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The Maldives Heritage Survey was established to document cultural heritage vulnerable to human and environmental threats in the Maldives. An open-access online database is being produced to inform academic studies, support heritage-management plans and create a permanent archive of digital heritage resources.
This open-label, single-dose, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, crossover study evaluated the comparative bioavailability between amphetamine extended-release oral suspension (treatment A: AMPH EROS, Dyanavel XR 2.5 mg/mL, 18.8 mg amphetamine base per 7.5 mL) and extended-release mixed amphetamine salts (treatment B: ER MAS, Adderall XR 30 mg capsules, equivalent to 18.8 mg amphetamine base per capsule) after a single dose in healthy adult subjects, under fasted conditions.
The crossover design allowed for intra-subject PK comparisons. Relative comparable bioavailability was determined by a statistical comparison of the AUC and Cmax parameters for both d- and l-amphetamine, where the geometric mean ratios for AUC and Cmax were within the 90% confidence limits (80.0%–125.0%) to determine comparable bioavailability between test products. Subjects in sequence 1 received treatment A followed by B; subjects in sequence 2 received treatment B followed by treatment A. PK samples were obtained at 0 (pre-dose) through 60 hours post-dose. The safety assessment was based on reported frequency and severity of adverse events.
Thirty (30) subjects were enrolled and 28 completed. The mean age of subjects was 35 years, with a mean BMI of 25.9 kg/m2. Most subjects were Male (63.3%) and Black (56.7%). The geometric mean ratios for Cmax and all AUC measurements were within the 80–125% bound indicating comparable bioavailability between both test products. Both test products were generally well-tolerated with no serious AEs reported.
The bioavailability of a single 7.5 mL dose of AMPH EROS 2.5 mg/mL was comparable to a single 30 mg capsule dose of ER MAS. AMPH EROS (both d- and l-amphetamine) showed equivalent peak and overall exposure to ER MAS under fasted conditions.
Roads affect wildlife in a variety of negative ways. Road ecology studies have mostly concentrated on areas in the northern hemisphere despite the potentially greater impact of roads on biodiversity in tropical habitats. Here, we examine 4 years (January 2016–December 2019) of opportunistic observations of mammalian roadkill along a road intersecting Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Unguja, Zanzibar. In particular, we assess the impact of collisions on the population of an endemic primate, the Endangered Zanzibar red colobus Piliocolobus kirkii. Primates accounted for the majority of roadkill in this dataset. Monthly rainfall was not associated with roadkill frequency for mammals generally, nor for the Zanzibar red colobus. No single age–sex class of colobus was found dead more often than expected given their occurrence in the local population. The overall effect of roadkill on colobus populations in habitats fragmented by roads is unknown given the lack of accurate, long-term life history data for this species. Our findings suggest that mortality from collisions with vehicles in some groups of colobus is within the range of mortality rates other primates experience under natural predation. Unlike natural predators, however, vehicles do not kill selectively, so their impact on populations may differ. Although a comparison with historical accounts suggests that the installation of speedbumps along the road near the Park's entrance has led to a significant decrease in colobus roadkill, further actions to mitigate the impact of the road could bring substantial conservation benefits.
In our ethnography among traditionalist Sunni Muslims of Kerala, South India, we observe the emergence of new intellectual critiques of Islamic reformism and a revival of ‘traditional’ Islamic articulations. A new class of traditionalist Sunni ulama, claiming to be ‘turbaned professionals’, plays an instrumental role in providing epistemic sanctioning to ‘traditional’ Islamic piety while simultaneously grounding it within the discourses and processes of neoliberal developmentalism. Such assertions of traditionalist Sunni Muslim identity challenge the conventional understanding of Islamic reformism as a hallmark of the progressive understanding of faith and traditionalism as its ‘anti-modern’ other. The article argues that this discursive shift of Sunni Islamic traditionalism in Kerala since the 1980s from defensive to more assertive forms has to be located in the context of wider socio-economic change within the community facilitated by structural as well as cultural forces of globalization. We point out that this process traverses the local, national, and global scales of identification, and results in intense negotiations between local identifications and ‘true Islamicate global imaginations’. These negotiations bring in new discourses around the question of ‘authentic’ Islamic practices and sensibilities among the traditionalist Sunni Muslims, forcing us to locate the question of their identity formation beyond the boundaries of communities and the nation states that ensconce them.
