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The linear and nonlinear dynamics of an interface separating a thin liquid film and a hydrodynamically passive ambient medium, subject to normal electrostatic forcing, are investigated. A reduced-order model is developed for the case where both fluids are taken to be leaky dielectrics (LD). Cases of time periodic as well as steady forcing are studied. In the former case, an important result is the elucidation of two forms of resonant instability than can occur in LD films. These correspond to an inertial resonance due to mechanical inertia of the fluid and an inertialess resonance due to charge capacitance at the interface that is similar to mechanically forced films with an insoluble surfactant. In the case of steady forcing, the long-time dynamics exhibits spontaneous sliding as the interface approaches the wall, for the two limiting cases of a perfect conductor–perfect dielectric pair as well as a pair of perfect dielectrics. Under these limits, only the normal component of the Maxwell stress at the interface is significant and the interface dynamics resembles that of a Rayleigh–Taylor unstable interface. For a general pair of leaky dielectrics studied in the limit of fast relaxation times, the presence of interfacial charge prevents the onset of sliding. For the special case when the square of the conductivity ratio equals the permittivity ratio, the interface exhibits cascading structures, similar to those reported for the long-wave Marangoni instability.
Nasal lavage with mupirocin has the potential to reduce sinonasal morbidity in endoscopic endonasal approaches for skull base surgery.
To evaluate the effects of nasal lavage with and without mupirocin after endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery.
A pilot randomised, controlled trial was conducted on 20 adult patients who had undergone endoscopic endonasal approaches for skull base lesions. These patients were randomly assigned to cohorts using nasal lavages with mupirocin or without mupirocin. Patients were assessed in the out-patient clinic, one week and one month after surgery, using the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test questionnaire and nasal endoscopy.
Patients in the mupirocin nasal lavage group had lower nasal endoscopy scores post-operatively, and a statistically significant larger difference in nasal endoscopy scores at one month compared to one week. The mupirocin nasal lavage group also showed better Sino-Nasal Outcome Test scores at one month compared to the group without mupirocin.
Nasal lavage with mupirocin seems to yield better outcomes regarding patients’ symptoms and endoscopic findings.
Objectives: Youth and young adults with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) are vulnerable to executive dysfunction; however, some patients do not demonstrate functional deficits despite showing abnormalities on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cognitively intact adults with MS have shown enhanced activation patterns relative to healthy controls on working memory tasks. We aim to evaluate whether cognitively preserved pediatric-onset MS patients engage compensatory recruitment strategies to facilitate age-normative performance on a task of working memory. Methods: Twenty cognitively preserved patients (mean age=18.7±2.7 years; 15 female) and 20 age- and sex-matched controls (mean age=18.5±2.9 years; 15 female) underwent neuropsychological testing and 3.0 Tesla MRI, including structural and functional acquisitions. Patterns of activation during the Alphaspan task, a working memory paradigm with two levels of executive control demand, were examined via whole-brain and region of interest (ROI) analyses. Results: Across all participants, lower accuracy and greater activation of regions implicated in working memory were observed during the high demand condition. MS patients demonstrated 0.21 s longer response time than controls. ROI analyses revealed enhanced activation for pediatric-onset MS patients relative to controls in the right middle frontal, left paracingulate, right supramarginal, and left superior parietal gyri during the low executive demand condition, over and above differences in response time. MS patients also demonstrated heightened activation in the right supramarginal gyrus in the high executive demand condition. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that pediatric-onset MS patients may engage compensatory recruitment strategies during working memory processing. (JINS, 2019, 25, 432–442)
The aim of this paper is to show that the spontaneous sliding of drops forming from an interfacial instability on the surface of a wall-bounded fluid film is caused by a symmetry-breaking secondary instability. As an example, we consider a water film suspended from a ceiling that drains into drops due to the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. Loss of symmetry is observed after the film has attained a quasi-steady state, following the buckling of the thin residual film separating two drops, whereby two extremely thin secondary troughs are generated. Instability emanates from these secondary troughs, which are very sensitive to surface curvature perturbations because drainage there is dominated by capillary pressure gradients. We have performed two types of linear stability analysis. Firstly, applying the frozen-time approximation to the quasi-steady base state and assuming exponential temporal growth, we have identified a single, asymmetric, unstable eigenmode, constituting a concerted sliding motion of the large drops and secondary troughs. Secondly, applying transient stability analysis to the time-dependent base state, we have found that the latter is unstable at all times after the residual film has buckled, and that localized pulses at the secondary troughs are most effective in triggering the aforementioned sliding eigenmode. The onset of sliding is controlled by the level of ambient noise, but, in the range studied, always occurs in the quasi-steady regime of the base state. The sliding instability is also observed in a very thin gas film underneath a liquid layer, which we have checked for physical properties encountered underneath Leidenfrost drops. In contrast, adding Marangoni stresses to the problem substantially modifies the draining mechanism and can suppress the sliding instability.
