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Developing countries are experiencing an increase in total demand for livestock commodities, as populations and per capita demands increase. Increased production is therefore required to meet this demand and maintain food security. Production increases will lead to proportionate increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions unless offset by reductions in the emissions intensity (Ei) (i.e. the amount of GHG emitted per kg of commodity produced) of livestock production. It is therefore important to identify measures that can increase production whilst reducing Ei cost-effectively. This paper seeks to do this for smallholder agro-pastoral cattle systems in Senegal; ranging from low input to semi-intensified, they are representative of a large proportion of the national cattle production. Specifically, it identifies a shortlist of mitigation measures with potential for application to the various herd systems and estimates their GHG emissions abatement potential (using the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model) and cost-effectiveness. Limitations and future requirements are identified and discussed. This paper demonstrates that the Ei of meat and milk from livestock systems in a developing region can be reduced through measures that would also benefit food security, many of which are likely to be cost-beneficial. The ability to make such quantification can assist future sustainable development efforts.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
A clearer understanding of the basis for the association between cannabis use and psychotic experiences (PEs) is required. Our aim was to examine the extent to which associations between cannabis and cigarette use and PEs are due to confounding.
A cohort study of 1756 adolescents with data on cannabis use, cigarette use and PEs.
Cannabis use and cigarette use at age 16 were both associated, to a similar degree, with PEs at age 18 [odds ratio (OR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18–1.86 for cannabis and OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.31–1.98 for cigarettes]. Adjustment for cigarette smoking frequency (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.91–1.76) or other illicit drug use (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.91–1.73) substantially attenuated the relationship between cannabis and PEs. The attenuation was to a lesser degree when cannabis use was adjusted for in the cigarette PE association (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.05–1.92). However, almost all of the participants used cannabis with tobacco, including those who classed themselves as non-cigarette smokers.
Teasing out the effects of cannabis from tobacco is highly complex and may not have been dealt with adequately in studies to date, including this one. Complementary methods are required to robustly examine the independent effects of cannabis, tobacco and other illicit drugs on PEs.
The white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) and short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) are two of the most abundant delphinid species in shelf waters around the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (ROI) in the summer season (May–October). As these two species have similar habitat preferences and diets, it might be expected that they would partition their otherwise shared niche to reduce the potential for competition at this time of year. This study used 569 sightings of the two species, collected from shelf waters (<200 m water depth) in the summer season between 1983 and 1998, to investigate whether there is evidence of widespread niche partitioning based on water temperature in this area. Below 13°C, white-beaked dolphins were dominant with 96% of sightings comprising this species. In contrast, above 14°C, 86% of sightings comprised common dolphins. A classification tree analysis found that of the four eco-geographical variables analysed (water depth, seabed slope, seabed aspect and sea surface temperature), temperature was the most important variable for separating the occurrence of the two species. These results are consistent with widespread temperature-based niche partitioning between white-beaked and common dolphins in shelf waters around the UK and ROI. As temperature is important in determining the relative distribution of these species, the range of the white-beaked dolphin might be expected to contract in response to increasing sea temperature resulting from global climate change, while that of the common dolphin may expand.
Some Trypanosoma brucei lines infect humans whereas others do not because the parasites are lysed by human serum. We have developed a robust, quantitative in vitro assay based on differential uptake of fluorescent dyes by live and dead trypanosomes to quantify the extent and kinetics of killing by human serum. This method has been used to discriminate between 3 classes of human serum resistance; sensitive, resistant and intermediate. TREU 927/4, the parasite used for the T. brucei genome project, is intermediate. The phenotype is expressed in both bloodstream and metacyclic forms, is stably expressed during chronic infections and on cyclical transmission through tsetse flies. Trypanosomes of intermediate phenotype are distinguished from sensitive populations of cells by the slower rate of lysis and by the potential to become fully resistant to killing by human serum as a result of selection or long-term serial passaging in mice, and to pass on full resistance phenotype to its progeny in a genetic cross. The sra gene has been shown previously to determine human serum resistance in T. brucei but screening for the presence and expression of this gene indicated that it is not responsible for the human serum resistance phenotype in the trypanosome lines that we have examined, indicating that an alternative mechanism for HSR exists in these stocks. Examination of the inheritance of the phenotype in F1 hybrids for both bloodstream and metacyclic stages from 2 genetic crosses demonstrated that the phenotype is co-inherited in both life-cycle stages in a manner consistent with being a Mendelian trait, determined by only one or a few genes.