This SHEA white paper identifies knowledge gaps and challenges in healthcare epidemiology research related to COVID-19 with a focus on core principles of healthcare epidemiology. These gaps, revealed during the worst phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, are described in 10 sections: epidemiology, outbreak investigation, surveillance, isolation precaution practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental contamination and disinfection, drug and supply shortages, antimicrobial stewardship, healthcare personnel (HCP) occupational safety, and return to work policies. Each section highlights three critical healthcare epidemiology research questions with detailed description provided in supplemental materials. This research agenda calls for translational studies from laboratory-based basic science research to well-designed, large-scale studies and health outcomes research. Research gaps and challenges related to nursing homes and social disparities are included. Collaborations across various disciplines, expertise and across diverse geographic locations will be critical.
The northern bald ibis Geronticus eremita was once widespread throughout the Middle East, northern Africa, and southern and central Europe. Habitat destruction, persecution and the impacts of pesticides have led to its disappearance from most of its former range. It disappeared from central Europe > 400 years ago, but has persisted as a relict and slowly growing breeding population in Morocco, where c. 700 wild birds of all ages remain. In Algeria, the last confirmed breeding was in 1984; in Turkey the fully wild population disappeared in 1989, but a population remains in semi-wild conditions. In Syria a small population was rediscovered in 2002, only to subsequently decline to functional extinction. Restoration programmes have been initiated independently in several locations, with over 300 free-flying birds resulting from reintroduction projects in Austria, Germany, Spain and Turkey, to restore both sedentary and fully migratory populations. Maintaining current efforts in Morocco remains a high conservation priority.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread globally, forcing countries to apply lockdowns and strict social distancing measures. The aim of this study was to assess eating habits and lifestyle behaviours among residents of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region during the lockdown. A cross-sectional study among adult residents of the MENA region was conducted using an online questionnaire designed on Google Forms during April 2020. A total of 2970 participants from eighteen countries participated in the present study. During the pandemic, over 30 % reported weight gain, 6·2 % consumed five or more meals per d compared with 2·2 % before the pandemic (P < 0·001) and 48·8 % did not consume fruits on a daily basis. Moreover, 39·1 % did not engage in physical activity, and over 35 % spent more than 5 h/d on screens. A significant association between the frequency of training during the pandemic and the reported change in weight was found (P < 0·001). A significantly higher percentage of participants reported physical and emotional exhaustion, irritability and tension either all the time or a large part of the time during the pandemic (P < 0·001). Although a high percentage of participants reported sleeping more hours per night during the pandemic, 63 % had sleep disturbances. The study highlights that the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic caused a variety of lifestyle changes, physical inactivity and psychological problems among adults in the MENA region.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) remain a major challenge. Various strategies have been tried to prevent or control HAIs. Positive deviance, a strategy that has been used in the last decade, is based on the observation that a few at-risk individuals follow uncommon, useful practices and that, consequently, they experience better outcomes than their peers who share similar risks. We performed a systematic literature review to measure the impact of positive deviance in controlling HAIs.
A systematic search strategy was used to search PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Embase through May 2020 for studies evaluating positive deviance as a single intervention or as part of an initiative to prevent or control healthcare-associated infections. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Downs and Black score.
Of 542 articles potentially eligible for review, 14 articles were included for further analysis. All studies were observational, quasi-experimental (before-and-after intervention) studies. Hand hygiene was the outcome in 8 studies (57%), and an improvement was observed in association with implementation of positive deviance as a single intervention in all of them. Overall HAI rates were measured in 5 studies (36%), and positive deviance was associated with an observed reduction in 4 (80%) of them. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections were evaluated in 5 studies (36%), and positive deviance containing bundles were successful in all of them.
Positive deviance may be an effective strategy to improve hand hygiene and control HAIs. Further studies are needed to confirm this effect.
