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Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (P<0.05) myofibrillar and total protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality.
Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.
Insight into dynamic electrochemical processes can be obtained with in situ electrochemical-scanning/transmission electron microscopy (ec-S/TEM), a technique that utilizes microfluidic electrochemical cells to characterize electrochemical processes with S/TEM imaging, diffraction, or spectroscopy. The microfluidic electrochemical cell is composed of microfabricated devices with glassy carbon and platinum microband electrodes in a three-electrode cell configuration. To establish the validity of this method for quantitative in situ electrochemistry research, cyclic voltammetry (CV), choronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed using a standard one electron transfer redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−-based electrolyte. Established relationships of the electrode geometry and microfluidic conditions were fitted with CV and chronoamperometic measurements of analyte diffusion coefficients and were found to agree with well-accepted values that are on the order of 10−5 cm2/s. Influence of the electron beam on electrochemical measurements was found to be negligible during CV scans where the current profile varied only within a few nA with the electron beam on and off, which is well within the hysteresis between multiple CV scans. The combination of experimental results provides a validation that quantitative electrochemistry experiments can be performed with these small-scale microfluidic electrochemical cells provided that accurate geometrical electrode configurations, diffusion boundary layers, and microfluidic conditions are accounted for.
The giant magnetoresistance effect in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Cr Multilayers has been attributed to spin dependent scattering at the interfaces between the constituents. One possible source of this spin dependent scattering is chromium impurities in the iron layers due to intermixing at the interfaces. Annealing the films can promote the diffusion of the components, increasing the impurity concentration and therefore the Magnetoresistance. For this study Fe/Cr Multilayers were annealed at several temperatures and for several durations. Annealing at moderate temperatures (∼ 350°C) increases the Magnetoresistance, while higher temperature anneals (∼ 600°C) cause the magnetoresistance to disappear completely. Long anneals at 330°C (> 100 hours) also reduce the Magnetoresistance. VSM Measurements indicate that the antiferromagnetic coupling is reduced in the annealed samples but show no evidence of Magnetically “dead” alloy layers. Low angle X-ray diffraction indicates that the structural effect of annealing is very subtle in comparison to the significant magnetic effect.
Damage in single crystal ß-SiC(100) as a result of ion bombardment has been studied using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and cross-section transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM). Samples were implanted with 123 keV 27Al at liquid nitrogen temperature. RBS spectra for He channeling in the (110) axis at 45° were obtained as a function of implantation dose to determine damage accumulation. X-TEM was used to characterize damage structure for selected doses. The surface of the SiC becomes amorphous for doses greater than 1 x 1015 /cm 2. At lower doses, significant uniaxial lattice strain along the (100) direction is suggested by comparison of RBS channeling spectra obtained for several high index axes. High resolution TEM on a sample implanted at 4 x 1014 /cm2 shows no damage structure in the surface region; lattice damage in a broad layer centered roughly at the depth of highest energy deposition is characterized by small amorphous pockets in a crystalline matrix. Qualitatively similar backscattering results were obtained for other elements implanted at room and liquid nitrogen temperature.
Pulsed laser annealing and ion beam mixing have been used as surface modification techniques to enhance the physical properties of polycrystalline α-SiC. Thin Ni overlayers (20 nm - 100 nm) were evaporated onto the SiC surface. The specimens were subsequently irradiated with pulses of a ruby or krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser or bombarded with high energy Xe+ or Si+ ions. Both processes are non-equilibrium methods and each has been shown to induce unique microstructural changes at the SiC surface which are not attainable by conventional thermal treatments. Under particular (and optimum) processing conditions, these changes considerably increased the mechanical properties of the SiC; following laser irradiation, the fracture strength of the SiC was increased by as much as 50%, but after ion beam mixing, no strength increase was observed.
High resolution cross-section transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Rutherford backscattering techniques were used to characterize the extent of mixing between the Ni and the SiC as a result of the surface modification.
Thin films of β SiC have been grown epitaxically onto on axis (0001) 6H α SiC substrates using ion beam deposition. The ion beam deposition technique involves the direct deposition of alternating layers of 13C+ and 30Si+. The carbon and silicon ions were obtained from an ion implanter by decelerating mass analyzed ion beams to 40 eV. The SiC substrate was held at ∼973 K. Thin films of α-SiC (a mixture of α- polytypes) were obtained following deposition onto off axis (∼2°) 6H α-SiC. High resolution electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering techniques were used to determine the structure and crystalline perfection of the resulting layers.
Chemical vapor deposition has been utilized to produce ternary, multiphase coatings of various compositions of silicon carbide (SiC) with Ti, Cr, and Mo. Thermodynamic calculations have been performed for a variety of experimental conditions in each system. Scanning, transmission and analytical electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to characterize the microstructures and to determine compositions.