The dynamics of an interface between a thin liquid–vapour bilayer undergoing evaporation is studied. Both phases are considered to be hydrodynamically and thermally active, with momentum and thermal inertia taken into account. A reduced-order model based on the weighted-residual integral boundary layer method is used to investigate the dynamical behaviour for two cases, viz., phase change in the absence of gravity and then phase change in the presence of gravity. In the first case, it is shown that evaporative instability may cause rupture of either liquid or vapour layer depending on system parameters. Close to interfacial rupture, the disjoining pressure due to intermolecular forces results in the formation of drops (bubbles) separated by a thin film for low liquid (vapour) hold-up. Momentum inertia is shown to have a stabilizing effect, while thermal inertia has a destabilizing effect. In the second case, evaporative suppression of Rayleigh–Taylor (R–T) instability shows emergence of up to two neutral wavenumbers. Weak nonlinear analysis of these neutral wavenumbers suggests that the instability may be either supercritical or subcritical depending on the rate of evaporation. At high rates of evaporation, both neutral wavenumbers are supercritical and computations on the interface evolution lead to nonlinear saturated steady states. Momentum inertia slows down the rate of interface deformation and results in an oscillatory approach to saturation. Thermal inertia results in larger interface deformation and the saturated steady state is shifted closer to the wall. At very low evaporation rates, only one neutral wavenumber of subcritical nature exists. The nonlinear evolution of the interface in this case is then similar to pure R–T instability, exhibiting spontaneous lateral sliding as it approaches the wall.
The nonlinear evolution of an interface between a perfect conducting liquid and a perfect dielectric gas subject to periodic electrostatic forcing is studied under the long-wave approximation. It is shown that inertial thin films become unstable to finite-wavelength Faraday modes at the onset, prior to the long-wave pillaring instability reported in the lubrication limit. It is further shown that the pillaring-mode instability is subcritical in nature, with the interface approaching either the top or the bottom wall, depending on the liquid–gas holdup. On the other hand, the Faraday modes exhibit subharmonic or harmonic oscillations that nonlinearly saturate to standing waves at low forcing amplitudes. Unlike the pillaring mode, wherein the interface approaches the wall, Faraday modes may exhibit saturated standing waves when the instability is subcritical. At higher forcing amplitudes, the interface may approach either wall, again depending on the liquid–gas holdup. It is also shown that a gravitationally unstable configuration of such thin films, under the long-wave approximation, cannot be stabilized by periodic electrostatic forcing, unlike mechanical Faraday forcing. In this case, it is observed that the interface exhibits oscillatory sliding behaviour, approaching the wall in an ‘earthworm-like’ motion.
A heavy-over-light configuration of a fluid bilayer may be stabilized in the presence of a phase change if the system consists of a single component. However, if the fluid is composed of a binary mixture with the more volatile component having the lower surface tension, it is known that a Marangoni instability occurs. This instability owes its origin to concentration gradients created by the phase change, even though the phase change otherwise has a stabilizing effect. In this study, it is shown via a nonlinear model under a long-wavelength approximation, that this Marangoni destabilization is insufficient to cause a rupture of the interface under practical operating conditions. Computations reveal that the stabilizing effect of the phase change dominates as the film becomes thin by reversing the direction of the Marangoni flow, thereby halting the instability and any hope of rupture.
