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This application paper describes a novel, cluster-based, semi-automatic, stream surface placement strategy for structured and unstructured computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data, tailored towards a specific application: The BLOODHOUND jet and rocket propelled land speed record vehicle. An existing automatic stream surface placement algorithm(8), is extensively modified to cater for large unstructured CFD simulation data. The existing algorithm uses hierarchical clustering of velocity and distance vectors to find potential stream surface seeding locations. This work replaces the hierarchical clustering algorithm, designed to work with small regular grids, with a K-means clustering approach suitable for large unstructured grids. Modifications are made to the seeding curve construction algorithm, improving the smoothness and distribution of the discretised curve in complex cases. A new distance function is described which allows the user to target particular characteristics of simulation data. The proposed algorithm reduces the required memory footprint and computational requirement compared to previous work(8). The performance and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated, and CFD domain expert evaluation is provided describing the value of this approach.
FFQ are commonly used to examine the association between diet and disease. They are the most practical method for usual dietary data collection as they are relatively inexpensive and easy to administer. In Australia, the Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ (CCVFFQ) version 2 and the online Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation FFQ (CSIROFFQ) are used. The aim of our study was to establish the level of agreement between nutrient intakes captured using the online CSIROFFQ and the paper-based CCVFFQ. The CCVFFQ and the online CSIROFFQ were completed by 136 healthy participants. FFQ responses were analysed to give g per d intake of a range of nutrients. Agreement between twenty-six nutrient intakes common to both FFQ was measured by a variety of methods. Nutrient intake levels that were significantly correlated between the two FFQ were carbohydrates, total fat, Na and MUFA. When assessing ranking of nutrients into quintiles, on average, 56 % of the participants (for all nutrients) were classified into the same or adjacent quintiles in both FFQ, with the highest percentage agreement for sugar. On average, 21 % of participants were grossly misclassified by three or four quintiles, with the highest percentage misclassification for fibre and Fe. Quintile agreement was similar to that reported by other studies, and we concluded that both FFQ are suitable tools for dividing participants’ nutrient intake levels into high- and low-consumption groups. Use of either FFQ was not appropriate for obtaining accurate estimates of absolute nutrient intakes.
Autobiographical memory (ABM), personal semantic memory (PSM), and autonoetic consciousness are affected in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) but their relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers are unclear.
Forty-five participants (healthy controls (HC) = 31, MCI = 14) completed the Episodic ABM Interview and a battery of memory tests. Thirty-one (HC = 22, MCI = 9) underwent β-amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Fourteen participants (HC = 9, MCI = 5) underwent one imaging modality.
Unlike PSM, ABM differentiated between diagnostic categories but did not relate to AD biomarkers. Personal semantic memory was related to neocortical β-amyloid burden after adjusting for age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4. Autonoetic consciousness was not associated with AD biomarkers, and was not impaired in MCI.
Autobiographical memory was impaired in MCI participants but was not related to neocortical amyloid burden, suggesting that personal memory systems are impacted by differing disease mechanisms, rather than being uniformly underpinned by β-amyloid. Episodic and semantic ABM impairment represent an important AD prodrome.
The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing is a prospective study of 1,112 individuals (211 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 133 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 768 healthy controls (HCs)). Here we report diagnostic and cognitive findings at the first (18-month) follow-up of the cohort. The first aim was to compute rates of transition from HC to MCI, and MCI to AD. The second aim was to characterize the cognitive profiles of individuals who transitioned to a more severe disease stage compared with those who did not.
Eighteen months after baseline, participants underwent comprehensive cognitive testing and diagnostic review, provided an 80 ml blood sample, and completed health and lifestyle questionnaires. A subgroup also underwent amyloid PET and MRI neuroimaging.
The diagnostic status of 89.9% of the cohorts was determined (972 were reassessed, 28 had died, and 112 did not return for reassessment). The 18-month cohort comprised 692 HCs, 82 MCI cases, 197 AD patients, and one Parkinson's disease dementia case. The transition rate from HC to MCI was 2.5%, and cognitive decline in HCs who transitioned to MCI was greatest in memory and naming domains compared to HCs who remained stable. The transition rate from MCI to AD was 30.5%.
There was a high retention rate after 18 months. Rates of transition from healthy aging to MCI, and MCI to AD, were consistent with established estimates. Follow-up of this cohort over longer periods will elucidate robust predictors of future cognitive decline.
The prognostic value of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type is unclear. While some studies have found an association between SMCs and cognitive decline, many have found a stronger association with depression, which raises questions about their diagnostic utility.
