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There are few longitudinal studies about South Asians (SAs) and little information about recruitment and retention approaches for this ethnic group.
We followed 906 SAs enrolled in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) cohort for 5 years. Surviving participants were invited for a second clinical exam from 2015 to 2018. A new wave of participants was recruited during 2017–2018. We assessed the yields from different methods of recruitment and retention.
A total of 759 (83%) completed the second clinical exam, and 258 new participants were enrolled. Providing a nearby community hospital location for the study exam, offering cab/shared ride reimbursement, and conducting home visits were the most effective methods for enhancing retention. New participant recruitment targeted women and individuals with lower socioeconomic status, and we found that participant referrals and active community engagement were most effective. Mailing invitational letters to those identified by electronic health records had very low yield.
Recruitment and retention strategies that address transportation barriers and increase community engagement will help increase the representation of SAs in health research.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
A total of 34 tomato genotypes (24 F1+10 parents) were tested for resistance to tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) disease by various whitefly inoculation techniques under field and insect-proof glasshouse (mass and cage) conditions. Of the ten tomato parental lines, two accessions [EC-520061 (Solanum habrochaites) and EC-521080 (Solanum pimpinellifolium)] were identified as highly resistant while four accessions (EC-520049, EC-528372, WIR-5032 and WIR-3957) of wild species were resistant to ToLCV. Out of the 24 F1 crosses, PBC×EC-520061, H-86×EC-520061, H-24×EC-520061 and DVRT-2×EC-520061 were found to be highly resistant against ToLCV disease. Biochemical (total phenol and total sugar concentration) and physiological (chlorophyll content and leaf area index) parameters were also used in healthy and disease-inoculated leaves of ten parents and six F1 hybrids to test the conformity of ToLCV-resistant and susceptible disease reactions. The results showed that among the 16 genotypes (10 parents+6 F1), EC-520061, EC-520049, PBC×EC-520061 and H-86×EC-520061 were stable for both biochemical and physiological markers while EC-521080 showed higher accumulations of total phenol and sugar concentrations and reduced leaf size between healthy and disease-inoculated leaves. The present study demonstrates the importance of the whitefly inoculation technique and biochemical and physiological markers in virus resistance screening programmes, and identifies a potential source of resistance to the ToLCV in Solanum species.
Botrytis grey mould (BGM), caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr., is an important disease of chickpea causing economic losses across the world in chickpea-growing regions. There are no available resistance sources in cultivated chickpea against this disease. Cicer echinospermum and C. reticulatum, the only two compatible annual wild species, have been reported to have resistance to BGM. Hence, interspecific populations were developed with susceptible cultivars as female parents and C. echinospermum accession IG 73 074 and C. reticulatum accession IG 72 937 as the pollen donors to transfer and assess the nature of genetic control for BGM. Screening the progeny indicated that resistance to BGM was controlled by a single additive gene/allele (bgmr1cr and bgmr1ce), which can be introgressed through a backcross breeding programme.
The atomic and electronic structures of multilayer graphene on a monolayer boron nitride (MLBN) have been investigated by using the pseudopotential method and the local density approximation (LDA) of the density functional theory (DFT). We show that the LDA energy band gap can be tuned in the range 41-278 meV for a multilayer graphene by using MLBN as a substrate. The dispersion of the π/π* bands slightly away from the K point is linear with the electron speed of 0.9×106 and 0.93×106 for graphene (MLG)/MLBN and ABA trilayer graphene (TLG)/MLBN systems, respectively. This behaviour becomes quadratic with a relative effective mass of 0.0021 for the bilayer graphene (BLG)/MLBN system. The calculated binding energies are in the range of 10-43 meV per C atom.
Central to the idea of metamaterials is the concept of dynamic homogenization which seeks to define frequency dependent effective properties for Bloch wave propagation. Recent advances in the theory of dynamic homogenization have established the coupled form of the constitutive relation (Willis constitutive relation). This coupled form of the constitutive relation naturally emerges from ensemble averaging of the dynamic fields and automatically satisfies the dispersion relation in the case of periodic composites. Its importance is also notable due to its invariance under transformational acoustics. Here we discuss the explicit form of the effective dynamic constitutive equations. We elaborate upon the existence and emergence of coupling in the dynamic constitutive relation and further symmetries of the effective tensors.
The present work reports the temperature and frequency dependence
of a.c. conductivity in glassy Se70Te30−xZnx (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) alloys in the temperature range 300–500 K and frequency range 1 kHz.
