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We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is controversial. We examined the H. pylori infection rate in 78 patients in a hospital in Surabaya using five different tests, including culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urease test, and urine antibody test. Furthermore, we analysed virulence factors in H. pylori strains from Indonesia. The H. pylori infection rate was only 11·5% in all patients studied, and 2·3% of Javanese patients and 18·0% of Chinese patients were infected (P = 0·01). Although severe gastritis was not observed, activity and inflammation were significantly higher in patients positive for H. pylori than in patients negative for H. pylori. Among genotypes identified from five isolated strains, cagA was found in four; two were vacA s1m1. All cagA-positive strains were oipA ‘on’ and iceA1 positive. We confirmed both a low H. pylori infection rate and a low prevalence of precancerous lesions in dyspeptic patients in a Surabaya hospital, which may contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer in Indonesia.
The mechanical properties and deformation behavior of each constituent layer of multilayered steel composites were examined using microtensile testing. Three-layered integrated steels consisting of SUS420 and SPCC (cold-reduced carbon steel sheets) were fabricated by a cold-rolling process. Different heat treatment processes were used to prepare three types of specimens (as-rolled, 823K-2 min heat-treated, and 823K-500 min heat-treated), and the effect of heat treatment on their mechanical properties was investigated. In the as-rolled specimens, the average tensile strengths in the SUS420 and SPCC layers were 1063 and 606 MPa, respectively, while in the specimens heat-treated for 500 min, they were 680 and 451 MPa, respectively. The tensile strength decreased with the increase in the heat treatment time. The tensile strength of the specimens was also calculated by using the rule of mixture. For the as-rolled specimens and the 823K-2 min heat-treated specimens, the calculated value was consistent with the measured value; however, for the 823K-500 min heat-treated specimens, the calculated value was lower than the measured value. This result suggests that the necking of this layered structure was effectively obstructed by the outer ductile layer. The micromechanical characterization technique used in this study is useful not only for investigating deformation behavior but also for designing multilayered steel composites with superior mechanical properties.
This paper presents microcrystalline silicon (μ c-Si:H) p-i-n (superstrate-type) solar cells fabricated by 100 MHz plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at i-layer deposition rates of >2 nm/s. Under high-rate conditions, in particular, the deposition pressure is found to play a dominant role in determining short circuit current (Jsc) of solar cell. With anincrease in deposition pressure from 3 to 7-9 Torr, Jsc increases by more than 50% due to a significant improvement in the long wavelength (>600 nm) responses, which essentially leads to high efficiency (∼8%) solar cells in the 2-3 nm/s deposition rate range. Further progress in solar cell efficiency has been made by the improvement of TCO/p and p/i interfaces. As a result, efficiency reaches 9.13% (Jsc=23.7 mA/cm2,Voc=0.528 V,FF=0.73) with a 2.3μm-thick i-layer grown at 2.3 nm/s. Transmission electron microscopy and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy studies reveal that samples prepared at lower pressure (∼4 Torr) comprise many grain boundaries due to disordered grain growth, which induces an anomalous incorporation of atmospheric impurities (predominantly oxygen) after exposing sample to air. In contrast, the high-pressure process (<7 Torr) provides denser grain columns coalesced with -oriented crystallites, which in turn inhibits impurities from penetrating deeper in the film. Based on above results, we propose that the less post-oxidation behavior associated with the denser microstructure of high-pressure-grown μc-Si:H is responsible for the excellent charge collection in p-i-n solar cells.
We describe the performance of an amorphous silicon imaging system designed for high speed (>10 frames/sec) scanning of a document. The system comprises a new page-sized sensor array with 1536×1920 pixels, an illumination source, and the readout electronics. With appropriate color filters, one can achieve color imaging of a document without the registration problems associated with linear scanners. We describe the color imaging properties and discuss how the color response, sensitivity and uniformity depend on the properties of the amorphous silicon sensors.
The effective temperature definition which combines electric field and lattice temperature is critically discussed based on dark conductivity and drift mobility data measured over a wide range of temperature (10 K ≤ T ≤ 300 K) and electric field (102 V/cm ≤ F ≤ 6×105 V/cm). The reasonable values for the localisation lengths of electrons (αe ≡ 7–8 A) and holes (αh, ≡ 4 A) as well as the overall good agreement between predicted and deduced features support the effective temperature concept. A statistical transit time equation for transport at low temperature and high field is given and discussed based on time-of-flight data measured at T = 40 K.
The combination of a-Si low leakage pixel TFTs with poly-Si TFTs in peripheral circuits provides an excellent method for reducing the number of external connections to large-area imaging arrays and displays. To integrate the fabrication of the peripheral poly-Si TFTs with the a-Si pixel TFTs, we have developed a three-step laser process which enables selective crystallization of PECVD a-Si:H. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that the polycrystalline grains formed with this three-step process are similar to those crystallized by a conventional one step laser crystallization of unhydrogenated amorphous silicon. The grain size increases with increasing laser energy density up to a peak value of a few Microns. The grain size decreases with further increases in laser energy density. The transistor field effect mobility is correlated with the grain size, increasing gradually with laser energy density until reaching its maximum value. Thereafter, the transistors suffer from leakage through the gate insulators. A dual dielectric gate insulator has been developed for these bottom-gate thin film transistors to provide the correct threshold voltages for both a-Si and poly-Si TFTs.
