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To validate the telephone modality of the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) included in three waves of a phone survey to estimate the monthly household food insecurity prevalence during the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico.
We examined the reliability and internal validity of the ELCSA scale in three repeated waves of cross-sectional surveys with Rasch models. We estimated the monthly prevalence of food insecurity in the general population and in households with and without children, and compared them with a national 2018 survey. We tested concurrent validity by testing associations of food insecurity with socioeconomic status and anxiety.
ENCOVID-19 is a monthly telephone cross-sectional survey collecting information on the well-being of Mexican households during the pandemic lockdown. Surveys used probabilistic samples and we used data from April (n=833), May (n=850), and June 2020 (n=1,674).
Mexicans 18 years or older who had a mobile telephone.
ELCSA had an adequate model fit and food insecurity was associated, within each wave, with more poverty and anxiety. The COVID-19 lockdown was associated with an important reduction in food security; decreasing stepwise from 38.9% in 2018 to 24.9% in June 2020 in households with children.
Telephone surveys were a feasible strategy to monitor reductions in food security during the COVID-19 lockdown.
Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) produced and released by eructation to the atmosphere in large volumes by ruminants. Enteric CH4 contributes significantly to global GHG emissions arising from animal agriculture. It has been contended that tropical grasses produce higher emissions of enteric CH4 than temperate grasses, when they are fed to ruminants. A number of experiments have been performed in respiration chambers and head-boxes to assess the enteric CH4 mitigation potential of foliage and pods of tropical plants, as well as nitrates (NO3−) and vegetable oils in practical rations for cattle. On the basis of individual determinations of enteric CH4 carried out in respiration chambers, the average CH4 yield for cattle fed low-quality tropical grasses (>70% ration DM) was 17.0 g CH4/kg DM intake. Results showed that when foliage and ground pods of tropical trees and shrubs were incorporated in cattle rations, methane yield (g CH4/kg DM intake) was decreased by 10% to 25%, depending on plant species and level of intake of the ration. Incorporation of nitrates and vegetable oils in the ration decreased enteric CH4 yield by ∼6% to ∼20%, respectively. Condensed tannins, saponins and starch contained in foliages, pods and seeds of tropical trees and shrubs, as well as nitrates and vegetable oils, can be fed to cattle to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions under smallholder conditions. Strategies for enteric CH4 mitigation in cattle grazing low-quality tropical forages can effectively increase productivity while decreasing enteric CH4 emissions in absolute terms and per unit of product (e.g. meat, milk), thus reducing the contribution of ruminants to GHG emissions and therefore to climate change.
While taxonomy segregates anxiety symptoms into diagnoses, patients typically present with multiple diagnoses; this poses major challenges, particularly for youth, where mixed presentation is particularly common. Anxiety comorbidity could reflect multivariate, cross-domain interactions insufficiently emphasized in current taxonomy. We utilize network analytic approaches that model these interactions by characterizing pediatric anxiety as involving distinct, inter-connected, symptom domains. Quantifying this network structure could inform views of pediatric anxiety that shape clinical practice and research.
Participants were 4964 youths (ages 5–17 years) from seven international sites. Participants completed standard symptom inventory assessing severity along distinct domains that follow pediatric anxiety diagnostic categories. We first applied network analytic tools to quantify the anxiety domain network structure. We then examined whether variation in the network structure related to age (3-year longitudinal assessments) and sex, key moderators of pediatric anxiety expression.
The anxiety network featured a highly inter-connected structure; all domains correlated positively but to varying degrees. Anxiety patients and healthy youth differed in severity but demonstrated a comparable network structure. We noted specific sex differences in the network structure; longitudinal data indicated additional structural changes during childhood. Generalized-anxiety and panic symptoms consistently emerged as central domains.
Pediatric anxiety manifests along multiple, inter-connected symptom domains. By quantifying cross-domain associations and related moderation effects, the current study might shape views on the diagnosis, treatment, and study of pediatric anxiety.
