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Using the framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), this pioneering book provides the first comprehensive account of Korean grammar, building foundations for an engagement with Korean texts across a range of spoken and written registers and genres. It treats grammar as a meaning-making resource, comprising experiential resources for construing reality, interpersonal resources for enacting social relations, textual resources for composing coherent discourse, and logical resources for linking clauses. It deals not only with clause systems and structures but also focuses on their realisation as groups and phrases (and clause rank particles), and the realisation of these groups and phrases in words (including clitics and relevant suffixation). Its concluding chapter demonstrates how this grammar can be applied – for teaching Korean as a foreign language and for translation and interpreting studies. This book is essential reading for scholars and students of Asian languages and linguistics and functional approaches to grammar description.
Learn to solve the unprecedented challenges facing Online Learning and Adaptive Signal Processing in this concise, intuitive text. The ever-increasing amount of data generated every day requires new strategies to tackle issues such as: combining data from a large number of sensors; improving spectral usage, utilizing multiple-antennas with adaptive capabilities; or learning from signals placed on graphs, generating unstructured data. Solutions to all of these and more are described in a condensed and unified way, enabling you to expose valuable information from data and signals in a fast and economical way. The up-to-date techniques explained here can be implemented in simple electronic hardware, or as part of multi-purpose systems. Also featuring alternative explanations for online learning, including newly developed methods and data selection, and several easily implemented algorithms, this one-of-a-kind book is an ideal resource for graduate students, researchers, and professionals in online learning and adaptive filtering.
Cultivation of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), an important crop in the eastern part of North America, is unique as it is done over the course of two consecutive growing seasons. Pest management, and in particular weed management, is impacted by the biennial cultural practice. The choice of methods to control weeds is limited and such a system relies heavily on herbicides for weed management. Availability of unique herbicide active ingredients for weed management is limited, and ones that are available are repeatedly used and the risk of developing resistance is acute. Hair fescue (Festuca filiformis Pourr.), a perennial grass weed, has evolved resistance to hexazinone, a frequently used photosystem II inhibitor in lowbush blueberry production. We show that substitution of phenylalanine to isoleucine at position 255 is responsible for a decreased sensitivity to hexazinone by a factor of 6.12. Early diagnosis of resistance based on the detection of the mutation will inform growers to use alternative control methods and thus help to increase the sustainability of the cropping system.
Stochastic models of varying complexity have been proposed to describe the dispersion of particles in turbulent flows, from simple Brownian motion to complex temporally and spatially correlated models. A method is needed to compare competing models, accounting for the difficulty in estimating the additional parameters that more complex models typically introduce. We employ a data-driven method, Bayesian model comparison, which assigns probabilities to competing models based on their ability to explain observed data. We focus on the comparison between the Brownian and Langevin dynamics for particles in two-dimensional isotropic turbulence, with data that consist of sequences of particle positions obtained from simulated Lagrangian trajectories. We show that, while on sufficiently large time scales the models are indistinguishable, there is a range of time scales on which the Langevin model outperforms the Brownian model. While our set-up is highly idealised, the methodology developed is applicable to more complex flows and models of particle dynamics.
Following indirect-drive experiments which demonstrated promising performance for low convergence ratios (below 17), previous direct-drive simulations identified a fusion-relevant regime which is expected to be robust to hydrodynamic instability growth. This paper expands these results with simulated implosions at lower energies of 100 and 270 kJ, and ‘hydrodynamic equivalent’ capsules which demonstrate comparable convergence ratio, implosion velocity and in-flight aspect ratio without the need for cryogenic cooling, which would allow the assumptions of one-dimensional-like performance to be tested on current facilities. A range of techniques to improve performance within this regime are then investigated, including the use of two-colour and deep ultraviolet laser pulses. Finally, further simulations demonstrate that the deposition of electron energy into the hotspot of a low convergence ratio implosion through auxiliary heating also leads to significant increases in yield. Results include break even for 1.1 MJ of total energy input (including an estimated 370 kJ of short-pulse laser energy to produce electron beams for the auxiliary heating), but are found to be highly dependent upon the efficiency with which electron beams can be created and transported to the hotspot to drive the heating mechanism.