In this study, we revisit Rayleigh’s visionary hypothesis (Rayleigh, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., vol. 29, 1879a, pp. 71–97), that patterns resulting from interfacial instabilities are dominated by the fastest-growing linear mode, as we study nonlinear pattern selection in the context of a linear growth (dispersion) curve that has two peaks of equal height. Such a system is obtained in a physical situation consisting of two liquid layers suspended from a heated ceiling, and exposed to a passive gas. Both interfaces are then susceptible to thermocapillary and Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities, which lead to rupture/pinch off via a subcritical bifurcation. The corresponding mathematical model consists of long-wavelength evolution equations which are amenable to extensive numerical exploration. We find that, despite having equal linear growth rates, either one of the peak-modes can completely dominate the other as a result of nonlinear interactions. Importantly, the dominant peak continues to dictate the pattern even when its growth rate is made slightly smaller, thereby providing a definite counter-example to Rayleigh’s conjecture. Although quite complex, the qualitative features of the peak-mode interaction are successfully captured by a low-order three-mode ordinary differential equation model based on truncated Galerkin projection. Far from being governed by simple linear theory, the final pattern is sensitive even to the phase difference between peak-mode perturbations. For sufficiently long domains, this phase effect is shown to result in the emergence of coexisting patterns, wherein each peak-mode dominates in a different region of the domain.
The theories to describe the rate at which electrochemical reactions proceed do not consider explicitly the dimensionality or the occupancy of the energy levels of nanostructured electrodes. It is shown here that the density of states variation in nanoscale electrochemical systems yield novel modulations in the rate constant and concomitant electrical currents. The proposed models extend the utility of presently used Marcus–Hush–Chidsey kinetics to a larger class of materials and could be used as a test of dimensional character. The new models are applied to explain the experimental variation of the electrochemical rate constant of single-layer graphene.
We have assembled a new sample of some of the most FIR-luminous galaxies in the Universe and have imaged them in 1.1 mm dust emission and measured their redshifts 1 < z < 4 via CO emission lines using the 32-m Large Millimeter Telescope / Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (LMT/GTM). Our sample of 31 submm galaxies (SMGs), culled from the Planck and Herschel all-sky surveys, includes 14 of the 21 most luminous galaxies known, with LFIR > 1014L⊙ and SFR > 104M⊙/yr. These extreme inferred luminosities – and multiple / extended 1.1 mm images – imply that most or all are strongly gravitationally lensed, with typical magnification μ ~ 10 × . The gravitational lensing provides two significant benefits: (1) it boosts the S/N, and (2) it allows investigation of star formation and gas processes on sub-kpc scales.
The purpose of this work is to investigate, for the first time, excitation of Faraday waves in small containers using two commensurate frequencies. This spatial restriction, which is encountered at low frequencies, leads to a wave composed primarily of one spatial eigenmode of the container. When two frequencies are used, the mode resonates primarily with one frequency, while the role of the second is to alter the instability threshold and the resulting nonlinear dynamics. As the parameter space expands greatly as a result of the introduction of three new degrees of freedom, viz. the frequency, amplitude and phase of the new component, the linear theory is first used as a guide to highlight basic two-frequency phenomena. These predictions and nonlinear phenomena are then studied experimentally with the system of Batson, Zoueshtiagh & Narayanan (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 729, 2013, pp. 496–523), who studied single-frequency excitation of different modes in a cylindrical cell. The two-frequency experiments of this work focus on excitation of the fundamental axisymmetric mode, and are quantitatively compared to the model via a posteriori Fourier decomposition of the parametric input. In doing so, experimental dependence of the instability on the new degrees of freedom is demonstrated, in accordance with the model predictions. This is done for a variety of frequency ratios, and overall agreement between the observed and predicted onset conditions is identical to that already reported for the single-frequency experiment. For each frequency ratio, the nonlinear behaviour is experimentally characterized by bifurcation and time series data, which is shown to differ significantly from comparable single-frequency excitations. Finally, we present and discuss a wave in which both temporal frequencies are used to simultaneously excite different spatial modes.
