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Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) produced and released by eructation to the atmosphere in large volumes by ruminants. Enteric CH4 contributes significantly to global GHG emissions arising from animal agriculture. It has been contended that tropical grasses produce higher emissions of enteric CH4 than temperate grasses, when they are fed to ruminants. A number of experiments have been performed in respiration chambers and head-boxes to assess the enteric CH4 mitigation potential of foliage and pods of tropical plants, as well as nitrates (NO3−) and vegetable oils in practical rations for cattle. On the basis of individual determinations of enteric CH4 carried out in respiration chambers, the average CH4 yield for cattle fed low-quality tropical grasses (>70% ration DM) was 17.0 g CH4/kg DM intake. Results showed that when foliage and ground pods of tropical trees and shrubs were incorporated in cattle rations, methane yield (g CH4/kg DM intake) was decreased by 10% to 25%, depending on plant species and level of intake of the ration. Incorporation of nitrates and vegetable oils in the ration decreased enteric CH4 yield by ∼6% to ∼20%, respectively. Condensed tannins, saponins and starch contained in foliages, pods and seeds of tropical trees and shrubs, as well as nitrates and vegetable oils, can be fed to cattle to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions under smallholder conditions. Strategies for enteric CH4 mitigation in cattle grazing low-quality tropical forages can effectively increase productivity while decreasing enteric CH4 emissions in absolute terms and per unit of product (e.g. meat, milk), thus reducing the contribution of ruminants to GHG emissions and therefore to climate change.
This work presents updates in the diagnostics systems, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations and simulations of microwave heating scenarios of the small modular Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1). Similarly, the design of a flexible bolometer and magnetic diagnostics (a set of Mirnov coils, Rogowski coils and two diamagnetic loops) are introduced. Furthermore, new MHD equilibrium calculations for the plasma of the SCR-1 device were performed using the VMEC code including the poloidal cross-section of the magnetic flux surfaces at different toroidal positions, profiles of the rotational transform, magnetic well, magnetic shear and total magnetic field norm. Charged particle orbits in vacuum magnetic field were computed by the magnetic field solver BS-SOLCTRA (Vargas et al. In 27th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2018), 2018. IAEA). A visualization framework was implemented using Paraview (Solano-Piedra et al. In 23rd IAEA Technical Meeting on the Research Using Small Fusion Devices (23rd TM RUSFD), 2017) and compared with magnetic mapping results (Coto-Vílchez et al. In 16th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), 2017, pp. 43–46). Additionally, simulations of microwave heating scenarios were performed by the IPF-FDMC full-wave code. These simulations calculate the conversion of the ordinary waves to extraordinary waves and allow us to identify the location where the conversion takes place. Finally, the microwave heating scenarios for the
toroidal position are presented. The microwave heating scenarios showed that the O–X–B mode conversion is around 12–14 %. It was possible to identify the spatial zone where the conversion takes place (upper hybrid frequency).
Psychotic diseases in the elderly are underdiagnosed due to the limited use of medical resources. Advanced age makes psychoses of any cause less pure and differentiated, since old age adds a cognitive-impairment component to the basal psychotic defect.
We intend to estimate the prevalence of paranoid symptoms in older patients, and to study the many medical conditions associated with psychosis.
We conducted a literature review and we have performed a review of several clinical trials.
We found 12.1% of paranoid symptoms in the elderly with cognitive impairment. In absence of this factor, we found a prevalence of 14.1% for suspicion tendencies, 6.9% for paranoid thoughts and 5.5% for evident delusions. These figures were significantly higher in old black people.
We present a table of the main medical conditions that can produce psychotic symptoms. Some cases of apparently typical delusional disorder can appear as a long-term complication of some of these diseases. If organic factors are subtle and long lasting, the clinical may reproduce a fairly typical delusional disorder and may respond to treatment with neuroleptic drugs.
It seems possible that organic brain factors are more common that we believe, becoming essential a comprehensive study of the old psychotic patient. We should pay more attention to psychotic symptoms in elderly patients and avoid conclusions based on cross-evaluations. Diagnosis will be defined by evolution in most of the cases.
Migratory mourning has specific features and migration is itself a risk factor for mental health. Basic grieving relate to seven areas: family and friends, language, culture, land, social status, contact with the national group and physical risks, as well as general mourning the failure of the migration project.