We examined the cross-sectional association between SMC severity (as measured using the MAC-Q, a brief SMC questionnaire) and affect, memory, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers (β-amyloid deposition and the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOEε4) allele) in healthy elderly controls (HC; M = 78.74 years, SD = 6.7) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; M = 72.74 years, SD = 8.8). We analyzed a subset of individuals drawn from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Study of Aging.
SMCs were more severe in MCI patients than in HCs. SMC severity was related to affective variables and the interaction between age and group membership (HC/MCI). Within the HC group, SMC severity was related to affective variables only, while severity correlated only with age in the MCI group. SMCs were not related to cognitive variables or AD biomarkers.
SMCs were related to solely by poorer mood (greater depressive and anxious symptomatology) in the cognitively healthy elderly however mean levels were subclinical. This finding argues for the assessment of affective symptomatology in conjunction with cognitive assessment in elderly memory complainers. Future AIBL research will focus on assessing other AD biomarkers, such as brain atrophy and Aβ plasma markers, in relation to complaint severity. Once our 36-month follow-up data are collected, we propose to assess whether SMCs can predict future cognitive decline.
Auxinic herbicides, such as 2,4-D and dicamba, that act as plant growth regulators are commonly used for broadleaf weed control in cereal crops (e.g., wheat, barley), grasslands, and noncroplands. If applied at late growth stages, while cereals are developing reproductive parts, the herbicides can reduce seed production. We tested whether growth regulators have this same effect on the invasive annual grass Japanese brome. The herbicides 2,4-D, dicamba, and picloram were applied at typical field use rates to Japanese brome at various growth stages in a greenhouse. Picloram reduced seed production nearly 100% when applied at the internode elongation, boot, or heading stages of growth, whereas dicamba appeared to be slightly less effective and 2,4-D was much less effective. Our results indicate it may be possible to control Japanese brome by using growth regulator herbicides to reduce its seed production, thereby depleting its short-lived seed bank.
For maximum utilization of deep cultures to produce FMD virus it was important to have adequate control of culture temperature and pH. Culture temperature should be controlled within the range 34·25°7–35°C. and culture pH at 7·2. The culture system became less efficient as the cell concentration was increased from 1 × 106·0 to 9 × 106·0 cells/ml. A cell concentration of 2·5 × 106·0 cells/ml. represented a working compromise between efficiency and antigen titre/ml. for inactivated FMD vaccine production.
The input virus/cell ratio had no effect on the time or titre of peak virus yield in the range 1:1 to 1:320. This makes the production of seed virus from small numbers of monolayer cultures feasible and economical.
Virus yield was improved by the addition of 5% serum. It would be more satisfactory if a serum-free cell strain could be developed.
The Arecibo L-band Feed Array Zone of Avoidance Survey (ALFA ZOA) will map 1350-1800 deg2 at low Galactic latitude, providing HI spectra for galaxies in regions of the sky where our knowledge of local large scale structure remains incomplete, owing to obscuration from dust and high stellar confusion near the Galactic plane. Because of these effects, a substantial fraction of the galaxies detected in the survey will have no optical or infrared counterparts. However, near infrared follow up observations of ALFA ZOA sources found in regions of lowest obscuration could reveal whether some of these sources could be objects in which little or no star formation has taken place (“dark galaxies”). We present here the results of ALFA ZOA precursor observations on two patches of sky totaling 140 deg2 (near l = 40°, and l = 192°). We have measured HI parameters for detections from these observations, and cross-correlated with the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED). A significant fraction of the objects have never been detected at any wavelength. For those galaxies that have been previously detected, a significant fraction have no previously known redshift, and no previous HI detection.
Ocular disease is the commonest disabling consequence of toxoplasma infection. Incidence and
lifetime risk of ocular symptoms were determined by ascertaining affected patients in a
population-based, active reporting study involving ophthalmologists serving a population of 7·4
million. Eighty-seven symptomatic episodes were attributed to toxoplasma infection. Bilateral
visual acuity of 6/12 or less was found in seven episodes (8%) and was likely to have been
transient in most cases. Black people born in West Africa had a 100-fold higher incidence of
symptoms than white people born in Britain. Only two patients reported symptoms before 10
years of age. The estimated lifetime risk of symptoms in British born individuals (52% of all
episodes) was 18/100000 (95% confidence interval: 10·8–25·2). The low risk and mild
symptoms in an unscreened British population indicate limited potential benefits of prenatal or
postnatal screening. The late age at presentation suggests a mixed aetiology of postnatally
acquired and congenital infection for which primary prevention may be appropriate,
particularly among West Africans.
