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To provide cross-national data for selected countries of the Americas on service utilization for psychiatric and substance use disorders, the distribution of these services among treatment sectors, treatment adequacy and factors associated with mental health treatment and adequacy of treatment.
Data come from data collected from 6710 adults with 12 month mental disorder surveys across seven surveys in six countries in North (USA), Central (Mexico) and South (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru) America who were interviewed 2001–2015 as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV diagnoses were made with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Interviews also assessed service utilization by the treatment sector, adequacy of treatment received and socio-demographic correlates of treatment.
Little over one in four of respondents with any 12 month DSM-IV/CIDI disorder received any treatment. Although the vast majority (87.1%) of this treatment was minimally adequate, only 35.3% of cases received treatment that met acceptable quality guidelines. Indicators of social-advantage (high education and income) were associated with higher rates of service use and adequacy, but a number of other correlates varied across survey sites.
These results shed light on an enormous public health problem involving under-treatment of common mental disorders, although the problem is most extreme among people with social disadvantage. Promoting services that are more accessible, especially for those with few resources, is urgently needed.
By using electrochemical tests, small signal variations were study by digital signal processing techniques. Electrochemical noise and electrochemical polarization curves were very useful to obtained electrochemical behavior of alloys, but the low signal levels of measurements obtained showed that some of the information was not likely to be measured and, therefore, not being able to identify. Graphene oxides (GO) samples were prepared by ball milling procedure adding Lithium. SIGVIEW software was used for Digital Signal studies. Comparing, the signals obtained by electrochemical techniques and the research by computational tools; it was possible to find out a behavior path of samples. Display devices made by graphene were observed to provide new information about the structure of samples and how nanotechnology area can be improved. The current investigation aimed at maintaining electrochemical stability, since different deformations, as twisting and bending are quite relevant in portable electronics devices.
To assess counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nasal polyps of adults with or without long-term exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke.
Twenty-two patients with and 22 patients without exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke participated in the study. After endoscopic polypectomy, the fragments of the nasal polyps were analysed by immunohistochemistry.
Compared to patients with no exposure, patients with exposure showed higher counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (t-test, p < 0.05). However, in patients with no exposure, multivariate analysis showed gender dimorphism, with lower counts in males than in females, and no influence from other variables (analysis of covariance, p > 0.05).
Exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke may induce increased counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nasal polyps of adults, with lower counts in males than females without exposure to tobacco smoke.
Priming has proved to enhance seed germination, but most of the research dealing with this topic has been carried out with cultivated species. The potential applications that this process has on wild species, which can be useful for restoration, are usually overlooked. This study analyses the germination response after natural priming and hydropriming of Penstemon roseus and Castilleja tenuiflora, two perennial herbs growing in a protected area known as ‘Parque Ecológico de la Ciudad de México’. Photoblastism was evaluated for both species. Seeds were exposed to a hydration/dehydration cycle and then placed in germination chambers to determine responses to hydropriming. To identify the effects of natural priming, seeds were buried in natural conditions and then recovered every two months and placed in germination chambers. Germination percentages and rates were then quantified. Both species proved to have permeable seed coats. Penstemon roseus seeds are positive photoblastic whereas C. tenuiflora seeds are indifferent to light. Priming methods increased C. tenuiflora germination rates, but they did not affect germination capacity. For P. roseus, priming methods did not improve germination rates, and germination capacity of recovered seeds decreased after the rainy season, suggesting that P. roseus forms a short-term, transient, seed bank. The germination strategies of these two species allow them to occupy suitable microsites for germination and establishment. These responses can be helpful in developing restoration programmes based on the accelerated establishment of native and characteristic successional species.
This work shows the electrochemical study of nickel (Ni) and TiC/Ni composite immersed in synthetic seawater. In order to characterize the corrosion process, polarization curves (PC) were carried out. All electrochemical measures were made under static conditions, room temperature, atmospheric pressure and 24 hours exposure time. An electrochemical cell with a typical three-electrode array was used. Effect of TiC as reinforcement into the Ni matrix was evaluated. According PC results, it is possible to point out that the corrosion rate (CR) of the TiC/Ni composite was higher than Ni corrosion rate. The obtained results indicate that the corrosion process of both materials is of mixed type, that is to say a process of transfer of load influenced by a mechanism of mass transfer. Observations through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that mechanism of corrosion was cells of differential aeration (difference of concentration of oxygen). The corrosion morphology was localized type (pits and crevice).