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Towards a comprehensive revision of Gesneriaceae in Sri Lanka, 12 names are here typified, of which 11 are lectotypifications, including one second-step lectotypification, and the other is a neotypification.
Two new species of Oreocharis, O. tribracteata and O. rufescens, are described and a key to the species in Vietnam is provided. The new species have distinct features not previously, or rarely, observed in the genus, both showing the partial fusion of the calyx lobes into a tube, and the presence of three bracts in Oreocharis tribracteata.
Early life exposures affect health and disease across the life course and potentially across multiple generations. The Clinical and Translational Research Institutes (CTSIs) offer an opportunity to utilize and link existing databases to conduct lifespan research.
A survey with Lifespan Domain Taskforce expert input was created and distributed to lead lifespan researchers at each of the 64 CTSIs. The survey requested information regarding institutional databases related to early life exposure, child-maternal health, or lifespan research.
Of 64 CTSI, 88% provided information on a total of 130 databases. Approximately 59% (n=76/130) had an associated biorepository. Longitudinal data were available for 72% (n=93/130) of reported databases. Many of the biorepositories (n=44/76; 68%) have standard operating procedures that can be shared with other researchers.
The majority of CTSI databases and biorepositories focusing on child-maternal health and lifespan research could be leveraged for lifespan research, increased generalizability and enhanced multi-institutional research in the United States.
We consider the influence of a smooth three-dimensional (3-D) indentation on the instability of an incompressible boundary layer by linear and nonlinear analyses. The numerical work was complemented by an experimental study to investigate indentations of approximately
width at depths of 45 %, 52 % and 60 % of
indicates 99% boundary layer thickness. For these indentations a separation bubble confined within the indentation arises. Upstream of the indentation, spanwise-uniform Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) waves are assumed to exist, with the objective to investigate how the 3-D surface indentation modifies the 2-D TS disturbance. Numerical corroboration against experimental data reveals good quantitative agreement. Comparing the structure of the 3-D separation bubble to that created by a purely 2-D indentation, there are a number of topological changes particularly in the case of the widest indentation; more rapid amplification and modification of the upstream TS waves along the symmetry plane of the indentation is observed. For the shortest indentations, beyond a certain depth there are then no distinct topological changes of the separation bubbles and hence on flow instability. The destabilising mechanism is found to be due to the confined separation bubble and is attributed to the inflectional instability of the separated shear layer. Finally for the widest width indentation investigated (
), results of the linear analysis are compared with direct numerical simulations. A comparison with the traditional criteria of using
-factors to assess instability of properly 3-D disturbances reveals that a general indication of flow destabilisation and development of strongly nonlinear behaviour is indicated as
values are attained. However
-factors, based on linear models, can only be used to provide indications and severity of the destabilisation, since the process of disturbance breakdown to turbulence is inherently nonlinear and dependent on the magnitude and scope of the initial forcing.
The role of total thyroidectomy in the management of patients with Graves' disease remains controversial. However, there is increasing evidence to support the role of the procedure as a safe and definitive treatment for Graves' disease.
Patients were identified from a prospective thyroid database of the multidisciplinary thyroid clinic at Hull Royal Infirmary. All case notes were independently reviewed to confirm the data held on the database.
Over a 7-year period, the senior author has performed 206 total thyroidectomies for Graves' disease. The incidence of temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism was 3.4 per cent and 24 per cent respectively. There was one case of permanent unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, and 3.9 per cent of patients developed permanent hypoparathyroidism. There has been no relapse of thyrotoxicosis.
In the context of a multidisciplinary thyroid clinic, total thyroidectomy should be offered as a safe and effective first-line treatment option for Graves' disease.
The occurrence of a population of the spionid polychaete Marenzelleria viridis (Verrill 1873) in the middle reaches of the Tay Estuary is reported. This is a new British and European record of a North American species, and its principal characteristics are described and compared with earlier accounts. Size frequency analysis of the population showed it to be dominated by large animals from July 1984 to May 1986. The population matured coelomic gametes during winter 1985–86 and spawned in March 1986 to produce a heavy settlement in May, which subsequently grew rapidly. The distribution of M. viridis in relation to other species, sediment and other ecological parameters is described from a single survey of the Invergowrie Bay mudflats. Marenzelleria population densities of up to 1500 m 2 were negatively correlated with all other species of a low diversity macrofaunal community dominated by predatory polychaetes and filter feeding bivalves. Marenzelleria was abundant down to sediment depths of 20–30 cm. The significance and origin of this population is discussed.
Biomimetic surfaces were prepared by chemisorption of oxidized dextran (Mw = 110 kDa) onto SiO2 substrates that were previously modified with aminopropyl-tri-ethoxy silane (APTES). The kinetics of dextran oxidation by sodium metaperiodate (NaIO4) were quantified by 1H NMR and pH measurements. The extent of oxidation was then used to control the morphology of the biomimetic surface. Oxidation times of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours resulted in <20, ∼30, ∼40, ∼50 and 100% oxidation, respectively. The surfaces were characterized by contact angle analysis and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surfaces prepared with low oxidation times revealed a more densely packed “brushy” layer when imaged by AFM than those prepared at low oxidation times. Finally, the contact angle data revealed, quite unexpectedly, that the surface with the greatest entropic freedom (0.5 h) wetted the fastest and to the greatest extent (θAPTES>θ1h>θ2,4h>θ0.5h).
