide cases were gathered and analysed with the descriptive interference method. The records have been elaborated considering different variables.
Among the results two records are of particular interest:
1. A significantly higher risk of suicide in the German speaking population compared to the Italian one (the records of the Ladin speaking population are not significant).
2. There is a higher suicidal tendency in the rural areas compared to the urban ones.
Such as in all epidemiological descriptive surveys there is no causal explanation for the instance that the German speaking group is characterized by a suicide risk which is 1,3 times higher than the Italian speaking group. It remains unanswered if the high number of suicide in the German speaking population is due to a selection variable; for example that the areas populated by the latter (mainly rural areas) present another variable (high alcoholism, different familiar cohesion, etc.) than the mother language. In this case the affiliation to a linguistic group would be considered a confusing variable among other causal factors.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has a chronic course leading to huge impact in the patient’s functioning. Suicidal thoughts and attempts are much more frequent in OCD subjects than once thought before.
To empirically investigate whether the suicidal phenomena could be analyzed as a suicidality severity continuum and its association with obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and quality of life (QoL), in a large OCD sample.
Cross-sectional study with 548 patients diagnosed with OCD according to the DSM-IV criteria, interviewed in the Brazilian OCD Consortium (C-TOC) sites. Patients were evaluated by OCD experts using standardized instruments including: Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (YBOCS); Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (DYBOCS); Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID); and the SF-36 QoL Health Survey.
There were extremely high correlations between all the suicidal phenomena. OCD patients with suicidality had significantly lower QoL, higher severity in the “sexual/religious”, “aggression” and “symmetry/ordering” OC symptom dimensions, higher BDI and BA scores and a higher frequency of suicide attempts in a family member. In the regression analysis, the factors that most impacted suicidality were the sexual dimension severity, the SF-36 QoL Mental Health domain, the severity of depressive symptoms and a relative with an attempted suicide history.
Suicidality could be analyzed as a severity continuum and patients should be carefully monitored since they present with suicidal ideation. Lower QoL scores, higher scores on the sexual dimension and a family history of suicide attempts should be considered as risk factors for suicidality among OCD patients.
A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) is an
astro-particle physics facility aiming to directly detect galactic dark
matter. The Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane has been selected as host
laboratory. The EURECA collaboration unites CRESST, EDELWEISS and the
Spanish-French experiment ROSEBUD, thus concentrating and focussing effort
on cryogenic detector research in Europe into a single facility. EURECA will
use a target mass of up to one ton, enough to explore WIMP – nucleon scalar
scattering cross sections in the region of 10-9 – 10-10 picobarn.
A major advantage of EURECA is the planned use of more than just one target
material (multi target experiment for WIMP identification).
The aim of this study was to observe the effects of treatment with a Trainer T4K® myofunc tional appliance of thirteen late mixed dentition patients. We conducted thorough clinical examinations that included assessment of breathing and swallowing capabilities and took profile cephalograms and study models for each one. We also selected a control group that had been treated only with palatal expansion so that we could distinguish the effects of myofunctional therapy from those of expansion. We observed significant mandibular growth (p<0.05) of 3.24 mm on the average and a significant decrease in overjet, essentially linked to dento-alveolar effects, in the Trainer T4K® group. Swallowing and breathing function also improved in these patients. The two groups had similar maxillary and mandibular expansion.
So we conclude that use of a Trainer T4K® myofunctional appliance results in improved antero-postero dental relationships and an improvement in oral functioning.
The application software “Integrated Solution for Sinter Plant and
Blast Furnace Charging” is presented. This is a decision-making
support system that includes a mathematical model for the automatic
and optimized generation of charging solutions for the sinter plant
and blast furnace processes. This model assures the quality specifications of the products, environmental
limits as well as availability of materials, with particular
focus on the operational stability. Furthermore, it allows managerial
analysis including the acquisition strategies of new consumables
The reproductive activity of feral male mice on an island of the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen archipelago was influenced by biological factors depending on periods within the breeding season. After having controlled host reproductive activity indices for body size, i.e. age, and body condition effects, Syphacia obvelata prevalence did not vary with host reproductive status or age either during the beginning or the middle–end of the reproductive season. Considering the beginning of the breeding season, worm abundance was more pronounced in males the year following a strong winter crash of the population than in years when high over wintering survival occurred. During the middle–end of the breeding season, males with the highest reproductive status were more infected than males with a lower reproductive status in years when oldest individuals dominated the population. It is suggested that this situation was due to an endocrine related increased host susceptibility partly influenced by a change in the age structure of the population, and that an increase in worm transmission was not directly related to male activity concurrent with reproductive status, nor to population density.
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