We intend to trace the process of acculturation seeking to distinguish its symptoms from those of most common psychiatric disorders.
We conducted a literature review using the National Library of Medicine and PubMed search system.
Adaptation process traces a U-shaped curve. In the second stage called crisis stage may appear rejection or isolation, sadness, crying, sleeplessness, irritability, distrust, recurrent and intrusive thoughts, psychosomatic symptoms (headaches, fatigue, musculoskeletal pain), dissociative and somatoform symptoms. Stress reactions can occur with cognitive fatigue, role and personal shocks.
Ulysses syndrome has features in common with acute stress disorder or adjustment disorder. Differential aspects regarding DSM-IV are: multiple identifiable stressors of high intensity, long duration, cultural interpretations and association of dissociative and somatoform symptoms.
Main observed pathologies are: PTSD, schizophrenia and paranoia, somatization and affective disorders, whose clinical expression is primarily determined by cultural factors.
Professionals should know the different manifestations of mental illness in immigrant population to distinguish them from experiential reactions and to avoid upset psychiatrization and therapeutic nihilism. Ulysses syndrome seems closer to preventive health and psychosocial support areas.
N-acetil-aspartate (NAA) is located inside the soma and dendrites. Its believed to be an indirect indicator of the metabolic activity of these cells. Phosphomonoesters (PME) are involved in synthesis of neuronal membranes and phosphodiesters (PDE) in its degradation. Glutamine, an aminoacid produced by glial cells, is transported into the neurone for its transformation into glutamate and gamma aminobutyric acid.
Review clinical trials performed on schizophrenic patients with SF-MRI, with 31P y 1H, to measure concentration of NAA, PME, PDE and glutamine.
Detecting chemichal alterations that could be used as indicators in schizophrenia.
NAA concentration in temporal and frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients, are significantly lower than in healthy controls. In other trials, differences in NAA concentration (measured in prefrontal cortex) have not been found, comparing patients during their first psychotic episode and healthy controls. Lowered concentrations of PME and increased ones of PDE in prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients have been found. Glutamine levels are increased in schizophrenic patients, being directely correlated with the duration of the process. These levels are reduced when antipsychotic drugs are used.
The decrease on NAA levels at schizophrenia onset and on healthy relatives remark its value as an endophenotypical indicator, but not as an illness indicator. Changes on PME and PDE concentrations cannot be used as illness indicators. The increase on glutamine synthesis could be due to glutamatergic hypofunction in schizophrenic patients, but there are other factors that may cause it, so it cannot be used as an indicator.
Despite the high prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms located around 2-3% of the population, there continue to be cases where the characteristics of the patient or the circumstances of their environment, they fall short queries mental health or when they do not for the disorder itself, but for another reason obsessional symptoms worsen.
Expose using clinical case, the existence of patients with obsessive pathology whose characteristics do not seek mental health consultation, until this is associated with a new disease that interferes significantly in vital organization.
We report the case of a man of 88 years old, married at 60, was admitted to the psychiatric consultation at the request of his wife 29 years his junior, for behavioral disorders several years of evolution and history of obsessive symptoms compulsive, which did not interfere with their daily lives by the lack of insight and poor social environment
OCD is included in anxiety disorders.
It is characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions that interfere with personal, work and / or patient's social.
There are cases that own personality traits of the patient, this disorder is not diagnosed early and choose to go only when associated with worsening cognitive impairment rituals and interfere with family life.
In this exhibition we aim to describe a clinical case and the different consequences that may present additional problems with eating disorders, focusing with emphasis on development and clinical picture. This disorder usually occurs in non-obese adolescents accused, showing symptoms significantly related to interpersonal functioning of these adolescents, who tend to be isolated or seek company of younger guys. They are characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorders related or unrelated to the food. Dietary restriction involves biological and physical changes, highlighting the alteration of hypothalamic and endocrine system, leading to signs and symptoms such as amenorrhea, cold intolerance, hypotension … Neurochemical changes have also been attributed to malnutrition.