Permanent X(2) gratings can be written in doped silica fibers by coherent irradiation with light at ω and 2ω. The X(2) gratings give rise to phase-matched second harmonic generation (SHG), i.e. subsequent irradiation of the prepared fiber with light at ω results in an output at 2ω. The efficiency with which the gratings can be written depends on the nature and concentration of defect states induced by dopants in the, glass. We present results for fibers doped with Ge and rare earth ions and discuss the implications of our results for the various mechanisms that have been proposed to explain photoinduced SHG in fibers.
Humid-air and aqueous general and pitting corrosion models (including their uncertainties) for the carbon steel outer containment barrier were developed using the corrosion data from literature for a suite of cast irons and carbon steels which have similar corrosion behaviors to the outer barrier material. The corrosion data include the potential effects of various chemical species present in the testing environments. The atmospheric corrosion data also embed any effects of cyclic wetting and drying and salts that may form on the corroding specimen surface. The humid-air and aqueous general corrosion models are consistent in that the predicted humid-air general corrosion rates at relative humidities between 85 and 100% RH are close to the predicted aqueous general corrosion rates. Using the expected values of the model parameters, the model predicts that aqueous pitting corrosion is the most likely failure mode for the carbon steel outer barrier, and an earliest failure (or initial pit penetration) of the 100-mm thick barrier may occur as early as about 500 years if it is exposed continuously to an aqueous condition at between 60 and 70°C.
A detailed stochastic waste package degradation simulation model was developed incorporating the humid-air and aqueous general and pitting corrosion models for the carbon steel corrosion-allowance outer barrier and aqueous pitting corrosion model for the Alloy 825 corrosion-resistant inner barrier. The uncertainties in the individual corrosion models were also incorporated to capture the variability in the corrosion degradation among waste packages and among pits in the same waste package. Within the scope of assumptions employed in the simulations, the corrosion modes considered, and the near-field conditions from the drift-scale thermohydrologic model, the results of the waste package performance analyses show that the current waste package design appears to meet the ‘controlled design assumption’ requirement of waste package performance, which is currently defined as having less than 1% of waste packages breached at 1,000 years . It was shown that, except for the waste packages that fail early, pitting corrosion of the corrosion-resistant inner barrier has a greater control on the failure of waste packages and their subsequent degradation than the outer barrier. Further improvement and substantiation of the inner barrier pitting model (currently based on an elicitation) is necessary in future waste package performance simulation model.
X-ray absorption measurements are described for identifying metal impurities in
silica preforms, the rod-like starting materials from which hair-like optical fibers are drawn.
The results demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach as a non-destructive,
quantitative, element-selective, position-sensitive, and chemical-state-specific means for
characterizing transition metals in the concentration regime of parts per billion.
To identify the cause of operative failure in patients who have undergone parathyroid surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism.
Retrospective case review.
Patients who had undergone a primary procedure for primary hyperparathyroidism between July 2003 and December 2007. Cases with incomplete post-operative serum calcium data were excluded.
Main outcome measure:
Operative failure was defined as failure to achieve normalisation of serum adjusted calcium levels post-operatively.
A total of 220 primary procedures were conducted over 4.5 years. Data were not available for 16 patients. Thirteen procedures (6.4 per cent) were considered failures, and these cases were individually reviewed and classified according to the reason for failure.
Establishing the cause of failure following surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism can be a complex task. In some instances, diagnostic uncertainty remains despite detailed biochemical and radiological assessment. This paper outlines our approach to maximising the cure rate at primary surgery.
Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata is a potential biocontrol agent against root-knot nematodes. Diagnosis of isolates has relied on morphological identification, and is both time-consuming and difficult. β-tubulin primers have been developed for the identification of this fungus that were specific enough to distinguish between varieties of the fungus within the same species. Separate primers have been developed for the specific detection of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata based on ITS sequences, which were able to detect the fungus in soil from various sites in Cuba where the biocontrol agent had been added. When the PCR diagnosis was combined with serial dilution of soil samples on selective medium, colonies were rapidly identified. The fungus was still present, albeit at low densities, in soils inoculated five years previously. The development of a baiting method allowed quick in situ screening of the isolates' ability to infect nematode eggs, and when combined with PCR diagnosis both varieties of the fungus could be detected in infected eggs. RFLP analysis of ITS sequences from P. chlamydosporia provided an extra level of discrimination between isolates.
There has been consultation and collaboration between us on every aspect and at every stage. The primary division of responsibility, however, is as follows. The Introduction was the joint responsibility of Robert Dodaro and Margaret Atkins. Robert Dodaro furnished the list of Principal dates, the Bibliography, the Biographical notes, and most of the annotations on the text. The translation was the work of Margaret Atkins, who also prepared the Translator's notes and the map. She also contributed to the annotations.
Three scholars deserve our particular thanks: Peter Garnsey read the whole manuscript and gave invaluable advice at each stage; George Lawless also commented helpfully on the entire manuscript; Peter Glare read a draft of the translation and suggested numerous improvements. In addition, we are grateful to Caroline Humfress for advice on Roman law, Claire Sotinel for help with the Biographical notes, and Aldo Bazan and Allan Fitzgerald for technical assistance and advice.
This volume is dedicated with gratitude to our respective parents.