We present a methodology to enhance the electrical capacitance of activated carbon (AC) electrodes based on the introduction of electrically charged defects through argon plasma processing. Extensive characterization using electrochemical techniques incorporating cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge/discharge, and electrical impedance spectroscopy indicated a close to seven-fold increase in capacitance with respect to untreated AC electrodes, not subject to plasma processing.
In this work we investigate, by way of experiments and theory, the Faraday instability threshold in cylinders at low frequencies. This implies large wavelengths where effects from mode discretization cannot be ignored. Careful selection of the working fluids has resulted in an immiscible interface whose apparent contact line with the sidewall can glide over a tiny film of the more wetting fluid, without detachment of its actual contact line. This unique behaviour has allowed for a system whose primary dissipation is defined by the bulk viscous effects, and in doing so, for the first time, close connection is seen with the viscous linear stability theory for which a stress-free condition is assumed at the sidewalls. As predicted, mode selection and co-dimension 2 points are observed in the experiment for a frequency range including subharmonic, harmonic, and superharmonic modes. While agreement with the predictions are generally excellent, there are deviations from the theory for certain modes and these are explained in the context of harmonic meniscus waves. A review of previous work on single-mode excitation in cylinders is given, along with comparison to the viscous model and analysis based upon the conclusions of the current experiments.
The efficacy of vertically aligned defect engineered multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays as electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) was investigated using standard electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We report a ∼ 200% improvement in specific double layer capacitance of MWCNT arrays by extrinsically introducing defects using argon plasma irradiation. The capacitance-voltage characteristics of argon irradiated MWCNTs provide insights into the nature of the defects and their influence on the specific capacitance (capacitance/area).
Memecylon wayanadense Ratheesh, Sivu & Pradeep, a new species of Melastomataceae from the Wayanad forests of Kerala, India, is described and illustrated. The new species is allied to Memecylon angustifolium, M. rivulare and M. sivadasanii but differs in habit, leaf shape, sclereid type, inflorescence type and position, and the shape and size of the sepals and petals. An UPGMA analysis of 20 RAPD primers resulted in two major clusters with Memecylon sivadasanii in one cluster and M. rivulare, M. angustifolium and M. wayanadense in the second cluster. Memecylon wayanadense forms a subgroup within the second cluster.
This study aims to assess current practices of Canadian physicians providing botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) treatments for children with hypertonia and to contrast these with international “best practice” recommendations, in order to identify practice variability and opportunities for knowledge translation.
Thirteen Canadian physicians assembled to develop and analyze results of a cross-sectional electronic survey, sent to 50 physicians across Canada.
Seventy-eight percent (39/50) of physicians completed the survey. The most frequently identified assessment tools were Gross Motor Function Classification System, Modified Tardieu Scale and neurological examination. Goal-setting tools were infrequently utilized. Common indications for BoNT-A injections and the muscles injected were identified. Significant variability was identified in using BoNT-A for hip displacement associated with hypertonia. The most frequent adverse event reported was localized weakness; 54% reporting this “occasionally“ and 15% “frequently”. Generalized weakness, fatigue, ptosis, diplopia, dysphagia, aspiration, respiratory distress, dysphonia and urinary incontinence were reported rarely or never. For dosage, 52% identified 16 Units/kg body weight of Botox® as maximum. A majority (64%) reported a maximum 400 Units for injection at one time. For localization, electrical stimulation and ultrasound were used infrequently (38% and 19% respectively). Distraction was the most frequently used pain-management technique (64%).
Canadian physicians generally adhere to international best practices when using BoNT-A to treat paediatric hypertonia. Two knowledge-translation opportunities were identified: use of individualized goal setting prior to BoNT-A and enhancing localization techniques. Physicians reported a good safety profile of BoNT-A in children.