This work presents updates in the diagnostics systems, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations and simulations of microwave heating scenarios of the small modular Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1). Similarly, the design of a flexible bolometer and magnetic diagnostics (a set of Mirnov coils, Rogowski coils and two diamagnetic loops) are introduced. Furthermore, new MHD equilibrium calculations for the plasma of the SCR-1 device were performed using the VMEC code including the poloidal cross-section of the magnetic flux surfaces at different toroidal positions, profiles of the rotational transform, magnetic well, magnetic shear and total magnetic field norm. Charged particle orbits in vacuum magnetic field were computed by the magnetic field solver BS-SOLCTRA (Vargas et al. In 27th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2018), 2018. IAEA). A visualization framework was implemented using Paraview (Solano-Piedra et al. In 23rd IAEA Technical Meeting on the Research Using Small Fusion Devices (23rd TM RUSFD), 2017) and compared with magnetic mapping results (Coto-Vílchez et al. In 16th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), 2017, pp. 43–46). Additionally, simulations of microwave heating scenarios were performed by the IPF-FDMC full-wave code. These simulations calculate the conversion of the ordinary waves to extraordinary waves and allow us to identify the location where the conversion takes place. Finally, the microwave heating scenarios for the
toroidal position are presented. The microwave heating scenarios showed that the O–X–B mode conversion is around 12–14 %. It was possible to identify the spatial zone where the conversion takes place (upper hybrid frequency).
In the American continent, the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (F.) is the main pest in sugarcane producing areas. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of crop residue management on damage by D. saccharalis, its egg parasitoids and the ants associated with sugarcane. The study was carried out during 2011–2012, 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 crop cycles, in three commercial fields located in different regions of Tucumán state, Argentina. Two types of crop residue management (= treatments) were compared: conservation of trash at the soil surface (CT) and trash burning (TB). In ‘trash conservation’ treatment, crop residue was allowed to remain over the soil surface during the whole sugarcane growing season, while the second treatment consisted of complete burning of trash blanket approximately 2 weeks after harvest. The injury level was measured by recording the number of stalks bored and internodes bored. Parasitism was estimated by counting the total number of eggs and number of black eggs (which indicates the occurrence of egg parasitoids). Ants (Formicidae) richness was calculated by two estimators; abundance-based coverage estimator and incidence-based coverage estimator, using the non-parametric richness estimators: Chao 2 and Jackknife. Finally, the indicator value was estimated through the measurement of specificity and fidelity. In all the parameters studied no significant difference was found between TB and CT treatments.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ubiquitous steroid hormone receptor that is emerging as a mediator of breast cancer metastasis. We aim to better understand the biology associated with phospho-GR species in TNBC and their contribution to tumor progression. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To better understand how p-S134 GR may impact TNBC cell biology, we probed GR regulation by soluble factors that are rich within the tumor microenvironment (TME), such as TGFβ. TNBC cells harboring endogenous wild-type or S134A-GR species were created by CRISPR/Cas knock-in and subjected to in vitro assays of advanced cancer behavior. RNA-Seq was employed to identify pS134-GR target genes that are uniquely regulated by TGFβ in the absence of exogenously added GR ligands. Direct regulation of selected TGFβ-induced pS134-GR target genes was validated accordingly. Bioinformatics tools were used to probe publicly available TNBC patient data sets for expression of a pS134-GR 24-gene signature. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In the absence of GR ligands, GR is transcriptionally activated via p38-MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of Ser134 upon exposure of TNBC cells to TME-derived agents (TGFβ, HGF). The ligand-independent pS134-GR transcriptome primarily encompasses gene sets associated with TNBC cell survival and migration/invasion. Accordingly, pS134-GR was essential for TGFβ-induced TNBC cell migration, anchorage-independent growth in soft-agar, and tumorsphere formation, an in vitro readout of breast cancer stemness properties. Finally, a 24-gene pSer134-GR-dependent signature induced by TGFβ1 predicts shortened survival in breast cancer. We expect to find similar results using an in-house tissue microarray. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Phospho-S134-GR is a critical downstream mediator of p38 MAPK signaling and TNBC migration, survival, and stemness properties. Our studies define GR as a required effector of TGFβ1 signaling and nominate pS134-GR as a biomarker of elevated risk of breast cancer dissemination.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG) has been suggested to improve depressive symptoms in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We now report preliminary results of DBS and one-year follow up in six patients.