Background. We carried out a large randomized trial of a brief form of cognitive therapy, manual-assisted cognitive behaviour therapy (MACT) versus treatment as usual (TAU) for deliberate self-harm.
Method. Patients presenting with recurrent deliberate self-harm in five centres were randomized to either MACT or (TAU) and followed up over 1 year. MACT patients received a booklet based on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) principles and were offered up to five plus two booster sessions of CBT from a therapist in the first 3 months of the study. Ratings of parasuicide risk, anxiety, depression, social functioning and global function, positive and negative thinking, and quality of life were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months.
Results. Four hundred and eighty patients were randomized. Sixty per cent of the MACT group had both the booklet and CBT sessions. There were seven suicides, five in the TAU group. The main outcome measure, the proportion of those repeating deliberate self-harm in the 12 months of the study, showed no significant difference between those treated with MACT (39%) and treatment as usual (46%) (OR 0·78, 95% CI 0·53 to 1·14, P=0·20).
Conclusion. Brief cognitive behaviour therapy is of limited efficacy in reducing self-harm repetition, but the findings taken in conjunctin with the economic evaluation (Byford et al. 2003) indicate superiority of MACT over TAU in terms of cost and effectiveness combined.
Analysis of natural populations of Trypanosoma brucei has shown that there is linkage disequilibrium between alleles at pairs of loci in isolates taken from the field. This disequilibrium can occur as a result of a low frequency of genetic exchange, the masking of frequent genetic exchange by the rapid expansion of a few genotypes or by the treatment of 2 (or more) genetically isolated populations as a single population. We have analysed stocks from 2 geographically separate locations using 3 minisatellite markers to determine the frequencies of the alleles in each area and the frequency and nature of the multilocus genotypes. The results show that many alleles and multilocus genotypes are unique to each geographical location, supporting the conclusion that these populations are genetically isolated with limited or no gene flow between them. This geographical substructuring needs to be taken into account in considering the origins of the linkage disequilibrium in a number of populations.
The montane cloud-forests of the north-central Andes and the montane grassland and transitional elfin forest of the central Andean páramo contain a high diversity of bird species including several restricted range and uncommon species. Little is known of how densities of Andean cloud-forest species are affected by habitat degradation. Bird densities within pristine and degraded habitats at the Guandera Biological Reserve, Carchi province, Ecuador were recorded over a 10-week period. Densities were calculated for 48 species; where densities could be compared, 69% of species occurred at a higher density in pristine habitats. Pristine forest had the highest species richness with 72 species and páramo contained 44 species. In total, 26% of pristine forest species were only found in pristine forest, 39% of páramo species only in páramo, 13% of farmland species only in farmland and there were no exclusively secondary scrub species; 47% of species found in pristine forest, and 50% found in páramo were found in both secondary scrub and farmland. Restricted range species recorded at Guandera included the Carunculated Caracara Phalcobenus carunculatus, Black-thighed Puffleg Eriocnemis derbyi, Chestnut-bellied Cotinga Doliornis remseni, Crescent-faced Antpitta Grallaricula lineifrons, Masked Mountain-tanager Buthraupis wetmorei and Black-backed Bush-tanager Urothraupis stolzmanni. Three further species that occurred at Guandera of relatively local occurrence were the Grey-breasted Mountain Toucan Andigena hypoglauca, Golden-breasted Puffleg Eriocnemis mosquera and Mountain Avocetbill Opisthoprora euryptera. Of these nine species at least five used degraded habitats, while three occurred only in pristine treeline habitats.
New variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease is a novel prion disease of humans that may be causally linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Psychiatric symptoms occur in the early stages of the illness and may be difficult to distinguish from the symptoms of more common psychiatric disorders. Cases of new variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease are identified through the national surveillance system. Information on psychiatric features has been obtained by review of case notes and, in the majority of cases, by interview of relatives by a member of the surveillance staff.
Thirty-five cases of new variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified in the UK and detailed information on the clinical features and investigations is currently available in 33 of these cases. All but one of the cases exhibited prominent early psychiatric symptomatology, but the diagnosis of an underlying neurological disease was not possible in the majority of cases until the development of neurological symptoms and signs. Early indications of an underlying neurological disorder included cognitive impairment, persistent sensory symptoms or limb pain and, in a minority, gait imbalance, dysarthria or visual symptoms. Limited evidence suggests that investigations such as electroencephalogram or brain imaging are unlikely to provde useful diagnostic information during the ‘psychiatric’ phase of the illness.
The early recognition of an underlying neurological disorder may be impossible in the early psychiatric phase of new variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, but the suspicion of this diagnosis may be raised by the occurrence of associated neurological symptoms. The development of early diagnostic markers is an important objective.
The relationships of N input or protein status and the concentrations of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), plasma fibronectin (FN) and total protein (TP) were examined in three experiments with steers and sheep nourished by intragastric infusion of nutrients. In Expt 1, three steers (340 kg live weight) were infused with three levels of volatile fatty acids (0, 300 and 600 kJ/kg metabolic weight (W0.75) per d) and six levels of casein (0, 200, 400, 650, 1500 and 2500 mg N/kg W0.75 per d). Each N treatment was imposed for 5 d. In Expts 2 and 3, five groups of sheep (about 35 kg live weight) were infused with casein at 500 mg N/kg W0.75 per d for 2 weeks followed by 1500, 500 or 50 mg N/kg W0.75 per d in Expt 2, and in Expt 3, with 100 mg N/kg W0.75 per d for 6 weeks or 10 mg N/kg W0.75 per d for 4 weeks. Non-protein energy was maintained constant at 500 kJ/kg W0.75 per d throughout. Daily N balance and total body N content at the end were measured, and protein status was defined as a percentage of cumulative N accretion or depletion in relation to the total body N content at maintenance. It was found that IGF-1 and FN responded rapidly and substantially to altered N input, and that when daily N input was maintained constantly at sub-maintenance, their continuous declines were related closely to progressive protein depletion in the sheep. Plasma TP concentration was independent of N input when N input was altered acutely in the steers, but declined significantly and gradually with severe, chronic body protein depletion in the sheep. Plasma content of TP in the sheep however reduced acutely with a reduction in N input. Plasma volume fell substantially over the first 2 weeks of protein depletion, compensating for the declines in TP content and maintaining TP concentration plateau. The possible implications of the changes in TP concentration and content (concentration x volume) to body protein loss in sheep are discussed.
Maps are familiar objects that need little introduction. By strict definition, a map is a diagrammatic representation of the spatial environment – for example, the Earth's surface, the stars or parts thereof. The techniques of map-making, or cartography, are basically concerned with reducing the spatial characteristics of large surface areas to a form that makes them observable. Cartography has been considered as both a science and an art. As an art form and craft tradition with printed maps, cartography traditionally has sought to address aesthetic criteria for human appreciation and visual attractiveness, in addition to considerations of functional utility.