Dark current-voltage characteristics of one hundred twenty single-junction a-Si:H alloy solar cells were studied. Parametric Modelling of dark I-V Measurements was used to determine some of the cell parameters. Average shunt resistances were 31 to 1200 kΩ for intrinsic layer thicknesses of 200 to 800 nm, respectively. Current switching was observed during dark I-V Measurements; the current in the reverse-bias region varies approximately as the square of the voltage following the onset of switching. The I-V characteristics in the switched mode are not understood. Voltage history and scan rate play a role in dark I-V characteristics.
A new dual-plasma (surface wave-coupled microwave and capacitively-coupled radiofrequency) PECVD reactor for high growth rate of Amorphous insulating alloys is being developped. A high flexibility for thin film materials synthesis is expected, because the energy of the ion bombardment can be monitored independently from the microwave plasma chemistry. In situ diagnostics (Optical EMission Spectroscopy and Spectroscopie Ellipsometry) are used for the optimization of the dual-Mode plasma deposition of hydrogenated Amorphous silicon a-Si:H and silicon oxides a-SiOx:H (with 0 ≤ × ≤ 2). The growth of stoichiometric oxide at 3.3 nm / s has been achieved.
Time resolved mass spectrometry and the measurement of appearance potentials of various GeH -cationic fragments combined with selfconsistent theoretical modelling have been used to study the mechanism of plasma induced deposition of germanium. It is shown, that the high rate deposition occurs via germylene, GeH as the direct precursor. Digermane May play some role only at low deposition rates. Although we could reproduce the best values of theμτ product reported so far, no further improvement could be achieved.
A new tight-binding molecular dynamics approach for Si-H systems is developed using the valence orbitale of Si and H for calculation of atomic forces. Previous tight-binding models are not able to describe formation energies of different charge states of H in c-Si and new physics is introduced in our model to describe both effects of charge transfer and varying atomic environments. The Si-H Model was developed by fitting to silane, and ensuring that the formation energies of different charge states of H in c-Si were correctly described. This new model also describes well vibrational properties of SiHn configurations, and the structural and electronic properties of a-Si:H Models. The new molecular dynamics utilizes quantum mechanical forces, incorporating important electronic effects, and is robust enough to simulate hundreds of atoms as would be needed in realistic a-Si:H systems.
In this paper we present new results for very thin <p> μc-Si:H films (< 350 Å) deposited at low temperature (170 C) by the Very High Frequency - Glow Discharge technique (VHF-GD) at 70 MHz. First, the effect of boron doping on the growth and electrical properties of μc-Si:H very thin films is investigated, leading to an optimised value of about 0.6 % (B2H6/SiH4). Structural properties of an optimised thickness series ranging from 100 to 350 Å are studied using TEM, Raman, grazing angle X-ray diffraction/reflection and spectroscopie ellipsometry. Further, a columnar structure growth model for these very thin <p>-type μc-Si:H films will be proposed.
We report results of stability tests of 4 ft2 triple-junction a-Si alloy photovoltaic (PV) Modules. These Modules were produced in ECD's 2 Megawatt (MW) continuous, roll-to-roll PV Manufacturing line during the early stage of optimization. The stable module efficiency after 600 hours of 1 sun light soaking at approximately 50°C under load, is 8%. This is the highest stable efficiency for large area (≥4 ft2) a-Si alloy PV Modules Made in a production line.
Measurements of the optical, electronic and 1/f noise properties for a series of n-type doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide thin films with varying gas phase concentrations of CH4 are described. The increase in the optical absorption edge of the n-type a-SiCx:H films with the addition of carbon is slower than in p-type films. Studies of the variation in the non-Gaussian statistics which characterize the 1/f noise indicate that the disorder at the mobility edge is greater for films with higher carbon concentrations.
Previous measurements of local hydrogen motion in intrinsic, doped, and compensated hydrogenated Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) using the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) dipolar echo method have shown that the local hydrogen motion is much faster than the macroscopic diffusion would indicate but that the local motion follows the same trends with doping and defect density as the macroscopic diffusion. We report the effect of light soaking on the local motion of hydrogen in hydrogenated Amorphous silicon. Measurements are presented on 10−3 P-doped a-Si:H at 297 K. After light soaking with infrared-filtered, white light of intensity -400 MW/cm2 for 75 hours, the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin density increases to -101 spins/cm After light soaking 1H NMR dipolar echo measurements on this sample show that the dipolar spin-lattice relaxation time, T1D, is ∼4 Ms. After thermal annealing at 190 C for two hours the value of T1Dreturns to its pre-irradiation value of ∼ 11 Ms. The local rate of motion, which scales with TID-1 thus increases with the paramagnetic defect density. The general implications of this result for descriptions of both microscopic and macroscopic Motion of hydrogen in a-Si:H are discussed.
Steady-state photoconductivity, sub-bandgap absorption and electron spin resonance (ESR) Measurements were carried out on annealed and light soaked intrinsic hydrogenated Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films. The experimental results were modeled using detailed numerical Model. The defect densities derived from the sub-bandgap absorption in the light soaked films were correlated with the ESR spin densities. Selfconsistent fitting of the data was obtained using a gap state distribution which consists of positively charged defect states above, negatively charged defect states below and neutral defect states at about Midgap. Both the annealed and the light degraded states are modeled using the same distribution of gap states whose densities increase upon light soaking with a slight increase in the ratio of the neutral to charged defect densities. These results on intrinsic a-Si:H are consistent with those of charged defect Models.
An overview is given on the time and carrier density range covered by steady-state and transient photocarrier grating experiments which are commonly used to determine ambipolar transport parameters. In addition to the optically-detected transient grating method we discuss some details of a new version of the transient grating Method, the electrically-detected transient grating technique (EDTG) applied to hydrogenated Amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films. Numerical simulation shows that the diffusion coefficient is time and intensity dependent as expected for dispersive transport.