The impact of secondary fluorescence on the material compositions measured by X-ray analysis for layered semiconductor thin films is assessed using simulations performed by the DTSA-II and CalcZAF software tools. Three technologically important examples are investigated: AlxGa1−xN layers on either GaN or AlN substrates, InxAl1−xN on GaN, and Si-doped (SnxGa1−x)2O3 on Si. Trends in the differences caused by secondary fluorescence are explained in terms of the propensity of different elements to reabsorb either characteristic or bremsstrahlung X-rays and then to re-emit the characteristic X-rays used to determine composition of the layer under investigation. Under typical beam conditions (7–12 keV), the quantification of dopants/trace elements is found to be susceptible to secondary fluorescence and care must be taken to prevent erroneous results. The overall impact on major constituents is shown to be very small with a change of approximately 0.07 molar cation percent for Al0.3Ga0.7N/AlN layers and a maximum change of 0.08 at% in the Si content of (SnxGa1−x)2O3/Si layers. This provides confidence that previously reported wavelength-dispersive X-ray compositions are not compromised by secondary fluorescence.
A comparison of computer-extracted and facility-reported counts of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients for public health reporting at 36 hospitals revealed 42% of days with matching counts between the data sources. Miscategorization of suspect cases was a primary driver of discordance. Clear reporting definitions and data validation facilitate emerging disease surveillance.
Response to lithium in patients with bipolar disorder is associated with clinical and transdiagnostic genetic factors. The predictive combination of these variables might help clinicians better predict which patients will respond to lithium treatment.
To use a combination of transdiagnostic genetic and clinical factors to predict lithium response in patients with bipolar disorder.
This study utilised genetic and clinical data (n = 1034) collected as part of the International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLi+Gen) project. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were computed for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, and then combined with clinical variables using a cross-validated machine-learning regression approach. Unimodal, multimodal and genetically stratified models were trained and validated using ridge, elastic net and random forest regression on 692 patients with bipolar disorder from ten study sites using leave-site-out cross-validation. All models were then tested on an independent test set of 342 patients. The best performing models were then tested in a classification framework.
The best performing linear model explained 5.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response and was composed of clinical variables, PRS variables and interaction terms between them. The best performing non-linear model used only clinical variables and explained 8.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response. A priori genomic stratification improved non-linear model performance to 13.7% (P = 0.0001) and improved the binary classification of lithium response. This model stratified patients based on their meta-polygenic loadings for major depressive disorder and schizophrenia and was then trained using clinical data.
Using PRS to first stratify patients genetically and then train machine-learning models with clinical predictors led to large improvements in lithium response prediction. When used with other PRS and biological markers in the future this approach may help inform which patients are most likely to respond to lithium treatment.
To characterise the use of peripherally inserted central catheters in paediatric cardiac patients and to identify risk factors associated with their complications.
Materials and Methods:
Observational retrospective cohort study in paediatric cardiac patients who underwent peripherally inserted central catheter placement in a tertiary children’s hospital from January 2000 to June 2018.
1822 cardiac patients underwent 2952 peripherally inserted central catheter placements in the study period. Median age was 29 days, with survival to hospital discharge of 96.4%. Successful placement achieved 94.5% of attempts, with a median line duration of 12 days. Factors associated with successful placement were the use of general anaesthesia (odds ratio 7.52, p < 0.001) and year of placement (odds ratio 1.08, p < 0.001). The incidence of complications was 28.6%, with thrombosis/occlusion being the most frequent (33%). Thrombosis/occlusion were associated with two and three lumens (odds ratio 1.96, p < 0.001 and 4.63, p = 0.037, respectively). Lines placed by interventional radiology had decreased infiltration (odds ratio 0.20, p = 0.002) and lower migration/malposition (odds ratio 0.36, p < 0.001). The use of maintenance intravenous fluids (odds ratio 3.98, p = 0.008) and peripheral tip position (odds ratio 3.82, p = 0.001) were associated with increased infiltration. The probability of infection decreased over time (odds ratio 0.79, p < 0.001).
Peripherally inserted central catheters in paediatric cardiac patients have complication rates similar to other paediatric populations. A prospective assessment of the factors associated with their complications in this patient population may be beneficial in improving outcomes.
Multiple micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in Ethiopia. However, the distribution of Se and Zn deficiency risks has previously shown evidence of spatially dependent variability, warranting the need to explore this aspect for wider micronutrients. Here, blood serum concentrations for Ca, Mg, Co, Cu and Mo were measured (n 3102) on samples from the Ethiopian National Micronutrient Survey. Geostatistical modelling was used to test spatial variation of these micronutrients for women of reproductive age, who represent the largest demographic group surveyed (n 1290). Median serum concentrations were 8·6 mg dl−1 for Ca, 1·9 mg dl−1 for Mg, 0·4 µg l−1 for Co, 98·8 µg dl−1 for Cu and 0·2 µg dl−1 for Mo. The prevalence of Ca, Mg and Co deficiency was 41·6 %, 29·2 % and 15·9 %, respectively; Cu and Mo deficiency prevalence was 7·6 % and 0·3 %, respectively. A higher prevalence of Ca, Cu and Mo deficiency was observed in north western, Co deficiency in central and Mg deficiency in north eastern parts of Ethiopia. Serum Ca, Mg and Mo concentrations show spatial dependencies up to 140–500 km; however, there was no evidence of spatial correlations for serum Co and Cu concentrations. These new data indicate the scale of multiple mineral micronutrient deficiency in Ethiopia and the geographical differences in the prevalence of deficiencies suggesting the need to consider targeted responses during the planning of nutrition intervention programmes.