The present case is a 31 year old woman. Initiates contact with Mental Health at age 15 by anorexia nervosa. Patient requests for worsening nutritional status, family relationships, and alcohol consumption, being the turning point and main motivation, the birth of his daughter. 8 months ago gave birth, being an unexpected delivery at home. Unaware that pregnancy, justifying as secondary amenorrhea eating disorder and abdominal inflammation malnutrition. Daughter born seven months income requires low weight and withdrawal symptoms during pregnancy as continuous with anxiolytic and antidepressant treatment.
It has a favorable, always maintaining therapeutic commitment announced at the beginning of tratamiento. Currently still in out patient reviews with Psychiatry, Clinical Psychology, Nursing and Nutrition.
Immigration in Spain is from the early ‘90s phenomenon of demographic and economic importance, according to INE, in January 2011 first residing in the country nearly 6.7 million people born outside our borders. In recent years, many immigrants are living in especially difficult circumstances.
Show that these people undergo a series of very specific stressors and duels: precarious and harsh working conditions, poor diet, loneliness and lack of social support… This would enhance the appearance of psychiatric symptoms in various areas, closely related to lifestyles that maintain and in some cases precipitate substance use in this group, primarily those that have a sedative profile.
We will present the clinical case of a 34 year old Nigerian male. No somatic or psychiatric history of interest. Cannabis smoker since adolescence. A year after his arrival in Spain admitted to our inpatient unit due to clinical psychotic. Was a challenge from the point of view of psychopharmacological have many side effects with low doses of typical antipsychotics
Disappearance of psychotic and affective symptoms to approach the case from a pharmacological perspective, social and cultural.
Addressing the relationship between life stressors and cannabis as a trigger or catalyst for psychotic episodes in individuals predisposed. Pathological elaborations of cultural integration of an immigrant (whether by denial of the original culture or over-identification with the host culture) facilitates the use of toxic either for blending with Western consumer culture or cultural consumption radicalization toxic in some East African countries.
Given the high prevalence, severity and difficulty recognizing psychiatric disorders in patients with TBI, it is necessary to conduct a detailed history, gathering information on the location of the lesion and its relationship with the table in the psychopathological examination.
Illustrated by a clinical case, the close relationship between the injury of specific brain areas and the emergence of psychopathology that allows us to deepen the understanding of the biological substrate of mental disorders.
Exposure of a clinical picture and brief literature review of the existing literature.
We report the case of a man of 49 years old, no personal or family history was admitted to the hospital after a traffic accident with severe TBI. Computed tomography (CT) scan shows intraparenquematoso right temporal hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma right, pneumocephalus front right, front left fracture of both orbits and right maxillary sinus.
The interest in the study and the relationship of psychiatric symptoms with the location of the lesions, we can provide improved understanding of the biological basis of mental disorders.
Recently, a renaissance of interest in ‘negative symptoms’ as emotional withdrawal or blunted affect, has occurred. Some investigators believe that these symptoms are important indicators of outcome, of response to treatment and of a distinct underlying pathologic process.
Research on the negative-symptom syndrome in schizophrenia has been handicapped until recently.
This research aims at studying whether acute phase proteins, precisely, Alpha1-glycoprotein, can be considered as a marker of negativesymptom in Schizophrenia.
29 chronic schizophrenics were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). A routine blood test including Alpha1-glycoprotein levels was carried out.
Alpha1-glycoprotein shows a positive correlation, according to Pearson correlation coefficient, with the Negative Scale at an almost significant level (p=.05), and at a significant level in the following items, Blunted affect (p=.03), Passive/apathetic Social Withdrawal (p=.01) of the Negative spectrum and Poor Attention (p=.02) of the General Psychopathology Scale.
There is a significant correlation with two Negative variables and an almost significant one, spite of the small sample, with the Negative Scale. Further studies with bigger samples are needed in order to consider alpha1-glycoprotein as a schizophrenia negative psychopathology marker.
Suicide is a public health problem of the first magnitude for both its costs and its implications for the population. The attention to suicide attempts is itself one of the first reasons for psychiatric consultation, if not the first, in hospitals. Among the risk factors for suicide is the presence of mental disorders on Axis I and II, and the existence of previous attempts.
Studying the behavior of some of the risk factors for suicide known (psychiatric history and previous attempts) in a sample from service Emergency Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez
Performed a retrospective analysis (for a period of 6 months of 2013) of the risk factors associated with suicidal behavior of patients seen in the emergency department of our hospital for attempted suicide.
