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Recovery Colleges are opening internationally. The evaluation focus has been on outcomes for Recovery College students who use mental health services. However, benefits may also arise for: staff who attend or co-deliver courses; the mental health and social care service hosting the Recovery College; and wider society. A theory-based change model characterising how Recovery Colleges impact at these higher levels is needed for formal evaluation of their impact, and to inform future Recovery College development. The aim of this study was to develop a stratified theory identifying candidate mechanisms of action and outcomes (impact) for Recovery Colleges at staff, services and societal levels.
Inductive thematic analysis of 44 publications identified in a systematised review was supplemented by collaborative analysis involving a lived experience advisory panel to develop a preliminary theoretical framework. This was refined through semi-structured interviews with 33 Recovery College stakeholders (service user students, peer/non-peer trainers, managers, community partners, clinicians) in three sites in England.
Candidate mechanisms of action and outcomes were identified at staff, services and societal levels. At the staff level, experiencing new relationships may change attitudes and associated professional practice. Identified outcomes for staff included: experiencing and valuing co-production; changed perceptions of service users; and increased passion and job motivation. At the services level, Recovery Colleges often develop somewhat separately from their host system, reducing the reach of the college into the host organisation but allowing development of an alternative culture giving experiential learning opportunities to staff around co-production and the role of a peer workforce. At the societal level, partnering with community-based agencies gave other members of the public opportunities for learning alongside people with mental health problems and enabled community agencies to work with people they might not have otherwise. Recovery Colleges also gave opportunities to beneficially impact on community attitudes.
This study is the first to characterise the mechanisms of action and impact of Recovery Colleges on mental health staff, mental health and social care services, and wider society. The findings suggest that a certain distance is needed in the relationship between the Recovery College and its host organisation if a genuine cultural alternative is to be created. Different strategies are needed depending on what level of impact is intended, and this study can inform decision-making about mechanisms to prioritise. Future research into Recovery Colleges should include contextual evaluation of these higher level impacts, and investigate effectiveness and harms.
This study investigated the characteristics of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and their association with current and future cognitive functions.
A cohort of 209 community-dwelling individuals without dementia aged 47–90 years old was recruited for this 3-year study. Participants underwent neuropsychological and clinical assessments annually. Participants were divided into SMCs and non-memory complainers (NMCs) using a single question at baseline and a memory complaints questionnaire following baseline, to evaluate differential patterns of complaints. In addition, comprehensive assessment of memory complaints was undertaken to evaluate whether severity and consistency of complaints differentially predicted cognitive function.
SMC and NMC individuals were significantly different on various features of SMCs. Greater overall severity (but not consistency) of complaints was significantly associated with current and future cognitive functioning.
SMC individuals present distinctive features of memory complaints as compared to NMCs. Further, the severity of complaints was a significant predictor of future cognition. However, SMC did not significantly predict change over time in this sample. These findings warrant further research into the specific features of SMCs that may portend subsequent neuropathological and cognitive changes when screening individuals at increased future risk of dementia.
Molecular imprinting is the process by which molecules are imprinted into the matrix of a material through non-covalent bonding, including hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. In this study hydrogels were imprinted with glaucoma medication with the purpose of creating a reusable ocular drug delivery device with reversible binding sites. The material was synthesized and tested with UV-Vis spectroscopy to determine the concentration of the released drug after twelve hours in distilled water. Modifications were made to the polymer to explore methods required for the proper delivery of the drug over an adequate period of time.