To review existing publications using Household Consumption and Expenditure Survey (HCES) data to estimate household dietary nutrient supply to (1) describe scope of available literature, (2) identify the metrics reported and parameters used to construct these metrics, (3) summarise comparisons between estimates derived from HCES and individual dietary assessment data and (4) explore the demographic and socio-economic sub-groups used to characterise risks of nutrient inadequacy.
This study is a systematic review of publications identified from online databases published between 2000 to 2019 that used HCES food consumption data to estimate household dietary nutrient supply. Further publications were identified by ‘snowballing’ the references of included database-identified publications.
Publications using data from low- and lower-middle income countries.
In total, fifty-eight publications were included. Three metrics were reported that characterised household dietary nutrient supply: apparent nutrient intake per adult-male equivalent per day (n 35), apparent nutrient intake per capita per day (n 24) and nutrient density (n 5). Nutrient intakes were generally overestimated using HCES food consumption data, with several studies finding sizeable discrepancies compared with intake estimates based on individual dietary assessment methods. Sub-group analyses predominantly focused on measuring variation in household dietary nutrient supply according to socio-economic position and geography.
HCES data are increasingly being used to assess diets across populations. More research is needed to inform the development of a framework to guide the use of and qualified interpretation of dietary assessments based on these data.
Social anxiety (SA), a prevalent comorbid condition in psychotic disorders with a negative impact on functioning, requires adequate intervention relatively early. Using a randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of a group cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention for SA (CBT-SA) that we developed for youth who experienced the first episode of psychosis (FEP). For our primary outcome, we hypothesized that compared to the active control of group cognitive remediation (CR), the CBT-SA group would show a reduction in SA that would be maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. For secondary outcomes, it was hypothesized that the CBT-SA group would show a reduction of positive and negative symptoms and improvements in recovery and functioning.
Ninety-six patients with an FEP and SA, recruited from five different FEP programs in the Montreal area, were randomized to 13 weekly group sessions of either CBT-SA or CR intervention.
Linear mixed models revealed that multiple measures of SA significantly reduced over time, but with no significant group differences. Positive and negative symptoms, as well as functioning improved over time, with negative symptoms and functioning exhibiting a greater reduction in the CBT-SA group.
While SA decreased over time with both interventions, a positive effect of the CBT-SA intervention on measures of negative symptoms, functioning, and self-reported recovery at follow-up suggests that our intervention had a positive effect that extended beyond symptoms specific to SA.
To reduce children’s sugar-sweetened beverage intake, California’s Healthy-By-Default Beverage law (SB1192) mandates only unflavoured dairy/non-dairy milk or water be the default drinks with restaurant children’s meals. The objective of this study is to examine consistency with this law for meals sold through online platforms from restaurants in low-income California neighbourhoods.
This observational, cross-sectional study examines beverage availability, upcharges (additional cost) and presentation of beverage options consistent with SB1192 (using four increasingly restrictive criteria) within a random sample of quick-service restaurants (QSR) in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education eligible census tracts selling children’s meals online from November 2020 to April 2021.
Low-income California neighbourhoods (n 226 census tracts).
QSR that sold children’s meals online via a restaurant-specific platform, DoorDash, GrubHub and/or UberEats (n 631 observations from 254 QSR).
Seventy percent of observations offered water; 63 % offered unflavoured milk. Among all beverages, water was most likely to have an upcharge; among observations offering water (n 445), 41 % had an upcharge (average $0·51). Among observations offering unflavoured milk (n 396), 11 % had an upcharge (average $0·38). No observations upcharged for soda (regular or diet). Implementation consistency with SB1192 ranged from 40·5 % (using the least restrictive criteria) to 5·6 % (most restrictive) of observations.
Based on observations from restaurant websites and three of the most popular online ordering platforms, most California QSR located in low-income neighbourhoods are not offering children’s meal beverages consistent with the state’s Healthy-By-Default Beverage law. As the popularity of online ordering increases, further work to ensure restaurants offering healthy default beverages with children’s meals sold online is necessary.
