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Previous research indicates that low-income individuals often struggle to consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (F&V). LINK Up Illinois is a farmers’ market incentive programme that aims to increase F&V consumption among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients by improving access to and affordability of locally grown foods. The present research aimed to identify barriers to F&V consumption that exist among users of the LINK Up Illinois programme.
Farmers’ markets in Chicago, Springfield, Northbrook, Woodstock, Aurora and Urbana, IL.
In 2016, a volunteer sample of 140 LINK Up Illinois users (mean age 42·5 years; 81·7 % female; 28·7 % African American; 44·0 % obese) completed a survey at participating farmers’ markets across the state. Information on demographics, food shopping behaviours, programme satisfaction, barriers to F&V consumption and frequency of F&V consumption was collected and examined.
Approximately 23 % of survey participants reported consuming F&V ≥3 times/d. The barriers to F&V consumption most often reported by survey participants were the cost of F&V (29·5 %), spoilage (18·6 %), knowing how to cook F&V (8·7 %) and not thinking about F&V when hungry (8·6 %). Results from multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models suggested that reporting one or more barriers was associated with reduced odds of consuming vegetables ≥3 times/d, but not fruits.
Cost, spoilage and knowledge of cooking are key barriers to F&V consumption that exist among LINK Up Illinois users. Strategies are needed to mitigate these barriers and increase F&V consumption in this population.
The reactivation of dormant alpha-human herpesvirus (αHHV) has been attributed to various causes often referred to as stressors. However, no clinical study investigating the relationship between stressors and reactivation exists in humans at this time. Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), an important αHHV, was shown to have its gene expression and replication regulated by thyroid hormone (TH) using molecular biology approaches. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is categorized in αHHV superfamily and shares similar homology with HSV-1. We hypothesize that a history of TH imbalance may be associated with the incidence of shingles (VZV reactivation). This current pilot study, based on a hospital medical claims database, was conducted as a retrospective case-controlled investigation to determine if a putative link between TH imbalance and incidence of shingles is present. An odds ratio of 2·95 with a χ2 value of 51·74 was calculated for the total population diagnosed with TH disruption and shingles. Further analyses indicated that African American males exhibited a much higher chance of simultaneous diagnoses. These results show that a TH imbalance history may affect VZV reactivation at different incidence rates in different races and age groups.
Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is difficult to treat and eradicate. Several reports describe isolation and environmental cleaning strategies that controlled hospital MDRAB outbreaks. Such interventions were insufficient to interrupt MDRAB transmission in 2 intensive care unit-based outbreaks in our hospital. We describe strategies that were associated with termination of MDRAB outbreaks at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center.
In response to MDRAB outbreaks in 2007 and 2009, we implemented multiple interventions, including stakeholder meetings, enhanced isolation precautions, active microbial surveillance, cohorting, and extensive environmental cleaning. We conducted a case-control study to analyze risk factors for acquiring MDRAB. In each outbreak, infection control adherence monitors were placed in MDRAB cohort areas to observe and correct staff infection control behavior.
Between May 2007 and December 2009, 63 patients acquired nosocomial MDRAB; 57 (90%) acquired 1 or more of 4 outbreak strains. Of 347 environmental cultures, only 2 grew outbreak strains of MDRAB from areas other than MDRAB patient rooms. Adherence monitors recorded 1,330 isolation room entries in 2007, of which 8% required interventions. In 2009, around-the-clock monitors recorded 4,892 staff observations, including 127 (2.6%) instances of nonadherence with precautions, requiring 68 interventions (1.4%). Physicians were responsible for more violations than other staff (58% of hand hygiene violations and 37% of violations relating to gown and glove use). Each outbreak terminated in temporal association with initiation of adherence monitoring.
Although labor intensive, adherence monitoring may be useful as part of a multifaceted strategy to limit nosocomial transmission of MDRAB.
Direct surface analysis of Si wafers and environmental materials such as polymers for wafer carriers and for high purity water systems is important to identify contaminants and their sources. Organic contaminants on the surfaces are difficult to analyze; however, their adverse effects have been cited in recent years. This paper demonstrates the detection and identification of surface contaminants using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) on semiconductor related materials. The analytical information provided by TOF-SIMS can be useful for maintaining material cleanliness or for failure analysis.
This paper presents preliminary data on analyses of selected materials using two state-ofthe- art XPS systems: the Physical Electronics Inc. (PHI, Eden Prairie, MN) Quantum 2000 instrument and the microXPS beamline (188.8.131.52) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). This research compares and contrasts relevant performance characteristics of the two systems including elemental and chemical state detection sensitivity, imaging capabilities including lateral resolution and useful image fields, role of X-ray dose damage to surface, analysis speed as well as analytical throughput.
Proper airway control in trauma patients who have sustained cervical spine fracture remains controversial.
This study was undertaken to survey the preferred methods of airway management in cervical spine fracture (CSF) patients, to evaluate the experience of handling such patients at a level-I trauma center, and to contrast the findings with recommendations of the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma.
The methods used for control of the airway in patients with fractures of their cervical spine support the recommendation of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) Committee on Trauma.
The study consisted of two parts: 1) a survey; and 2) a retrospective study. Survey questionnaires were sent to 199 members of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma and to 161 anesthesiology training programs throughout the United States. Three resuscitation scenarios were posed: 1) Elective airway—CSF—breathing spontaneously, stable vital signs; 2) Urgent airway—CSF—breathing spontaneously, unstable vital signs; and 3) Emergent airway—CSF—apneic, unstable. In addition, a three-year retrospective study was conducted at a level-I trauma center to determine the method of airway control in patients with cervical spine fractures.
Responses to the questionnaires were received from 101 trauma surgeons (TS) and 58 anesthesiologists (ANESTH). Respondents indicated their preference of airway methods: Elective airway: Nasotracheal intubation: TS 69%, ANESTH 53%. Orotracheal intubation: TS and ANESTH 27%. Surgical airway: TS 4%. Intubation with fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB): ANESTH 20%. Urgent airway: Nasotracheal intubation: TS 48%, ANESTH 38%. Orotracheal intubation: TS 47%, ANESTH 45%. Surgical airway: TS 4%. FOB: ANESTH 16%. Emergent airway: Orotracheal intubation: TS 81 %, ANESTH 78%. Surgical Airway: TS 19%, ANESTH 7%. FOB: ANESTH 15%.
The retrospective review at the trauma center indicated that 102 patients with CSF were admitted; 62 required intubation: four (6%) on the scene, seven (11%) en route, five (8%) in the emergency department, 42 (67%) in the operating room, and four (6%) on the general surgery floor. Airway control methods used were nasotracheal: 14 (22%); orotracheal: 27 (43%); FOB: 17 (27%); tracheostomy: one (2%); unknown: three (4%). No progression of the neurological status resulted from intubation.
The choice of airway control in the trauma patient with CSF differs between anesthesiologists and surgeons. However, the method selected does not have an adverse affect on neurological status as long as in-line stabilization is maintained. The methods available are safe, effective, and acceptable. The recommendations of the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma for airway control with suspected cervical spine injury are useful. The technique utilized is dependent upon the judgment and experience of the intubator.
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