Four sheep sustained by intragastric nutrition were used to study saliva secretion and the relationship between osmotic pressure in the rumen and net water transport across the rumen wall. Different concentrations of buffer were infused into the rumen to change the rumen osmotic pressure. Salivary secretion was estimated from entrance of P into the rumen. Net water transport across the rumen wall was calculated as the difference between water inflow and water outflow from the rumen. A negative linear relationship between the rumen osmotic pressure (X, mOsm/kg) and the water absorption across the rumen wall (Y, ml/h) was found: Y = (394 SE 8·3)–(l·22 SE 0·03) X, r20·83, (P < 0·001), and a positive linear relationship was found between the rumen osmotic pressure (X, mOsm /kg) and the outflow rate of rumen fluid (Y, ml/h): Y = (34·0 SE 8·0) + (0·97 SE 0·03), X, r2 0·56, (P < 0·001). The implication is that rumen osmotic pressure can be a key factor in the control of the net water transport across the rumen wall, the outflow of rumen fluid to omasum and the rumen liquid dilution rate. A method is suggested by which salivary secretion in sheep may be calculated from the water balance in the rumen.
Verrucous carcinoma is a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma which is most often seen in the oral cavity and larynx. This paper describes a case of verrucous carcinoma of the maxillary antrum, a site in which this tumour has been described on only two previous occasions in the English language literature.
1. Two experiments are reported in which the effect of the intragastric infusion of non-protein energy on fasting nitrogen losses was studied. Expt 1 was a preliminary trial with two 35 kg lambs given 0, 144, 288 or 432 kJ/kg live weight (W)0.75 per d as lipid or glucose infused into the abomasum for periods of 3 d. Expt 2 was of a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four sheep of about 30 kg live weight. The four treatments were control (fasted with water infusion), or the infusion of 144 W/kg W0.75 per d as glucose or lipid into the abomasum or as acetic acid into the reticulo-rumen.
2. Compared with the fasted control, glucose infusion reduced (P < 0.05) N excretion to about 0.6 of that of the control, increased (P < 0.05) plasma glucose, decreased (P < 0.05) plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate, and was without effect on plasma amino-N or creatinine excretion.
3. Lipid and acetate infusions were without statistically significant effect on N or creatinine excretion or any of the blood indices measured, with the exception of plasma glucose which was reduced (P < 0.05) with acetate infusion.
1. Two dairy cows were maintained by intragastric infusion of volatile fatty acids and casein. Except when fasting, the casein-nitrogen was held constant, while total gross energy supply was varied from zero during fasting to 650 kJ/kg body-weight (W)0·75.
2. One cow was estimated to attain zero N balance at an energy intake of 255 kJ/kg W0·75 and the other at 307 kJ/kg W0·75, which was calculated to be substantially below the estimated energy required for zero energy balance.
3. When the cows were later given an N-free infusion for a period preceding the trial, N balance occurred at 98 kJ/kg W0·75 for one cow and 115 kJ/kg W0·75 for the other.
4. Four steers were similarly nourished by intragastric infusion and the energy nutrient increased from 0 at fasting to 450 kJ/kg W0·75. The protein was held constant at 1 g N/kg W0·75 except at fasting. The energy level at which N balance occurred was 154 (SE 38) kJ/kg W0·75 or approximately equal to the energy content of the protein. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.
This analysis of cephalopod remains, particularly the mandibles or beaks, from sperm whales caught off Iceland is one of a series made by the authors on remains from various geographical regions including Madeira (Clarke, 1962a), Spain (Clarke & MacLeod, 1974), Western South America (Clarke, MacLeod & Paliza, 1976, South Africa, Western Australia, the Antarctic and the South Atlantic (Clarke, 1976, 1977). Other workers have described similar collections from New Zealand (Gaskell & Cawthorne, 1967; see also Clarke, 1976, 1977) and the North Pacific (Akimushkin, 1954; Betesheva & Akimushkin, 1955; Tarasevich, 1963). The present analysis has depended upon a development in the technique of identification of cephalopod lower beaks from an early search for criteria (Clarke, 19626) to a point where many species can be identified from lower beaks (Mangold & Fioroni, 1966; Iversen & Pinkas, 1971; Clarke, 1977).