There are currently no guidelines for central-line insertion site evaluation. Our study revealed an association between insertion site inflammation (ISI) and the development of central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). Automated surveillance for ISI is feasible and could help prevent CLABSI.
The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Nigeria with a view of generating evidence to enhance planning and response strategies. A national surveillance dataset between 27 February and 6 June 2020 was retrospectively analysed, with confirmatory testing for COVID-19 done by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The primary outcomes were cumulative incidence (CI) and case fatality (CF). A total of 40 926 persons (67% of total 60 839) had complete records of RT-PCR test across 35 states and the Federal Capital Territory, 12 289 (30.0%) of whom were confirmed COVID-19 cases. Of those confirmed cases, 3467 (28.2%) had complete records of clinical outcome (alive or dead), 342 (9.9%) of which died. The overall CI and CF were 5.6 per 100 000 population and 2.8%, respectively. The highest proportion of COVID-19 cases and deaths were recorded in persons aged 31–40 years (25.5%) and 61–70 years (26.6%), respectively; and males accounted for a higher proportion of confirmed cases (65.8%) and deaths (79.0%). Sixty-six per cent of confirmed COVID-19 cases were asymptomatic at diagnosis. In conclusion, this paper has provided an insight into the early epidemiology of COVID-19 in Nigeria, which could be useful for contextualising public health planning.
An inspired metamaterial-based highly efficient monopole antenna displaying wide-/dual-band resonances along with self-filtering properties is presented. The monopole has high out-of-band suppression characteristics that lead to very close to 0 dB band-stop between the antenna dual resonant bands. The antenna operates at the two WLAN services of 2.65–3.25 and 5–7 GHz with stopband with total reflection at 4.5 GHz. The designed filtering characteristics are based on current coupling for the dual-band functions and current neutralization for the stopband function. Moreover, the proposed antenna has a very high radiation efficiency of 97 and 99% at 3 and 6 GHz, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed antenna exhibits an omni-directional radiation pattern with coplanar waveguide feed for simple integration with passive/active devices. Moreover, the antenna properties are achieved with a compact antenna size (30 × 30 mm2). With all presented results, the proposed antenna is very competitive over recent relevant antennas. In addition, a very good agreement between theoretical, full-wave simulations and measurements is achieved.
At present, analysis of diet and bladder cancer (BC) is mostly based on the intake of individual foods. The examination of food combinations provides a scope to deal with the complexity and unpredictability of the diet and aims to overcome the limitations of the study of nutrients and foods in isolation. This article aims to demonstrate the usability of supervised data mining methods to extract the food groups related to BC. In order to derive key food groups associated with BC risk, we applied the data mining technique C5.0 with 10-fold cross-validation in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants study, including data from eighteen case–control and one nested case–cohort study, compromising 8320 BC cases out of 31 551 participants. Dietary data, on the eleven main food groups of the Eurocode 2 Core classification codebook, and relevant non-diet data (i.e. sex, age and smoking status) were available. Primarily, five key food groups were extracted; in order of importance, beverages (non-milk); grains and grain products; vegetables and vegetable products; fats, oils and their products; meats and meat products were associated with BC risk. Since these food groups are corresponded with previously proposed BC-related dietary factors, data mining seems to be a promising technique in the field of nutritional epidemiology and deserves further examination.
Over the last decade, the frequency of emergency room (ER) visits for pediatric psychiatric disorders has increased in the most western countries. Although data available in France is scarce, a similar trend was observed concerning violent or runaway youth. There is no medical consensus on the status and care management of disruptive behavior (DB) in children and adolescents in ER. Seclusion and physical restraint are often requested to treat violence. With a blur lawful framework for minors, such coercive measures raise ethical issues while contradicting the idea of the patients’ autonomy and well-being. Moreover, consulting in the ER for such situations could lead to an inappropriate use of the healthcare system, a poor assessment of associated psychiatric disorders or comorbidities and an underestimation of suicide risk. Thus, the ER visit for a disruptive child or adolescent is characterized by its uncertainty. It represents a situation of heterogeneity in care management as well as a stake of social exclusion and of dangerous behavior.
The study aims to:.
