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The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
There is consensus about the importance of ‘recovery’ in mental health services, but the link between recovery orientation of mental health teams and personal recovery of individuals has been underresearched.
To investigate differences in team leader, clinician and service user perspectives of recovery orientation of community adult mental health teams in England.
In six English mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts, randomly chosen community adult mental health teams were surveyed. A random sample of ten patients, one team leader and a convenience sample of five clinicians were surveyed from each team. All respondents rated the recovery orientation of their team using parallel versions of the Recovery Self Assessment (RSA). In addition, service users also rated their own personal recovery using the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR).
Team leaders (n = 22) rated recovery orientation higher than clinicians (n = 109) or patients (n = 120) (Wald(2) = 7.0, P = 0.03), and both NHS trust and team type influenced RSA ratings. Patient-rated recovery orientation was a predictor of personal recovery (b = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31–0.85, P<0.001). Team leaders and clinicians with experience of mental illness (39%) or supporting a family member or friend with mental illness (76%) did not differ in their RSA ratings from other team leaders or clinicians.
Compared with team leaders, frontline clinicians and service users have less positive views on recovery orientation. Increasing recovery orientation may support personal recovery.
In late 2011 the New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries reported an increase in confirmed laboratory diagnoses of salmonellosis in dairy herds. To identify risk factors for herd-level outbreaks of salmonellosis we conducted a case-control study of New Zealand dairy herds in 2011–2012. In a multivariable analysis, use of continuous feed troughs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·0–20], use of pelletized magnesium supplements (aOR 10, 95% CI 3·3–33) and use of palm kernel meal as a supplementary feed (aOR 8·7, 95% CI 2·5–30) were positively associated with a herd-level outbreak of salmonellosis between 1 July 2011 and 31 January 2012. We conclude that supplementary feeds used on dairy farms (regardless of type) need to be stored and handled appropriately to reduce the likelihood of bacterial contamination, particularly from birds and rodents. Magnesium supplementation in the pelletized form played a role in triggering outbreaks of acute salmonellosis in New Zealand dairy herds in 2011–2012.
Teouma, an archaeological site on Efate Island, Vanuatu, features the earliest cemetery yet discovered of the colonizers of Remote Oceania, from the late second millennium B.C. In order to investigate potential migration of seventeen human individuals, we measured isotopes of strontium (87Sr/86Sr), oxygen (δ18O), and carbon (δ13C), as well as barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr) concentrations, in tooth enamel from skeletons excavated in the first two field seasons. The majority of individuals cluster with similar isotope and Ba/Sr ratios, consistent with a diet of marine resources supplemented with plants grown on the local basaltic soils. Four outliers, with distinctive 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O, are probably immigrants, three of which were buried in a distinctive position (supine, with the head to the south) with higher Ba/Sr and δ13C, consistent with a terrestrial, nonlocal diet. Among the probable immigrants was a male buried with the crania of three of the locally raised individuals on his chest.
There are major challenges in providing training for psychiatrists in the modern National Health Service (NHS). Senior house officer and specialist registrar training has been reorganised to focus on core skills and competencies, and is monitored through educational supervision and the Record of In-Training Assessment (RITA) process. For consultants, the development of appraisal and revalidation are linked to formalised approaches to continuing professional development and personal development (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2001). Increasingly, training is self-directed and psychiatrists have to effectively evaluate and plan for their individual educational needs. They must be able to access good quality, structured training, to develop and maintain a range of specific and generic skills.
The local intersection cohomology of a point in the Baily–Borel compactification (of a Hermitian locally symmetric space) is shown to be canonically isomorphic to the weighted cohomology of a certain linear locally symmetric space (an arithmetic quotient of the associated self-adjoint homogeneous cone). Explicit computations are given for the symplectic group in four variables.
Populations of three species of juvenile Sparidae (Diplodus puntazzo, Diplodus sargus and Diplodus vulgaris) were sampled at different spatial scales in the north-western Mediterranean Sea over two years to follow growth after settlement. Length–frequency distributions were collected each week for periods of six months following the arrival of off-shore larvae in inshore habitats. Data were collected by underwater visual census along permanent transects.
Growth rate measured as the slope of the linear relationship between mean size and time varied between species. Diplodus puntazzo (0.160 mm d−1) and D. vulgaris (0.202 mm d−1), which are settling in winter experienced slower growth than D. sargus (0.567 mm d−1) which settles in summer. It is concluded that the difference was in part due to water temperature. Analysis of growth rate within each species also revealed significant differences among sites probably related to the currents and the water mass temperatures.
In Britain, the water vole (Arvicola terrestris) has declined in numbers and distribution (Jefferies, Morris & Mulleneux, 1989; Strachan & Jefferies, 1993). This species now enjoys a higher profile than hitherto and many local surveys have been initiated, following published methods. To monitor the status of the population or the effectiveness of habitat restoration projects, a method for estimating numbers of water voles is often needed, preferably based on latrines (a characteristic field sign of this species). Unfortunately, the published literature includes two potentially misleading components. In view of the significance of population size in a declining species, and the heightened interest in this animal, we felt it would be helpful to publish clarification and corrections in the hope of forestalling erroneous reports and conclusions in future investigations.