Six patients with severe TRD (Thase Resistance Index>4) underwent DBS surgery and subsequent monthly assessments. DBS response was defined as ≥50% reduction in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) or HDRS< 8 (remission). Electrodes location was assessed in each patient by means of pre/post-DBS MRIs co-registration.
DBS led to early and late reductions of average HDRS (from 22.5 to 9.8 and 6.25 respectively, see Figure 1 for evolution of HDRS mean scores). One month after surgery 16.7% of patients met criteria for response and for remission. Three months after response rates increased to 66.7% while remission rates were maintained. At six months, 66.7% of patients were responders. After 9 months, response rates arose up to 83.4% and these rates were largely maintained at 12 months. Remission rates showed similar growth over follow-up. No substantial differences were observed in electrodes location, and they were not found to be related to response or remission rates. The number of serious adverse effects was small with no patient experiencing permanent deficits.
This study suggests that DBS is relatively safe and provides significant improvement in patients with TRD. Improvement on average seems to be linearly progressive and, once melioration is achieved, it is maintained for at least one year. The procedure is well tolerated.
To determine the clinical profile of patients diagnosed of delusional disorder (DD) admitted to a psychiatric ward.
Retrospective chart review of inpatients with diagnoses of delusional disorder (DD) according ICD-10 criteria admitted to a psychiatric ward (Hospital de Conxo, Santiago de Compostela) between January 1998 and December 2008. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected, with special attention to comorbidity and presumed risk factors.
The sample consisted in 56 inpatients (30 women, mean age 54 ± 11). 64.3% were single including never married (33.9%), divorced, separated and widowed and 33.9% lived alone. The most frequent type of DD was persecutory (67%) followed by mixed type (16%). 16.1% presented hallucinations (most frequent auditory). In comparison with the other types, patients with persecutory delusions usually lived alone (p < 0.05). Most frequent comorbidities were substance abuse and affective disorders. Familiar background of psychoses was recorded in 21.4% and history of emigration in 12.5%. 5.4% suffered deafness. During the period studied 53.6% were admitted two or more times. After the most recent admission 32.1% were on depot antipsychotic.
In concordance with other previous reports, DD seemed to be more prevalent in women in middle or late adulthood and persecutory were the most frequent delusions. In our sample, most patients were not married and high prevalence of family antecedents of psychoses was found. It could be related with its hospital origin; then it could be hypothesized living alone and having familiar background of psychoses to be risk factors of hospitalization.
In our work we propose to use the adult developmental eye movement test (A-DEM) of Gene Sampedro et al, for the study of saccadic movements in schizophrenia.
To study the importance of saccades and attention in a sample of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia in a Unit of Psychosocial Rehabilitation.
Sample formed by 30 people.15 patients and 15 controls. 15 patients were corresponding to all the schizophrenic patients admitted in January, 2009 in a Unit of Psycosocial Rehabilitation of Conxo's Psychiatric Hospital. The 15 of the group control were selected of random form between sanitary personnel without psychiatric pathology, homogenizing the variables chronological age and sex with regard to the group of investigation.
The A-DEM vertical half to 44.37 seconds in the control group versus 59.54 seconds in the sample of patients. Regarding the results of the horizontal A-DEM obtained an average score of 47.07 seconds compared to control group obtained 60.68 seconds in the group of patients. The schizophrenic patients are characterized for having an attention diminished in 87 %, opposite to 47 % of the group control that they have a normal attention and 40 % increased. These differences of saccadic movements and of the attention are statistically significant.
Schizophrenic patients have few saccades both horizontally and vertically slower than normal people.
Schizophrenic patients show a marked deficit of attention to the normal population.
Despite lithium has been used for the last 50 years as a maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder during pregnancy, there is limited information about perinatal clinical outcomes from fetal exposure to lithium.
