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Herbicides have been a primary means of managing undesirable brush on grazing lands across southwestern United States for decades. Continued encroachment of honey mesquite and huisache on grazing lands warrants evaluation of treatment life and economics of current and experimental treatments. Treatment life is defined as the time between treatment application and when canopy cover of undesirable brush returns to a competitive level with native forage grasses (i.e. 25% canopy cover for mesquite and 30% canopy cover for huisache). Treatment life of industry standard herbicides was compared to aminocyclopyrachlor plus triclopyr amine (ACP+T) from ten broadcast-applied honey mesquite and five broadcast-applied huisache trials established from 2007 through 2013 across Texas. On average, the treatment life of industry standard treatments (IST) for huisache was 3 years. In comparison, huisache canopy cover was only 2.5% in ACP+T treated plots 3 years after treatment. The average treatment life of industry standard honey mesquite treatments was 8.6 years, while ACP+T treated plots had just 2% mesquite canopy cover at that time. Improved treatment life of ACP+T treatments compared to IST was due to higher mortality resulting in more consistent brush canopy reduction. The net present values of ACP+T and IST, for both huisache and mesquite, were similar until the treatment life of the IST application was reached (3 years for huisache and 8.6 years for honey mesquite). At that point, net present values of the programs diverged as a result of brush competition with desirable forage grasses and additional input costs associated with theoretical follow-up IST necessary to maintain optimum livestock forage production. The ACP+T treatments did not warrant a sequential application over the 12-year analysis for huisache or 20-year analysis for honey mesquite that this research covered. These results indicate ACP+T provides cost-effective, long-term control of honey mesquite and huisache.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Innovation Concept: Residents bear an enormous burden of responsibility for patient care which can lead to stress and mental exhaustion, especially in the face-paced and acute environment of emergency medicine (EM). In addition to numerous demands faced by EM residents, being a member of a geographically distributive residency program presents many unique challenges from a support and wellness perspective. To address these issues we sought to implement a video conferenced peer support network in hopes to foster wellness in the NOSM Family Medicine/EM program, where learners are commonly separated for training. Methods: Participants completed a pre-pilot questionnaire that strongly showed interest for this type of novel network. Furthermore residents conveyed that they are reluctant to access formal services and commonly rely on co-residents for support. This pilot program intends to decrease barriers that geography and stigma create that negatively hinder seeking support throughout medical training. Keeping the network small, consisting of only co-residents maintains a collegial and confidential environment that enables colleagues to provide relevant help to one another. Offering this outlet allows the opportunity to debrief and share unique experiences, which can lead to improved knowledge and wellbeing. Curriculum, Tool or Material: Informal, co-resident run and easy to access sessions are held twice monthly and average one hour in length. Discussion topics commonly include residency issues, difficult patient encounters and challenging situations. These sessions are conducted via video conferencing making them easily accessible from a distance and also from a comfortable and convenient environment of the participants choosing. Residents have commented that this is a helpful platform to discuss important issues while providing and safe and confidential resource to help cope with residency challenges. Conclusion: Further data analysis is underway as we are in the initial stages of implementing the program. In the final stages (April 2018) a pending post-pilot questionnaire will be interpreted to explore barriers, limitations and to determine the role of the network going forward. If found to be effective it is something that can be implemented and adapted for future residents. Other programs can use this feasible model to increase wellness and foster the same supportive environment among residents, especially those separated geographically from peers who may benefit most.