An agreement between experimental and theoretical results suggests that the
a.c. conductivity behaviour of the present samples can be successfully
explained by correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The density of defect
states has been determined using this model for all the glassy alloys.
The results show that bipolaron hopping dominates over single-polaron
hopping in this glassy system. This is explained in terms of lower values of
the maximum barrier height for single-polaron hopping.
Infection of groundnut by pathogens causing early and late leaf spot diseases is strongly affected by accumulated daily leaf wetness periods and, in the rainy season, temperature is unlikely to severely limit infection. Earlier work relating patterns of leaf wetness to infection, was used to define a daily Wetness Index (WI) which was compared with infection on inoculated plants exposed in the crop for periods of 7 d. Infection was only severe when the 7-d WI total exceeded a value of 2.3. The proportion of leaves with one or more lesions on the main stem was used to assess the amount of inoculum in the crop. When the proportion of diseased leaves exceeded 10% and the WI total exceeded the threshold, application of a fungicide was advised. Successive sprays were separated by at least 14 d and a maximum of three sprays were applied in the growing season. Field trials showed that three sprays gave limited benefit where the disease pressure was severe, but substantial increases in pod and haulm yield were possible with only one or two fungicide applications in locations with less disease pressure.
To date, cryo-electron microscopy has become the most successful technique for exploring the structure of the ribosome and for studying binding positions of its various ligands, with the resolution slowly extending toward 10 Å. Obstacles in the attempts to improve resolution are the limited stability and coherence of the electron microscope, the statistics of data collection, and the conformational heterogeneity of the specimen. The last factor in this list proved to be the reason why it has been difficult to go past 18-20 Å with many specimens despite the use of state-of-the-art electron microscopes and inclusion of tens of thousand of projections.
A breakthrough has been achieved with a protein synthesis initiation-like complex in which mRNA and fMet-tRNA is bound to the E. coli ribosome. The high occupancy and extraordinary conformational homogeneity of this specimen has enabled us to reach a resolution of 15 Å.
The quality and composition of ultra-thin 2.0 nm gate dielectrics advocated for the 0.1 μm technology regime is expected to significantly impact gate tunneling currents, P+-gate dopant depletion effects and boron penetration into the substrate in PMOSFETs. This paper presents a comparative assessment of alternative grown and deposited gate dielectrics in sub-micron fabricated devices. High quality rapid-thermal CVD oxides and oxynitrides are examined as alternatives to conventional furnace grown gate oxides. An alternative gate process using in-situ boron doped and RTCVD deposited poly-Si is explored. PMOSFETs with Leff down to 0.06 μm were fabricated using a 0.1 μm technology. Electrical characterization of fabricated devices revealed excellent control of gate-boron depletion with the in-situ gate deposition process in all devices. Boron penetration of 2.0 nm gate oxides was effectively controlled by the use of a lower temperature RTA process. The direct tunneling leakage, although significant at these thicknesses, was less than 1 mA/cm2 at Vd = −1.2 V for all dielectrics. MOSFETs with comparable drive currents and excellent junction and off-state leakages were obtained with each dielectric.
In this paper we report the first NMOSFETs with elevated S/D selectively deposited by ultra high vacuum rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (UHV-RTCVD). The deposition process included an in-situ vacuum prebake (750 °C for 10 sec) followed by selective epitaxial growth (SEG) at 800 °C. Si2H6 was used as the silicon gas source instead of the more commonly used SiH4 and SiH2Cl2 in order to achieve high growth rates at low pressure. To prevent nucleation from occurring on insulator surfaces during growth, an etching mechanism was introduced by the addition of Cl2. The gases included 100 sccm of 10% Si2H6 in H2 and 2 sccm of Cl2 at a process pressure of 24 mTorr. An epitaxial growth rate of 160 nm/min has been achieved. The final epi thickness was around 0.1 μm. The S/D junctions were formed via ion implantation into the epi. The subsequent RTA (10 sec at 950 °C) resulted in an effective junction depth about 75 nm beneath the starting Si substrate. Process and device simulations reveal the importance of maintaining a shallow LDD junction for deep submicron devices by using low temperature selective deposition. MOSFETs exhibit good subthreshold characteristics with subthreshold swing of 86 mV/dec at a drain bias of 2.5 V, and threshold variations due to charge sharing and drain-induced-barrierlowering (DIBL) were moderate for Leff down to 0.35 μm. The gate-induced junction leakage current is below 2 pA/μm at a bias of 2.5 V.