Little objective information is available on the relative merits of straw based and slatted floored systems for the weaned pig in terms of performance and indices of welfare. A controlled experiment was conducted in an attempt to obtain relevant information.
The following 3 systems were compared: (1) straw bedded pens (SB), conventional flat decks (FD) and identical flat decks with environmental enrichment (FD+). The FD pens had fully perforated expanded metal floors with an ad lib feeder across the front of the pen and 2 nipple drinkers on the opposite wall. The enriched FD pens had a variety of ‘recreational’ objects added - a metal chain and tyre suspended from the ceiling within the pigs’ reach, a concrete block, a tyre and an assortment of rounded stones of different size placed on the pen floor. There were 3 pens per room but only 2 were used in the trial, one each for the FD and FD+ treatments. Temperature control was by means of 2 gas heaters and a fan assisted ventilation system which was thermostatically controlled. The straw pens were located in a large cattle court which had a concrete floor; within each pen there was a kennelled lying area and an open outrun. The whole floor surface was kept liberally covered with good quality dry barley straw. An identical ad lib feeder to that in the flat decks was provided in the outrun area and 2 nipple drinkers were provided adjacent to the feeder. In all treatments for the first 3 days of the trial a box drinker was placed in each pen to allow the pigs time to familiarise themselves with the nipple drinkers.
Most farrowing pens have slatted floors mainly to achieve labour economy and high standards of hygiene. A major deficiency of such flooring is the difficulty of using bedding to reduce hypothermia of newborn piglets and to protect their delicate tissues from the relative abrasiveness of the floor. Shredded waste paper bedding may have useful applications in such situations because of its texture and cohesiveness, qualities which slow up the rate at which it is voided through the slats relative to other bedding materials. Such paper bedding was evaluated in a controlled experiment.
Mating is one of the most critical processes influencing the success of any breeding pig enterprise since the efficiency of this process establishes the potential output of pigs. A study was conducted on 100 recently weaned sows during the mating process to determine potential sources of inefficiency.
The study was conducted in a large commercial herd with Large White (LW) x Landrace (LR) first cross sows. 4 genotypes of boar were in use, these being LW, LR, LW x LR and Duroc. The parity of the 100 sows involved in the study ranged from 1 to 9. Sows were housed in small groups of 5 to 6 following weaning at a mean of 18 days post partum and were taken daily to an oestrus detection area to test for standing oestrus (SO). Boars were housed around this area and SO was detected using the back pressure test Within 5 minutes of SO being confirmed, each sow was paired with a boar in a specialist 2.9 v 2.65 m mating pen. This pen had a 15 cm floor covering of sawdust-based deep litter which provided good foothold and comfort Boar-sow behavioural interactions, general behaviour of the mating partners and sow vocalisations were recorded from the first pairing in the pen to the dismounting of the boar following mating.
Let L be a finite relational language. The age of a structure over L is the set of isomorphism types of finite substructures of . We classify those ages for which there are less than 2ω countably infinite pairwise nonisomorphic L-structures of age .
A number of recent experiments have indicated that growing pigs, given the choice between diets of differing protein content, have the ability to select a daily nutrient intake appropriate to their requirements. This experiment was designed to investigate this ability in pigs which are extremely different in their genetic potential for protein deposition rate. European pigs have undergone intensive selection for a high protein deposition rate, whereas the Meishan breed from China is still relatively unimproved and capable of only a low rate of protein deposition.
General recommendations are made (e.g. Gomes, 1977; Dzuik, 1970) that, in order to achieve maximum conception rate and litter size, sows should be mated or inseminated 9 to 15 hours prior to ovulation and that this coincides with an interval of 30 to 36 hours after the start of standing oestrus (SO). This assumes that sows will be in standing oestrus for around 48 hours. Surprisingly little data is available on the length of SO In modern sows on current production systems. Accordingly length of SO was determined in a large commercial herd weaning at around 3 weeks of age.
A team of observers determined the start, completion and duration of SO in 101 multi parity sows. The sows were tested for SO daily from weaning at 8 hourly intervals (00.00, 08.00 and 16.00 hr) until the end of SO by taking sows individually from their small post-weaning groups to an oestrus checking area. Boars were penned around this area and SO was checked using the back pressure test.
The choice-feeding method has been suggested as an effective way of estimating nutritional requirements and it may be helpful from a practical point of view for meeting the nutrient requirements of animals with great variability in nutrient intake and requirements, for example sows in lactation. Friend (1971) reported high variability in protein intake in lactating sows on choice feeding. Growing rats (Leshner et al.,1971) respond to temperature changes by modifying the proportion of protein selected in order to maintain their protein intake. The main objective of this experiment was to investigate the ability of sows offered diets of different nutrient content to select the combination that best fits their requirement, particularly in relation to problems of reduced food intake routinely encountered in high summer temperatures.