Background: There is growing concern about emergency physicians overuse of computed tomography (CT). In an attempt to ensure appropriate ordering many hospitals implement strict protocols for ordering of CT scans in the emergency department (ED) that include approval of all scans by a board-certified radiologist, and a reduced access to CT overnight. Aim Statement: The aim of this study is to review the impact of RAD ED – direct access to CT ordering by ED physicians, 24hr CT technologist and third-party reporting on CT scans overnight. Our objectives were to assess the effect on; 1) ED length of stay, 2) number of CT scans ordered and 3) admission rates. Measures & Design: We conducted a prospective pilot before & after study at a single tertiary-care emergency department between February 1st, 2018 and July 31st, 2018. Inclusion criteria were adult patients presenting to the emergency department and undergoing CT for any of the following: face, neck, spine, upper and lower extremities, chest, abdomen and pelvis. Exclusion criteria were those undergoing CT head for stroke or trauma. Evaluation/Results: A total of 924 patients met our criteria, 352 before and 568 after implementation. Comparison of the patient populations demonstrate very similar characteristics in both groups; (49% male, average age 56 years, CTAS 2(40%) and 3(47%). Results demonstrate that an additional 216 scans were performed in post-implementation group. This equates to an increase of 61%. ED length of stay averaged 5.6 hours pre-implementation and 4.7 hours post-implementation. This corresponds to a significant reduction in length of stay of approximately 0.9 hours (p < 0.01). Collection is currently ongoing for factors that we will adjust for a multivariate analysis, including admission rates. Discussion/Impact: RAD ED led to a significant increase in CT ordering and decrease in ED length of stay. We believe that this project provides important information to clinicians and patients with regards to overall CT utilization, ED wait times, follow up visits for CT scanning and admission rates. It is also important for administrators to help decide if these new rules are leading to improved efficiency, and to help estimate their financial impact.
In the USA, western Washington (WWA) and the Alaska (AK) Interior are two regions where maritime and continental climates, high latitude and cropping systems necessitate early maturing spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Both regions aim to increase the production of hard spring bread wheat for human consumption to support regional agriculture and food systems. The Nordic region of Europe has a history of breeding for early maturing spring wheat and also experiences long daylengths with mixed maritime and continental climates. Nordic wheat also carries wildtype (wt) NAM-B1, an allele associated with accelerated senescence and increased grain protein and micronutrient content, at a higher frequency than global germplasm. Time to senescence, yield, protein and mineral content were evaluated on 42 accessions of Nordic hard red spring wheat containing wt NAM-B1 over 2 years on experimental stations in WWA and the AK Interior. Significant variation was found by location and accession for time to senescence, suggesting potential parental lines for breeding programmes targeting early maturity. Additionally, multiple regression analysis showed that decreased time to senescence correlated negatively with grain yield and positively with grain protein, iron and zinc content. Breeding for early maturity in these regions will need to account for this potential trade-off in yield. Nordic wt NAM-B1 accessions with early senescence yet with yields similar to regional checks are reported. Collaboration among alternative wheat regions can aid in germplasm exchange and varietal development as shown here for the early maturing trait.
Carbon blacks were oxidized by gaseous and wet oxidation techniques. Graphite was oxidized by potassium chlorate dissolved in mixed nitric and sulphuric acids. The resulting oxidized carbon blacks contain 5 to 20% oxygen, 1% or higher hydrogen, and the rest carbon. The oxidized graphite was heated to 200°C at which temperature it explosively forms a material that is very similar to carbon black. The exploded material contains 15% oxygen and the rest carbon. The X-ray work attempts to present a picture of the structure of these materials in terms of per cent disorganized matter, size of crystallites, distribution of thickness of crystallites, and the interplanar distance, according to the methods of Rosalind Franklin and of L. E. Alexander and E. C. Sommer.
In 1994, the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program was initiated with funding from a special USDA grant. The 15-yr program provided $4.1 million to support jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.) research and technology transfer projects in 10 western states. These projects resulted in approximately 80 refereed manuscripts, including journal articles and extension publications. The research covered various topics related to the biology and ecology of jointed goatgrass as well as its management and control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production systems. This review summarizes the research on jointed goatgrass published after Donald and Ogg’s 1991 review, most of which was conducted as part of the USDA-funded National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program. Specific topics that were studied and reviewed here include A. cylindrica genetics, especially as it relates to gene flow and hybridization rates with wheat and fertility of the resulting hybrids; vernalization requirements; seed dormancy, longevity, and germination requirements; competitiveness with wheat; and herbicide resistance acquired through evolution or gene flow from wheat. With respect to management, a wide variety of practices were evaluated, including various tillage types and frequencies; crop rotations, especially diversified wheat production systems that include spring-seeded annual crops; competitive wheat cultivars, seeding dates, seeding density, and row spacing; fertility management, including nitrogen application timing and placement; and field burning. Finally, many studies evaluated the use of herbicides, especially the introduction of imazamox in imidazolinone-resistant wheat cultivars, as well as comparison of adjuvant systems and application timings. In addition to the many management practices that were studied individually, several integrated management systems were evaluated that combined crop rotations, tillage, and herbicide programs. Between 1993 and 2013, weed scientists in 14 western states estimated that jointed goatgrass infestations decreased by 45% to 55% and attributed the reduction to the implementation of more diverse crop rotations, improved cultural practices, and use of imazamox-resistant wheat technology. This is evidence that the practical implications of the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program have been successfully implemented by growers throughout the western United States.
The Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE; Bronfman, Madigan, & Lyons-Ruth, 2009–2014; Bronfman, Parsons, & Lyons-Ruth, 1992–2004) is a widely used and well-validated measure for assessing disrupted forms of caregiver responsiveness within parent–child interactions. However, it requires evaluating approximately 150 behavioral items from videotape and extensive training to code, thus making its use impractical in most clinical contexts. Accordingly, the primary aim of the current study was to identify a reduced set of behavioral indicators most central to the AMBIANCE coding system using latent-trait item response theory (IRT) models. Observed mother–infant interaction data previously coded with the AMBIANCE was pooled from laboratories in both North America and Europe (N = 343). Using 2-parameter logistic IRT models, a reduced set of 45 AMBIANCE items was identified. Preliminary convergent and discriminant validity was evaluated in relation to classifications of maternal disrupted communication assigned using the full set of AMBIANCE indicators, to infant attachment disorganization, and to maternal sensitivity. The results supported the construct validity of the refined item set, opening the way for development of a brief screening measure for disrupted maternal communication. IRT models in clinical scale refinement and their potential for bridging clinical and research objectives in developmental psychopathology are discussed.
We present an indentation-scope that interfaces with confocal microscopy, enabling direct observation of the three-dimensional (3D) microstructural response of coatings on substrates. Using this method, we compared microns-thick polymer coatings on glass with and without silica nanoparticle filler. Bulk force data confirmed the >30% modulus difference, while microstructural data further revealed slip at the glass-coating interface. Filled coatings slipped more and about two times faster, as reflected in 3D displacement and von Mises strain fields. Overall, these data indicate that silica-doping of coatings can dramatically alter adhesion. Moreover, this method compliments existing theoretical and modeling approaches for studying indentation in layered systems.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
The Square Kilometre Array will be an amazing instrument for pulsar astronomy. While the full SKA will be sensitive enough to detect all pulsars in the Galaxy visible from Earth, already with SKA1, pulsar searches will discover enough pulsars to increase the currently known population by a factor of four, no doubt including a range of amazing unknown sources. Real time processing is needed to deal with the 60 PB of pulsar search data collected per day, using a signal processing pipeline required to perform more than 10 POps. Here we present the suggested design of the pulsar search engine for the SKA and discuss challenges and solutions to the pulsar search venture.
For fifty years astronomers have been searching for pulsar signals in observational data. Throughout this time the process of choosing detections worthy of investigation, so called ‘candidate selection’, has been effective, yielding thousands of pulsar discoveries. Yet in recent years technological advances have permitted the proliferation of pulsar-like candidates, straining our candidate selection capabilities, and ultimately reducing selection accuracy. To overcome such problems, we now apply ‘intelligent’ machine learning tools. Whilst these have achieved success, candidate volumes continue to increase, and our methods have to evolve to keep pace with the change. This talk considers how to meet this challenge as a community.
The study aim was to establish and quantify suicide risk following acute admissions for all major physical illnesses, for confirmatory purposes, from two independent information sources from different countries.
Record linkage of inpatient and death certificate data for 11 004 389 acute admissions for physical illnesses in England and 713 496 in Wales. The main outcome measure was standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for suicide at 1 year following discharge from hospital.
There were 1781 suicides within 1 year of discharge in England (SMR = 1.7; 95% = 1.6–1.8) and 131 in Wales (SMR = 2.0; 1.7–2.3). Of 48 major physical illnesses that were associated with at least eight suicides in either country, there was high consistent suicide mortality (significant SMR >3) in both countries for constipation (SMR = 4.1 in England, 7.5 in Wales), gastritis (4.4 and 4.9) and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (3.4 and 4.5). There was high suicide mortality in one country for alcoholic liver disease, other liver disease and chronic pancreatitis; for epilepsy and Parkinson's disease; for diabetes, hypoglycaemia and hypo-osmolality & hyponatraemia; and for pneumonia, back pain and urinary tract infections.