1. To quantify the rate of lithium placental passage
2. To assess any association between plasma concentration of lithium at delivery and perinatal outcome.
Observational and prospective study. Subjects: Women in maintenance treatment with lithium, being attended during pregnancy at the Perinatal Psychiatry Programme of Hospital Clínic (Barcelona, Spain) between 2007 and 2009. Procedure: We assessed sociodemographical data; dose/day of lithium carbonate; other drugs doses; plasmatic concentration of lithium carbonate in maternal blood intrapartum and in the umbilical cord; obstetrical maternal complications; gestational age at delivery; weight at delivery; Apgar scores; congenital malformations; hospital stays, infant serum concetrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Eight mother-child diads. Mean age of the mother (SD): 32.1 (4,7); 100% caucasian and married. Mean dose of maternal lithium (SD): 675mg (237,5mg). Premature rupture of membranes (%):25. Gestational mean age (in weeks) (SD): 39,9 (1). Birth weight (SD) : 3625gr (451,2gr); Mean Apgar1min (SD): 8,38 (1,1); Mean Apgar5min (SD): 9,75 (0,4). Loss of fetal intrapartum wellness (%): 12,5. Days of hospitalization (mean) (SD):9,5(16,6). Lithium plasmatic concentration (mEq/L), mean (SD): maternal 0,45(0,1), umbilical cord 0,33(0,1), lithium ratio uc/m 0,93 (0,3); infant TSH μU/mL mean (SD): 4,9(4,6).
Lithium placental passsage was 0,93 (0,63-1,07). ≤At umbilical cord lithium levels ≤ 0.60 mEq/L, we didn't have any preterm deliveries, low birth weight newborns, nor neonatal complications.
Patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder have high rates of somatic comorbidity and it's necessary to know the characteristics of these patients to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies.
To describe twelve patients diagnosed with BAD admitted to a Brief Hospitalization Unit.
Evaluation by a questionnaire which recorded sociodemographic data (sex, age, marital status, education, occupation, employment status); medical management indicators (average stay, number of previous admissions and if re-entering during the study); previous treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants and benzodiazepines); somatic background (presence of cardiovascular risk factors that contrasted with taking blood pressure, BMI calculation, ECG and complete analytical) and consumption of toxic substances.
58.33% are women with a mean age of 41.91 years and 58.33% in single cases. 58.33% has secondary education, although the 41.66% isn’t working.
The average stay of admission is 20.83 days. 50% had between 1 and 4 more admissions and 33.33% re-enters.
25% doesn’t take medications. Of the rest, 77.77% taking neuroleptics, being the most common option with 57.14% treatment with quetiapine. The 88.88% takes mood-stabilizing and the 44.44% benzodiazepines.
No patient has altered the glucose profile. The 8.33% has high blood pressure control and 25% altered lipid profile. The average BMI is 28.64
The 66.66% smoke. The 33.33% consumed alcohol and cannabis on 16.66%.
Patients with BAD have high proportions of cardiovascular risk factors and important consumption of toxic substances. Reflected the impact of the disease in the sociolabour field and the need for many hospital admissions because of the chronic course and poor therapeutic adherence.
One of the most important prognostic factors in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is the number of hospitalizations they need during their life. In this work we describe risk factors which determinate psychotic relapse.
Retrospective review of the clinical histories of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who needed hospitalization during the year 2008 using Hospital Ramon Cajal's history software. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software 15.0 version.
- Socio-demographic: We collected a total of 57 patients, 60% were men and 77,2% were single who lived with their families. 52,8% only had Primary education and 14% had been to University. 38,6% were pensioner and 12,3% workers.
- Risk factors: 54,4% had abandoned their medication, 7% had had recent modifications in their medication, and 35,1% received long acting antipsychotic. 42,1% were identified as substance users.
- 40,4% had been diagnosed with schizophrenia more than three years ago; 57,9% had had less than 3 previous hospitalizations, and 54,4% need hospitalization the previous year.