Previous reports have indicated that a proportion of pigs, homozygous normal for the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1), was halothane sensitive, and this was associated with poor meat quality when pigs were handled aggressively. This study was conducted to evaluate halothane sensitivity in RYR1-normal pigs, managed under simulated commercial conditions, to ascertain the association of halothane sensitivity with growth rate and meat quality. A total of 363 pigs across four farrowing groups, from seven Landrace sires and 38 Yorkshire–Landrace F1 dams, were tested at 8 weeks of age for halothane sensitivity using a closed system that delivered 5% halothane at 2 l/min for 3 (group 1) or 2 (groups 2 to 4) min. After 1 min, limb rigidity, limb tremors and abdominal discoloration were evaluated on a binomial scale with 0 indicating no reaction and 1 indicating reaction. Testing was repeated 2 days later. At 10 weeks of age, pigs were moved to finishing pens and not moved again until marketing. Within farrowing group, pigs were harvested in one of two groups, and at marketing were moved a distance of 91 m, weighed, tattooed, loaded and transported a distance of 550 km to a commercial harvest plant. After overnight rest, pigs were harvested and the pH of the loin muscle was measured at 45 min (pH45) after stunning. After an 18-h chill, loin muscle pH (pHu), International Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*, a*, b*, color (1 to 6) and marbling (1 to 10) scores and fluid loss percent were collected. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate repeatabilities for response to halothane challenge. Repeatabilities for limb rigidity for the front right and left legs were 0.24 and 0.31, respectively, whereas rear right and left leg repeatabilities were 0.19 and 0.17, respectively. Repeatabilities for front right and left leg tremors were 0.16 and 0.20, respectively. Growth rate was not influenced by any measure of halothane sensitivity. Carcasses from pigs exhibiting limb rigidity tended to have lower pH45 (5.88 v. 5.97; P = 0.06), similar pHu (5.47 v. 5.49; P = 0.32), less pH decline from 45 min to 18 h (−0.40 v. −0.50; P = 0.04) and a tendency for greater fluid loss percent (5.01 v. 4.55; P = 0.08) than carcasses from pigs that did not exhibit limb rigidity during halothane challenge. A proportion of pigs normal for RYR1 did exhibit limb rigidity during halothane gas challenge, and subsequently tended to have lower 45 min pH and greater longissimus muscle fluid loss post harvest.
The target adopted by world leaders of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 was not met but this stimulated a new suite of biodiversity targets for 2020 adopted by the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in October 2010. Indicators will be essential for monitoring progress towards these targets and the CBD will be defining a suite of relevant indicators, building on those developed for the 2010 target. Here we argue that explicitly linked sets of indicators offer a more useful framework than do individual indicators because the former are easier to understand, communicate and interpret to guide policy. A Response-Pressure-State-Benefit framework for structuring and linking indicators facilitates an understanding of the relationships between policy actions, anthropogenic threats, the status of biodiversity and the benefits that people derive from it. Such an approach is appropriate at global, regional, national and local scales but for many systems it is easier to demonstrate causal linkages and use them to aid decision making at national and local scales. We outline examples of linked indicator sets for humid tropical forests and marine fisheries as illustrations of the concept and conclude that much work remains to be done in developing both the indicators and the causal links between them.
Rotaviruses present in products of wastewater treatment were assayed in MA 104 cells by indirect immunofluorescence. Levels in settled sewage, activated sludge and effluent were greater than 103 per litre in March and April but virus was not detected during later months. This pattern correlated with the decline in laboratory reports of human rotavirus infection.
Isoenzyme-based studies have identified 3 taxa/species/‘phylogenetic complexes’ as agents of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan: L. donovani, L. infantum and “L. archibaldi”. However, these observations remain controversial. A new chitinase gene phylogeny was constructed in which stocks of all 3 putative species isolated in Sudan formed a monophyletic clade. In order to construct a more robust classification of the L. donovani complex, a panel of 16 microsatellite markers was used to describe 39 stocks of these 3 species. All “L. donovani complex” stocks from Sudan were again found to form a single monophyletic clade. L. donovani ss stocks from India and Kenya were found to form 2 region-specific clades. The partial sequence of the glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) gene of 17 L. donovani complex stocks was obtained. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the GOT gene appeared to underlie the isoenzyme classification. It was concluded that isoenzyme-based identification is unsafe for stocks isolated in L. donovani endemic areas and identified as L. infantum. It was also concluded that the name L. archibaldi is invalid and that only a single visceralizing species, Leishmania donovani, is found in East Africa.
Yttrium oxide and barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films were grown directly on Si substrates by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Because the optimum oxygen pressure during PLD process is of the order of 10 mTorr, some of the oxygen atoms are trapped inside the grown films and contribute to the growth of a silicon oxide interfacial layer. The use of an UV source during the growth resulted in the reduction of the optimum oxygen pressure and, as a consequence, the amount of trapped oxygen and thickness of the interfacial layer. In addition to that, UV radiation influenced the film morphologies and electrical properties. A further reduction of the interfacial layer was obtained on substrates that were exposed prior to deposition to NH3 for short periods of time under UV radiation.