This paper introduces the concept of Natural Capital and explores the implications for actuarial work by way of case studies. It is part of a wider series of IFoA papers focussing on the risks from global biodiversity loss and how these risks can be mitigated.
This paper expands the range of scenarios usually explored in integrated assessment models by exploring unconventional economic scenarios (steady-state and degrowth) and assuming no use of negative emissions. It is shown, using a mathematical model of climate and economy, that keeping cumulative emissions within the 1.5 degree carbon budget is possible under all growth assumptions, assuming a rapid electrification of end use and an immediate upscaling of renewable energy investments. Under business-as-usual investment assumptions no economic trajectory corresponds with emissions reductions consistent with the 1.5 degree carbon budget.
This paper presents a stock-flow consistent input–output integrated assessment model designed to explore the dual dynamics of transitioning to renewable energy while electrifying end use subject a carbon budget constraint. Unlike the majority of conventional integrated assessment model analyses, this paper does not assume the deployment of carbon dioxide removal and examines the role that alternative economic pathways (steady-states and degrowth) may play in achieving 1.5°C consistent emissions pathways. The model is internally calibrated based on a life-cycle energy return on investment scheme and the energy transition dynamics are captured via a dynamic input–output formulation. Renewable energy investment as a fraction of gross domestic product for successful emissions pathways reaches 5%. In terms of new capital requirements and investments, degrowth trajectories impose lower transition requirements than steady-state and growth trajectories.
Social media summary
We explore the role that steady-state and degrowth economic trajectories may play in emissions reductions consistent with a 1.5 degree world..
Evidence of Late Triassic large tetrapods from the UK is rare. Here, we describe a track-bearing surface located on the shoreline near Penarth, south Wales, United Kingdom. The total exposed surface is c. 50 m long and c. 2 m wide, and is split into northern and southern sections by a small fault. We interpret these impressions as tracks, rather than abiogenic sedimentary structures, because of the possession of marked displacement rims and their relationship to each other with regularly spaced impressions forming putative trackways. The impressions are large (up to c. 50 cm in length), but poorly preserved, and retain little information about track-maker anatomy. We discuss alternative, plausible, abiotic mechanisms that might have been responsible for the formation of these features, but reject them in favour of these impressions being tetrapod tracks. We propose that the site is an additional occurrence of the ichnotaxon Eosauropus, representing a sauropodomorph trackmaker, thereby adding a useful new datum to their sparse Late Triassic record in the UK. We also used historical photogrammetry to digitally map the extent of site erosion during 2009–2020. More than 1 m of the surface exposure has been lost over this 11-year period, and the few tracks present in both models show significant smoothing, breakage and loss of detail. These tracks are an important datapoint for Late Triassic palaeontology in the UK, even if they cannot be confidently assigned to a specific trackmaker. The documented loss of the bedding surface highlights the transient and vulnerable nature of our fossil resources, particularly in coastal settings, and the need to gather data as quickly and effectively as possible.
Patient and public involvement (PPI) plays a crucial role in ensuring research is carried out in conjunction with the people that it will impact upon. In this article, we present our experiences and reflections from working collaboratively with patients and public through the lifetime of an National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) programme grant; the Chronic Headache Education and Self-management Study (CHESS) which took place between 2015 and 2020.
PPI over the course of CHESS:
We worked closely with three leading UK migraine charities and a lay advisory group throughout the programme. We followed NIHR standards and used the Guidance for Reporting Involvement of Patients and the Public checklist. We consulted our PPI contacts using a variety of methods depending on the phase of the study and the nature of the request. This included emails, discussions, and face-to-face contact.
PPI members contributed throughout the study in the programme development, in the grant application, ethics documentation, and trial oversight. During the feasibility study; in supporting the development of a classification interview for chronic headache by participating in a headache classification conference, assessing the relevance, and acceptability of patient-reported outcome measures by helping to analyse cognitive interview data, and testing the smartphone application making suggestions on how best to present the summary of data collected for participants. Due to PPI contribution, the content and duration of the study intervention were adapted and a Delphi study with consensus meeting developed a core outcome set for migraine studies.
The involvement of the public and patients in CHESS has allowed us to shape its overall design, intervention development, and establish a core outcome set for future migraine studies. We have reflected on many learning points for the future application of PPI.
A surrogate model, also known as a response surface model or metamodel, is an approximate model of a functional output that represents a “curve fit” to some underlying data. The goal of a surrogate model is to build a model that is much faster to compute than the original function, but that still retains sufficient accuracy away from known data points.