Male under 30 years old have more risk of needing more hospitalizations. The main risk factor for suffering new psychotic episodes is the medication nonadherence, modifying medication only causes new episodes in few patients. Patients receiving long-acting antipsychotic agents suffer less psychotic relapse. Substance abuse among schizophrenia patients is a major complicating factor since almost half of the hospitalizations are related to it.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) cannot always be effective for Treatment Resistant Depression. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a procedure that involves the direct implantation of stimulation electrodes in localized brain regions with the aim of modulating local and connected abnormal activity, has recently been gaining momentum as an alternative treatment modality for the most severe TRD patients. However, there is minimal experience with ECT in patients who have undergone DBS procedures.
We present two cases of patients who remitted from TRD after SCG-DBS, and some months after they suffered a relapse that was treated with ECT.
Before DBS intervention, ECT was not capable to sustain response more than two weeks beyond and was even bad tolerated by these patients. DBS was effective for both patients until a severe relapse occurred (after 4 and 14 months, respectively). Optimization of medication did not elicit response, given the seriousness of symptoms and their previous treatment resistance. Therefore, neurostimulator was turned off in order to administer ECT to both patients. After usual series of sessions set at corresponding parameters over 3 weeks, using bitemporal electrode placement, the episode remitted. Deep brain stimulator was turned on again, and they were in remission until the present moment.
The use of ECT proved to be effective without adverse effects to the patients or to the DBS hardware. The modulation of SCG activity and its downstream targets might also serve as a trigger for the therapeutic effect of formerly useful or even never-effective antidepressant strategies.
Two studies to date have been published regarding the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients. The unadjusted prevalence rates reported were 30% and 32%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of 142 bipolar patients from Spain.
Bipolar patients (ICD-10 criteria) from 11 centres in Spain were assessed cross-sectionally for metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP ATP III criteria.
The mean age was 47.3 (SD 14.5), 51.1% were male. On average, patients were receiving 2.8 (SD 1.3) drugs for the treatment of their bipolar disorder. Ninety-one percent were receiving mood stabilizers, 63.4% antipsychotics and 29.6 antidepressants. Eighty-seven percent of the antipsychotics prescribed were atypicals. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our sample was 24.6% Fifty-seven percent of the sample met the criterion for abdominal obesity, 37.4% for met the criterion for hypertriglyceridemia, 36.4% for low HDL-cholesterol, 25.2% for high blood pressure and 12.5% for high fasting glucose. No statistically significant difference was found between with and without the metabolic syndrome for gender, illness status (acute versus in remission), CGI-S-BP scores and number of medications used. Patients taking tow mood stabilizers had significantly higher metabolic syndrome rates than patients taking one mood stabilizer and than patients without mood stabilizer treatment (40% versus 17.8% and 11.1% respectively, p .02).
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients is high. It appears to be higher than that estimated for the Spanish general population.
The pharmacological treatment with oral Risperidona is used for years in infanto-juvenile psychiatry. In many occasions difficulty exists for the fulfillment; well for the appearance of adverse effects or for rejection to the capture or for difficulty of familiar fulfillment.
To expose from the clinical and welfare expectation, the experience with injectable Risperidona of long duration with three cases clinical whose principal diagnosis is of Mental Delay Moderated with alteration of the associate behavior.
Material and methods
I marry 1: 14-year-old Teenager of age attended in our CSM for Mental Delay and Disorder of conduct to familiar and school level.
CI = 50. It has received diverse antipsychotic and stabilizing treatments of oral form being the discontinuous capture. For one year in treatment with injectable Risperidona 50 mgr/14 days, answering favorably to the treatment, diminishing the conducts heteroagresivas that he was presenting to the beginning.
I marry 2: 15-year-old Teenager of age late Mental and disorder of the disturbing behavior with episodes d excitation, irritability and loss of control.
Not clinical stabilization with oral treatment for lack of familiar adherence. We introduce injectable Risperidona, 7,5 mgr/14 days, pupil to the family to mint of the importance of the treatment and the facility of administration. It improved the adherence to the center and therefore, clinical improvement.
I marry 3: Preadolescente and 13 years and age with compatible symptoms late Mental Moderates do and autistic features with important estereotipias and autoaggressions. For a few months in treatment with Risperidona inyecable 37,5 mgr/14 days with clinical improvement.