Hybrid materials as inorganic-organic nanostructured composites require tailored surface chemistry in order to obtain a homogeneous distribution of the nanoparticles in the matrix. For this reason, nanoparticles with organic functions have been synthesized, first, to provide the desired ζ-potential at a given pH value, second, to avoid irreversible agglomeration due to the spacing effect, and third, to provide the appropriate surface chemistry. I could be shown that using this approach, it is possible to switch the ζ-potential of SiO2 nanoparticles from a negative to a positive potential at neutral and to bind DNA fragments to the particles for an effective transfection into cells. Other examples show that nanoparticles (TiO2, SiC2) coated with epoxy and methacryloxy groupings can be used as coating sol for the fabrication of thin films with green densities up to 67 % by volume only by photochemical crosslinking of the polymerizable groupings. Using this approach, interference layers have been fabricated on transparent plastics. In soft matrices, these particles permit to establish appropriate ζ-potentials and in electric fields by electrophoresis, it was possible to up-concentrate them to form gradient index optics. The investigations show that surface chemistry-tailored nanoparticles are a useful tool for the fabrication of nanocomposite hybrids.