Abstract: We compare here multi-photon excitation microscopy and tandem scanning reflected light confocal microscopy for the microscopic observation of human skin in vivo. Multi-photon excitation is induced by a 80-MHz pulse train of femtosecond laser pulses at 780 nm wavelength. This nonlinear microscopic technique is inherently suitable for tissue fluorescence imaging because of its deeper penetration depth and lower specimen photodamage. This technique has noninvasively obtained tissue structural information in human epidermis and dermis. Alternatively, tandem scanning confocal light microscopy based on a white light source can provide video-rate image acquisition with high resolution and high contrast. Reflected light confocal methods have been used to obtain images from the skin surface to the epidermal–dermal junction. The relative merits of these two techniques can be identified by comparing three-dimensionally resolved images obtained from the forearm skin of the same volunteer.
The seasonality and factors associated with Cryptosporidium
infection were assessed in a cohort
of HIV-infected patients in Los Angeles County to better define the epidemiology
cryptosporidiosis among individuals with HIV. Data were analysed from a
cohort of 4247
patients [ges ]13 years of age with HIV infection enrolled from four outpatient
facilities in Los
Angeles, 1990–6. Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in 120 (2·8%)
patients. Among the 1296 individuals with complete follow-up until death,
cryptosporidiosis occurred in 69 (5·3%). The
seasonal rate of cryptosporidiosis showed a modest bimodal trend with the
occurring in March–May and September–October. There
was no difference in the rate of
cryptosporidiosis for the periods of heaviest rainfall (December–March)
and low rainfall
(April–November). Infection rates were higher among males
(1·59 per 100 person-years) than
females (0·92) and lower in blacks (0·98) than other
racial/ethnic groups (1·80). A significant
trend of decreasing cryptosporidiosis was observed with increasing age,
with the highest rate
(2·34) in the 13–34 year age group. A strong association
between cryptosporidiosis and
CD4+ count was noted. These data suggest that cryptosporidiosis
among HIV-infected individuals in
Los Angeles County exhibits a modest spring and fall seasonality. This
pattern of occurrence
of cryptosporidiosis appears temporally unrelated to local rainfall patterns.
suggest that HIV-infected men, individuals in younger age groups and those
CD4+ lymphocyte counts <100×106/l are at
increased risk of cryptosporidiosis. Blacks with HIV
infection appear less likely than other racial/ethnic groups to be
Cryptosporidium infection. These results may provide insight into
possible routes of
transmission and sources of cryptosporidiosis infection in individuals
Wool growth, staple strength and fibre diameter are reduced during pregnancy and lactation. This may be due to the increased requirement for protein for foetal growth, udder development and milk production causing a lack of amino acids for wool. Responses in wool production, ewe live weight, lamb birth weight and growth, plasma amino acids and levels of cortisol, insulin and growth hormone were measured when different sources of protein were offered. Either lupin seed (L), fish meal (F) or formaldehyde-treated egg white (E) were included in an oaten hay-based diet offered during the final 3 weeks of pregnancy and first 3 weeks of lactation. Provision of diets containing E or F resulted in significant (P < 0·001) increases in wool growth and trends towards increased staple strength (4 to 6 N/ktex) and clean fleece weights (0·17 to 0·38 kg) compared with the sheep given L. Feeding the E diet increased the concentration of cystine in plasma and sulphur in wool in late pregnancy. Feeding the F diet increased the concentrations of arginine, histidine, lysine and threonine in plasma in early lactation. Ewes given E had higher circulating insulin and increased insulin resistance, compared with sheep given L, on 2 of the 4 days of sampling during pregnancy and lactation during the treatment period. There were no treatment effects on lamb birth weight or growth but ewes given the E diet were significantly (P < 0·05, 3·3 kg) heavier than the ewes given L after 3 weeks of lactation. The results indicate that a lack of protein available for absorption in the small intestine causes reduced wool growth during late pregnancy and early lactation. Wool growth is more sensitive to a reduced protein supply than foetal growth, maternal weight or milk production.
It is the contention of Latash & Anson (L&A) that in atypical populations, such as those with cognitive, central neurological, or peripheral disorders, the central nervous system (CNS) is capable of producing more effective, though often less “normal,” movement patterns ifleft to its own devices. It is the aim of this commentary to extend their argument to other populations by pointing out the many parallels with development of movement patterns in sport.