– analyze these uncertainties by presenting a multidisciplinary and integrative research methodology through combining clinical evidence and social sciences comprehension;
– to implement a cohort to describe children and adolescents admitted to the ER for DB (aggressiveness, violence, fugue or theft), their care management and their social and clinical outcome;
– to pool these clinical data with an ethnographic fieldwork focused on DB as a “trouble” experienced by various professionals in the ER.
We will focus our presentation on these methodological considerations.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Although there is a recommendation that toddlers be screened for Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during their 18- and 24-month well-care child visits, diagnosis often occurs well after the child turns 4 years old. Such delayed diagnosis hinders the implementation of early intervention thus worsens the long-term prognosis of ASD.
The current community-based study in its stage I aimed at early screening of Egyptian toddlers for ASD using an Arabic validated version of Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT).
A cross-sectional community-based descriptive study was carried out enrolling 5546 Egyptian toddlers. They were randomly recruited from those attending Primary Health Care Units in six Egyptian governorates with a fair representation of the urban, semi-urban, and rural Egyptian populations. An Arabic validated version of M-CHAT was used as a screening tool for ASD.
The current study revealed failure of M-CHAT (suspected to have ASD and needs further evaluation) in 1320 out of the enrolled 5546 Egyptian toddlers (23.8%).
M-CHAT as a screening tool for ASD has flagged a considerable percent of the enrolled toddlers that necessitates referral for further evaluation (stage II) to settle the diagnosis of ASD in the true positive cases. Perfecting the delicate balance between sensitivity and specificity for ASD screening tools is crucial in order not to miss early detection of ASD cases and at the same time, to avoid over-diagnosis with subsequent abuse of the limited healthcare resources in developing countries.
Associations between different forms of malnutrition and environmental conditions, including water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), may contribute towards persistently poor child health, growth and cognitive development. Experiencing poor nutrition in utero or during early childhood is furthermore associated with chronic diseases later in life. The primary responsibility for provision of water and sanitation, as a basic service and human right, lies with the State; however, a number of stakeholders are involved. The situation is most critical in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where, in 2015, 311 million people lacked a safe water source, and >70% of SSA populations were living without adequate sanitation. The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the state of literature concerned with WASH and its association with nutritional status, and governance in children from birth to 5 years of age in SSA. Articles were sourced from PubMed Central, Science Direct and ProQuest Social Science databases published between 1990 and 2017. The PRISMA Statement was utilised and this systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017071700). The search terms returned 15,351 articles for screening, with 46 articles included. This is indicative of a limited body of knowledge; however, the number of publications on this topic has been increasing, suggesting burgeoning field of interest. Targeted research on the governance of WASH through the identification of the various role players and stakeholders at various levels, while understanding the policy environment in relation to particular health-related outcomes is imperative to address the burden of child undernutrition.
We aimed to comprehensively examine the association of breast-feeding, types and initial timing of complementary foods with adolescent cognitive development in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 745 adolescents aged 10–12 years who were born to women who participated in a randomised trial of prenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural Western China. An infant feeding index was constructed based on the current WHO recommendations. Full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) was assessed and derived by the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The duration of exclusive or any breast-feeding was not significantly associated with adolescent cognitive development. Participants who regularly consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods during 6–23 months of age had higher FSIQ than those who did not (adjusted mean differences 4·25; 95 % CI 1·99, 6·51). For cows’/goats’ milk and high protein-based food, the highest FSIQ was found in participants who initially consumed at 10–12 and 7–9 months, respectively. A strong dose–response relationship of the composite infant feeding index was also identified, with participants in the highest tertile of overall feeding quality having 3·03 (95 % CI 1·37, 4·70) points higher FSIQ than those in the lowest tertile. These findings suggest that appropriate infant feeding practices (breast-feeding plus timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods) were associated with significantly improved early adolescent cognitive development scores in rural China. In addition, improvement in Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods complementary feeding may produce better adolescent cognitive development outcomes.
Central nervous system (CNS) infections are not uncommon in the neurocritical care unit (NCCU). This chapter reviews the most common causes of CNS infections and discusses the diagnosis and management of these life-threatening illnesses.