In commercial farrowing pens, creep areas for the piglets are often provided only at the front or on one side of the pen. Because of the strong bonding which newborn piglets have to the udder, such arrangements are often inadequate to attract piglets into the creep area where danger from hypothermia increase the suitability for the newborn piglet of farrowing pens with a typical commercial side creep design.
The experiment was carried out in a commercial farrowing house with partially slatted, unbedded pens. These pens were of typical commercial ‘side creep’ design with a wide creep area on one side of the crate, and a narrow unheated area on the other. The wide creep area contained a tray with a bedding of shavings and was heated by a heat lamp. Experimental pens were adapted by placing diagonally the pen division separating the narrow creeps in two adjacent pens. This created a wider area at the front of one pen and at the rear of the adjacent pen (Fig 1). These areas were provided with a bedding of shavings and a heat lamp for the first 48 hours of life.
It is well established that high environmental temperature can have adverse effects on sperm concentration and the normality of sperm in the boar. Induced abnormalities include reduced motility, abnormal heads, proximal droplets, coiled and bent tails and abnormal acrosomes (Malmgren and Larsson, 1989). While all stages of spermatogenesis can be adversely affected, the primary spermatocytes are most vulnerable to these influences. Since spermatogenesis occurs over 45 days, any adverse effects of elevated ambient temperature can affect sperm quality for around 6 weeks. The maximum period of infertility appears around weeks 3 and 4 after heat stress. Reduced levels of testosterone and sometimes of LH following heat stress are implicated in these adverse effects. There is evidence that boars subjected to high constant temperature (30°C), which have become acclimatised to such, are affected less in terms of sperm output and quality (Cameron and Blackshaw, 1980) than when boars are subject to sudden major increases in temperature from fairly low levels (15 to 30 C) e.g. during the summer months (Antonyuk et al, 1983). There also appears to be large differences between boars in their ability to adapt to exposure to high environmental temperature by minimising temperature rise and avoiding adverse effects on semen quality (Cameron and Blackshaw, 1980). These workers found that boars prone to heat stress show an acute rise in body temperature in response to elevated environmental temperature and this sudden rise has a more adverse effect on semen quality than the length of exposure to the elevated temperature. There appears to be little information available on the reasons for such important between boar differences. This study was carried out to determine rectal temperature responses of boars to varying summer temperature in an intensive pig enterprise in Scotland and to attempt to determine some of the factors associated with ‘high’ and ‘low’ responding boars.
It is traditional in the British Isles to house the working boar as an individual and this practice was the sensible policy when breeding pig herds were small and replacement boars were purchased singly. However in large herds today several boars are often purchased simultaneously, creating the possibility for group housing during their working life. Important beneficial effects of social contact of young boars up to puberty in terms of sexual behaviour and socialisation have been demonstrated. D'Arcy (1984) found that boars penned singly relative to those in groups of 8 from 30 to 240 kg liveweight took 11 days longer to first successful mount and ejaculation, had a higher number of incorrect mounts and did much more fighting with oestrus gilts. Thus group housed boars were less aggressive to oestrus gilts, had better mating dexterity and had higher mating scores at an earlier age. In addition there may be benefits in terms of comfort and welfare including leg soundness in boars by group relative to individual housing (Tonn et al, 1985; Hemsworth and Findlay, 1978) because of the increased exercise in a group due to the larger area to move in the physical interactions occurring within the group. However, there are concerns about aggressive and sodomy behaviour of mature boars kept in groups as well as the possiblitiy of increased handling difficulties. These latter aspects were studied in group housed boars in this investigation.
The docile temperament of the Chinese Meishan makes it promising as a nurse sow to which ill nourished pigs due to be weaned from their own dam around 3 weeks of age can be fostered for a further period of milk feeding. An alternative strategy to cater for such problem 3 week old pigs is to wean and attempt to rear them under very favourable conditions, including the provision of a highly digestible diet containing a high proportion of dried milk products. Such diets are now very expensive.
The newborn piglet is prone to hypothermia because of the body heat which is lost in evaporating birth fluids from its surface and because the climatic environment provided for the piglet at birth can be sub-optimal. If deep body temperature drops by over 2°C from the norm of 39° C the pig suffers from reduced locomotor vigour and becomes, more lethargic (Stephens, 1971). Such disadvantages can make the piglet less effective in competing for a teat and colostrum and also more prone to be overlain by the dam (English and Morrison, 1983). Because of the possible consequences of hypothermia, therefore, there is a need to quantify piglet body temperature trends from birth in the variable conditions provided for farrowing and to develop improved approaches for reducing the problem.
Studies in newborn piglets were conducted on a large commercial unit in which farrowing took place in pens with solid floored front creeps with underfloor heating, while the remainder of the pen floor was of woven wire. Mean temperatures (4 cm above floor level) in the front creep and the remainder of the pen were 22.6°C and 21.4°C respectively. Rectal temperature (at a depth of 4 cm) was recorded using a hand held digital thermometer in 168 piglets in 17 litters at 10 minute intervals in the first hour of life, at hourly intervals thereafter up to 10 hours and also at hourly intervals from 24 to 36 hours of age.