A house to house survey was done from October 1972 to March 1974, covering 52952 individuals of urban population at Lucknow and 50156 individuals of rural population of Unnao district, to find out the incidence of polio-like paralysis in our population. Among 12874 urban children up to 8 years old 8·2/1000 had polio-like paralysis while 4·6/1000 children of the rural population of 13554 children were affected. The incidence was significantly higher in the urban population. In the preschool age group almost 1 out of every 100 children was affected. A higher number of children were affected during 1968–9 and 1971–2, though it did not reach epidemic proportion. The findings show that paralytic polio is a serious problem in our country where poliomyelitis is endemic: this is contrary to the views generally held so far.