In an interim analysis found that up to 50% of patients treated for attempted suicide had made ??previous attempts. Most of them had any axis I disorder (> 75%) and were or had been in outpatient psychiatric follow. Extensive treatment with psychotropic drugs performed most (> 80%)
The high number of cases with previous attempts provides a clear example of the problem of suicidal behavior relapse. The importance of this is increased when you consider that most were receiving or had received psychiatric treatment, reflecting the limitations in our daily clinical practice we have to control this pubic health problem.
The potential suicide is a person with intense suffering and is always a serious patient, for whom by their despair, future expectations do not exceed a painful present.
Expose more carefully try this idea by describing a case of a patient with highly lethal suicide attempts, severe, recurrent (repeated blows with a hammer to the skull, incised wound in the abdomen after a knife stab, multiple cuts with a knife upper and lower limbs …). Besides these aspects, point out the risk factors found in this patient and further foster suicide problem. Borderline personality disorder and depressive disorder, in which we highlight a high difficulty in solving problems and hopelessness, the harmful use of cocaine and alcohol, and demographic factors such as age, gender and part of socially minority group. The profile of temperament and personality point out a tendency to novelty seeking and harm avoidance, coupled with aggressive and impulsive behavior, without a clear definition of objectives and targets, and low capacity for cooperation which is observed by manipulative attitude posing in repeated hospital admissions.
Therefore, we emphasize that suicide is a complex entity and their pricing strategies, risk detection and prevention, are hampered by the lack of a definition and classification operative. That said, and considering that you have to work in a comprehensive manner, we considered what we should prioritize in the treatment of this patient to prevent another attempted suicide, is the psychiatric disorder, substance use, social status risk that found, or suicidal symptoms itself?
Ahe adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by an increased vulnerability to daily life stressors. Cortisol awakening response (CAR) can be used as an index of the adrenocortical activity that relates to chronic stress. Although gender differences in cortisol response have been explored in children with ADHD, there is a lack of gender studies in adults with this disorder.
The aim of the present study is to evaluate possible gender differences in CAR in adults with ADHD.
A total of 50 patients (22 female, age 37.00±8.62 years, and 28 male, age 33.86±9.57 years), with ADHD were recruited from the program for adults with ADHD in the Department of Psychiatry of the Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron. Patients fulfilled current DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Psychiatric and organic comorbid disorders were excluded and all the patients were naïve to psychostimulant treatment. Four salivary cortisol samples were collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after awakening (work days).
Mean increase in CAR was 10.39±8.68 nmols/l for men and 10.29±9.13 nmols/l for women. T-test comparisons showed no significant gender differences in CAR in adults with ADHD (t= 0.033, z=0.974).
As reported in children, adults with ADHD show no differences in CAR. Albeit these results are still preliminary, they suggest some gender differences in CAR between adults with ADHD and cortisol response in general population.
Comorbidity between alcoholism and depression has long been acknowledged, and the possibility that similar brain mechanisms, involving both serotonergic (5-HT) and noradrenergic systems (NE), underlie both pathologies has been suggested. Thus, inhibitors of NE and 5HT uptake have been proposed for the treatment of alcoholism, as they have shown to reduce alcohol intake in various animal models. However, most of the studies mentioned were carried out acutely and there is a lack of knowledge of the possible long-term effects. Clinical studies report an overall low efficacy of antidepressant treatment on alcohol consumption, or even a worsened prognosis. In addition, several cases of alcohol dependence following antidepressant treatment have been reported in the literature.
We aimed at comparing the acute and chronic effects of the treatment with the antidepressant drug reboxetine on alcohol consumption.
We used a rat model of alcohol self-administration, and two different schedules of reboxetine administration (acute and chronic).
Our results confirm the acute suppressant effects of reboxetine on alcohol consumption but indicate that, when this drug is administered chronically in a period of abstinence from alcohol, it can significantly increase the rate of alcohol self-administration.
These results are important for the understanding of the clinical reports describing cases of increased alcohol consumption after antidepressant treatment, and suggest that much more research is needed to fully understand the long term effects of antidepressants, which remain the most widely prescribed class of drugs.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
inhaled loxapine has shown efficiency in the treatment of the mild-moderate agitation syndrome of schyzophrenia and mania patients. Its rapid response and calming effect non-sedative allow to hypothesize reasonable efficiency and tolerability in borderline personality disorder diagnosed patients.
analyze the efficiency and tolerability of inhaled loxapine as a pharmacological approach in the treatment of agitation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) clinical diagnosed patients.
