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Trace minerals have important roles in immune function and oxidative metabolism; however, little is known about the relationships between supplementation level and source with outcomes in dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=48) beginning at 60 to 140 days in milk were utilized to determine the effects of trace mineral amount and source on aspects of oxidative metabolism and responses to intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Cows were fed a basal diet meeting National Research Council (NRC) requirements except for no added zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) or manganese (Mn). After a 4-week preliminary period, cows were assigned to one of four topdress treatments in a randomized complete block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: (1) NRC inorganic (NRC levels using inorganic (sulfate-based) trace mineral supplements only); (2) NRC organic (NRC levels using organic trace mineral supplements (metals chelated to 2-hydroxy-4-(methythio)-butanoic acid); (3) commercial inorganic (approximately 2×NRC levels using inorganic trace mineral supplements only; and (4) commercial organic (commercial levels using organic trace mineral supplements only). Cows were fed the respective mineral treatments for 6 weeks. Treatment effects were level, source and their interaction. Activities of super oxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocyte lysate and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma were measured as indices of oxidative metabolism. Effects of treatment on those indices were not significant when evaluated across the entire experimental period. Plasma immunoglobulin G level was higher in cows supplemented with organic trace minerals over the entire treatment period; responses assessed as differences of before and after Escherichia coli J5 bacterin vaccination at the end of week 2 of treatment period were not significant. Cows were administered an intramammary LPS challenge during week 5; during week 6 cows fed commercial levels of Zn, Cu and Mn tended to have higher plasma TAC and cows fed organic sources had decreased plasma TBARS. After the LPS challenge, the extent and pattern of response of plasma cortisol concentrations and clinical indices (rectal temperature and heart rate) were not affected by trace mineral level and source. Productive performance including dry matter intake and milk yield and composition were not affected by treatment. Overall, results suggest that the varying level and source of dietary trace minerals do not have significant short-term effects on oxidative metabolism indices and clinical responses to intramammary LPS challenge in midlactation cows.
Ruminants remain productive during the energy insufficiency of late pregnancy or early lactation by evoking metabolic adaptations sparing available energy and nutrients (e.g. higher metabolic efficiency and induction of insulin resistance). A deficit in central leptin signaling triggers these adaptations in rodents but whether it does in ruminants remains unclear. To address this issue, five mature ewes were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula in the third ventricle. They were used in two experiments with an ovine leptin antagonist (OLA) when well-conditioned (average body condition score of 3.7 on a 5 point scale). The first experiment tested the ability of OLA to antagonize leptin under in vivo conditions. Ewes received continuous ICV infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), ovine leptin (4 µg/h) or the combination of ovine leptin (4 µg/h) and its mutant version OLA (40 µg/h) for 48 h. Dry matter intake (DMI) was measured every day and blood samples were collected on the last day of infusion. ICV infusion of leptin reduced DMI by 24% (P<0.05), and this effect was completely abolished by OLA co-infusion. A second experiment tested whether a reduction in endogenous leptin signaling in the brain triggers metabolic adaptations. This involved continuous ICV infusions of aCSF or OLA alone (40 µg/h) for 4 consecutive days. The infusion of OLA did not alter voluntary DMI over the treatment period or on any individual day. OLA did not affect plasma variables indicative of insulin action (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin and the disposition of plasma glucose during an insulin tolerance test) or plasma cortisol, but tended to reduce plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine (P<0.07). Overall, these data show that a reduction of central leptin signaling has little impact on insulin action in well-conditioned mature sheep. They also raise the possibility that reduced central leptin signaling plays a role in controlling thyroid hormone production.
Due to the enrichment of chemicals and biota within the sea-surface microlayer, there is the widely held presumption that the surface microlayer could act as a highly efficient and selective microreactor, effectively concentrating and transforming materials brought to the interface from the atmosphere and oceans by physical processes. Rapid photochemical, chemical, and biological reactions within the microlayer could produce a variety of interesting feedbacks. For example, photochemical reactions might destroy (or produce) surface-active species, thereby altering surface wave damping and gas exchange rates. Elevated levels of highly reactive intermediates produced within this zone could present a ‘reaction barrier’ to the transport of some chemicals and trace gases across the air–sea interface, thus affecting their flux to the atmosphere or ocean. Further, reactions occurring within the microlayer potentially could enhance (or deplete) the surface concentrations of certain gases relative to those of bulk seawater, chemically modify compounds during their transport across the interface, alter the redox state, speciation and biological availability of trace metals deposited by the atmosphere to the interface, as well as influence the types and distributions of microlayer materials introduced to the atmosphere by bubble injection and to the deep ocean by particle settling.
Although these processes are very intriguing and potentially of great importance, in many instances evidence supporting the existence of them is lacking.
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