Rapidly solidified Al78Mn20Ge2 alloy exhibits a curious structural feature; this corresponds to the simultaneous occurrence of almost all the quasicrystalline phases, e.g., primitive and face-centered icosahedral phase, rational approximant, and a new metastable cubic phase. The cubic crystalline phase shows yet another type of recently observed twin relation which effectively produces an icosahedral symmetry, a feature that has so far been specific to alloy systems Al–Mn–Si and Al–Mn–Fe–Si only. The diffraction evidences obtained in the present investigation reveal that the orientation of the structural subunit, which is a MacKay icosahedron, remains invariant across the various interphase boundaries. These results elucidate clearly the structural interrelationship among the various phases.
Nerve cord sectioning in the early fifth instar larva of Papilio demoleus inhibited or delayed pupation depending on the site of sectioning. This seems to be due to interruption in the feeding leading to interruption in the proprioceptive input reaching the brain. Sectioning of the peripheral nerves N5 and N8 prevented shortening (condensation) of the thoracic segment of the ventral nerve cord in the adult. Sectioning of these and other nerves, however, had no effect on the developmental events.
Before discussing the nature and function of literacy, it is necessary to say something about the diverse perspectives with people view literacy practices across different cultures. This is a more vital and more complicated matter than may initially appear. Theories developed about literacy within different academic disciplines and development campaigns have been built around premises that are essentially contradictory and which conflict with each other. For example, UNESCO's campaign to wipe out world illiteracy (in place since 1965) is based on the assumption that economic progress follows upon a change in an individual from illiterate to literate. Furthermore, UNESCO projected a view that directly correlated illiteracy with poverty, disease, and backwardness (UNESCO 1982). As it considered literacy to be a critical factor in the development of man and society, it claimed literacy as a “fundamental human right” (Coulmas 1984, Bamgbose 1984).
Recent literature on literacy reveals that the ways people perceive and experience its nature and relevance differ fundamentally across time as well as across different societies (cf., Heath 1980, Graff 1982, Pattison 1982, Raymond 1982). It has been argued by scholars that the way societies view literacy and its benefits is circumscribed mainly by the characteristics of their socio-economic types (cf., Cressy 1980, Slaughter 1982, Neustupný forthcoming). Literacy, thus, by no means is a unified concept. What adds to the baffling complexity of literacy education is that it means different things to different people. Consequently, linguists, educationists, policymakers, etc. differ widely in their approach towards defining the form, function, and use of literacy.
A strain of Rhizobium isolated from the root nodule of lentil was caused to produce mutants and screened on a medium of pH 4·5. Five mutant colonies of Rhizobium were isolated from lentil which differed in growth over a pH range 4·5–7·5. Strains differed in their growth in acidic and calcareous soils and also in their effectiveness of N fixation.
It has been reported recently (Stott, 1974) that in cattle, reproductive efficiency is increased by keeping the animals under cool climatic conditions. However, in buffaloes very limited information is available. Roy, Sengupta & Misra (1962) have reported that all buffaloes exhibited oestrus and were inseminated in a group protected from direct sun radiation whereas in a non-protected group only one showed oestrus. There is no systematic information available on the effect of wallowing and showers on the oestrual behaviour of buffaloes. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of cooling on oestrual behaviour in buffaloes.
The rate of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves kept on two rations was measured using 14C labelled Streptococcus bovis and 35S whole ruminal bacterial cells. The animals received daily either 15–20 kg green maize or 25–30 kg green cow pea in 12 equal amounts at 2-h intervals. The bacterial cells from the rumen of animals maintained on the same diet were tagged with 35S by in vitro incubation in the presence of 35S-sodium sulphate. Similarly Streptococcus bovis of rumen origin was grown in the presence of U-14C dl-leucine. The cells were injected into the rumen in a single dose. The dilution of the specific radioactivity of bacterial cells in the rumen with time was taken for calculation of the turnover time and rate of production of bacteria.
The average production rates of bacteria were 88·3 ± 3·88 and 92·3 ± 1·82 g/kg digestible organic matter and 101·8 ± 1·55 and 103·3 ± 1·49 g/kg digestible organic matter in animals fed green maize and cow pea, when estimated by using mixed rumen whole bacterial cells and Streptococcus bovis respectively. There was no significant difference in the rate of bacteria production when estimated by either method.