Materials and method
an application was administered for every agitation episode in BPD patients treated with inhaled loxapine in the emergency room or the psychiatric ward, which included B aRS and CGI-S scales for the evaluation of each episode and its severity, before and after its use. Other secondary measures of efficiency were taken into account, such as requirement of physical restrain.
in the majority of evaluated episodes inhaled loxapine decreased notably initial B aRS and CGI-S values and no serious clinical side effects attributable to this medication were observed.
in our sample, inhaled loxapine was efficiency and well tolerated pharmacological intervention for agitation in BPD patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
An increased incidence of personality disorders (TP) in general, and borderline personality (BP) is currently a significant health problem because of the complexity of the clinic, the difficulty for early diagnosis, often unsatisfactory response to available treatments and the lack of clear proposals on multidisciplinary therapeutic interventions. In more serious cases, people with TP generate a high level of self and family suffering, as well as a high care burden that does not have a proportional impact on the quality of life of those affected and their families.
Establish a stable functional organization of professional and organizational resources of the Mental Health Unit of the North of Almeria that ensuring comprehensive care for people with borderline personality disorder and their families.
The program was structured:
– elemental: BP census, individual sessions with optional nurse reference;
– advanced individual: BP census, individual sessions, Nurse reference;
– advanced individual and group: BP census, Individual sessions, Nurse reference and Therapeutic Group Hospital Mental Health Day weekly applying dialectical behaviour therapy.
The census of patients with borderline personality disorder was established in 30 people, 20 of them participating in two editions of therapeutic group. Fifty weekly sessions were carried out continuously, except holiday periods. A multidisciplinary team (nurse and two psychiatrists) were involved. The results indicate that there was an improvement in the quality of life of patients. It had been reduced hospitalisations, emergency assistance, and more than 60% of them got a job after that.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Promoting healthy lifestyles in patients with severe mental illness (balance diet, physical activity, smoking withdraw, adequate oral hygiene, optimal self-esteem and healthy sexuality) help patients to rely on their recovery.
– avoid social isolation and stigma.
– encourage the recovery process, considering as well as the manage of symptoms together the functioning and quality of life of the patients.
– improve the progress and illness prognosis.
– The program is introduced in the North Health Area of Almeria (Hospital Huercal–Overa) and FAISEM–Andalusia foundation to the social inclusion of mental illness patients;
– patients included in the program has been previously assess and informed-therapeutical contract;
– the program started in January 2013, with 10 sessions in the community, and groups sessions.
– fifty patients included between a total of 300–initial target 16%;
– the initial target considered was at least 60–75% of participation rate—being the result of 80–95%;
– physical assessment detected 10% of metabolic syndrome being the patients referred to primary medical care to the adequate management.
– twenty group sessions scheduled being performed 19: 95%;
– ten active sessions in community scheduled being performed 9: 90%–one sessions (beach trip) was cancelled due to budget problem;
– patients level of satisfaction: under assessment;
– broadcasting: 2 press articles, scientific communications, and shared the experience through FAISEM to all the Andalusia Areas.
– research: expecting spreading the experience and improve the results.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Although both obesity and ageing are risk factors for cognitive impairment, there is no evidence in Chile on how obesity levels are associated with cognitive function. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adiposity levels and cognitive impairment in older Chilean adults. This cross-sectional study includes 1384 participants, over 60 years of age, from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010. Cognitive impairment was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination. BMI and waist circumference (WC) were used as measures of adiposity. Compared with people with a normal BMI, the odds of cognitive impairment were higher in participants who were underweight (OR 4·44; 95 % CI 2·43, 6·45; P < 0·0001), overweight (OR 1·86; 95 % CI 1·06, 2·66; P = 0·031) and obese (OR 2·26; 95 % CI 1·31, 3·21; P = 0·003). The associations were robust after adjustment for confounding variables. Similar results were observed for WC. Low and high levels of adiposity are associated with an increased likelihood of cognitive impairment in older adults in Chile.