Myelin basic protein (MBP) is one of the principal constituents of the mammalian myelin sheath. It is a basic peripheral membrane protein in the major dense line and is believed to play a structural role in maintaining myelin stability through its close association with lipids and other proteins. Immune responses to MBP have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in North America and Northern Europe. The correlation between the severity of MS and the deimination of arginyl to citrullinyl residues in MBP was well illustrated in the acute case of MS (Marburg type) that contained MBP with 18 out of 19 arginines citrullinated.
We have studied a recombinant hexahistidine-tagged murine MBP (rmMBP, 18.5 kDa isoform) by electron microscopy of the protein organized as planar arrays on lipid monolayers that consisted of the nickel chelating lipid, l,2-dioleoyl-.yn-glycero-3-[(N(5-amino-l-carboxypentyl)iminodiacetic acid)succinyl] (Nickel salt) (Ni2+-NTADOGS), and the filler lipid, liver phosphatidylinositol (PI).
Ni-Mo alloys containing at least 26 wt.% Mo have a negligible corrosion rate in boiling 10% hydrochloric acid and are therefore used in corrosive environments. A series of commercial Ni-Mo alloys has been developed with subtle variations in chemical composition. These alloys usually contain ∼28 wt.% Mo with additions of up to 5 % Fe and Cr. A significant amount of research has been performed to understand the microstructure and properties of these alloys, although most of the effort has concentrated on the Ni-Mo binary system. In some alloys with low Fe and Cr contents, a severe embrittlement problem has been observed due to the formation of the Ni4Mo (D1a-ordered) phase within the microstructure. The calculated section of the ternary Ni-Mo-Fe phase diagram in Fig. 1 illustrates that the addition of Fe stabilises Ni3Mo with respect to the brittle Ni4Mo phase.
Nanocrystalline copper powder was produced by a NaBH4 reduction of CuCl in a simple solution phase room temperature reaction. Uniaxial hot pressing in a closed tungsten die was used to compact powder into dense specimens. Samples were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, precision densitometry, electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and selected area diffraction. Mechanical properties of the consolidated samples were determined by microhardness measurements, three-point bending of rectangular specimens, and compression tests. Yield strength measured for nanocrystalline Cu in the present work was over two times that reported in literature for Cu with comparable grain size and over five times that of conventional Cu. Restricted grain growth observed in the hot-pressed samples and improved mechanical properties are attributed to the presence of boron. A unique method of obtaining homogeneous in situ nanosized reinforcements to strengthen the grain boundaries in nanocrystalline materials is identified.
Two alkali-tin-silicate (ATS) glasses have been prepared at Argonne National
Laboratory (ANL) as part of our ongoing research in radioactive waste glass
development. These glasses dissolved 5% and approximately 7% Pu. Early
corrosion test results indicate that Pu-bearing ATS glass is extremely
durable. The initial goal in this project concerned equally both the
solubility of Pu and the durability of the ATS glasses; however, our primary
emphasis has changed recently to maximizing the loading of Pu in the glass.
ATS-based glasses, using Th(VI) and Ce(III) as surrogates for Pu(IV), are
now being investigated to increase the solubility of Pu without
substantially sacrificing the durability of the current ATS formulations.
The solution data from various corrosion tests on the original Pu-containing
ATS glasses are also presented.
In an attempt to accelerate the process of joining of metals to ceramics, a new rapid brazing technology has been developed. In this process, referred to as Microwave Induced Plasma (MIP) brazing, a microwave plasma is used to rapidly heat the ceramic and metal to the melting temperature of the reactive braze material. The heating rate obtained by MIP could be many times faster than those achieved by conventional resistive heating in a tube furnace. The fast heating rate has no detrimental effect on the joint quality and in fact results in the formation of a thick interfacial film suggesting significant interdiffusion between the braze and ceramic, possibly stimulated by the microwave radiation. In this paper the experimental arrangement of the MIP system is described. The unique capability of the MIP heating is demonstrated by successful joining of hot pressed silicon nitride to stainless steel using reactive metal brazing. The results of microstructural characterisation of the joints carried out by SEM and EDS will also be presented.