There is little or no increased suicide mortality following acute admissions for most physical illnesses. Much of the increased suicide mortality relates to gastrointestinal disorders that are often alcohol related or specific chronic conditions, which may be linked to side effects from certain therapeutic medications. Acute hospital admissions for physical illnesses may therefore provide an opportunity for targeted suicide prevention among people with certain conditions, particularly alcohol related disorders.
The unique phenotypic and genetic aspects of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) are not well characterized. Here, we examine symptom patterns and heritability of OCD and ADHD in TS families.
OCD and ADHD symptom patterns were examined in TS patients and their family members (N = 3494) using exploratory factor analyses (EFA) for OCD and ADHD symptoms separately, followed by latent class analyses (LCA) of the resulting OCD and ADHD factor sum scores jointly; heritability and clinical relevance of the resulting factors and classes were assessed.
EFA yielded a 2-factor model for ADHD and an 8-factor model for OCD. Both ADHD factors (inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms) were genetically related to TS, ADHD, and OCD. The doubts, contamination, need for sameness, and superstitions factors were genetically related to OCD, but not ADHD or TS; symmetry/exactness and fear-of-harm were associated with TS and OCD while hoarding was associated with ADHD and OCD. In contrast, aggressive urges were genetically associated with TS, OCD, and ADHD. LCA revealed a three-class solution: few OCD/ADHD symptoms (LC1), OCD & ADHD symptoms (LC2), and symmetry/exactness, hoarding, and ADHD symptoms (LC3). LC2 had the highest psychiatric comorbidity rates (⩾50% for all disorders).
Symmetry/exactness, aggressive urges, fear-of-harm, and hoarding show complex genetic relationships with TS, OCD, and ADHD, and, rather than being specific subtypes of OCD, transcend traditional diagnostic boundaries, perhaps representing an underlying vulnerability (e.g. failure of top-down cognitive control) common to all three disorders.
Laboratory experiments and field observations permit an explanation of the varying crystallographic orientations observed in lake ice in terms of four factors: (1) coincidence of the plane of most rapid growth in ice (the basal plane) with the vector of thermal flux, (2) mechanical fragmentation of early-formed dendrites and plates by winds above a critical velocity (approximately 2.7 m./sec.), (3) the presence of a sufficiently thick layer of supercooled water to permit vertical crystal growth, and (4) the operation of geometric factors, first pointed out by Perey and Pounder, which result in the gradual elimination of the flatter plates of growing ice by the steeper ones.
Analysis of glaciologial data indicates that grounding of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf and its conversion into an ice rise was primarily the result of local thickening of a floating ice shelf and the availability of a very gently sloping sea floor on which the ice shelf came to rest. Application of heat conduction theory to a series of thermal profiles through the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf, and the Ward Hunt, Camp Creek and Cape Discovery ice rises shows that present heat flow in this area of northern Ellesmere Island is more than twice normal, and that the outer and intermediate parts of the Ward Hunt ice rise grounded 250–350 years ago, during a cycle of climatic deterioration. Development and localization of ice rises along northern Ellesmere Island are strongly influenced by topography, and all ice rises we have studied seem to have formed within the past 1 600 years, possibly with major growth in the interval from 1 000 to 150 years ago.
Analyses of fluoride, chloride, sodium, sulfate, bromide, nitrate, and iron from a 3 m snow pit on Heard Island, collected at an elevation of 2450, m are used to assess the potential of glaciochemical studies on. Heard Island glaciers. Sources for the chemical species are identified and, in particular, chloride, sodium, and sulfate are found to be useful seasonal indicators. The total record measured is believed to be less than one mass-balance year.
Sarcoma of the head and neck is a rare condition that poses significant challenges in management and often requires radical multimodality treatment.
This study aimed to analyse current clinical presentation, evaluation, management dilemmas and oncological outcomes.
Computer records and case notes were analysed, and 39 patients were identified. Variables were compared using Pearson's chi-square test and the log-rank test, while survival outcomes were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method.
The histopathological diagnosis was Kaposi sarcoma in 20.5 per cent of cases, chondrosarcoma in 15.3 per cent and osteosarcoma in 10.2 per cent. A range of other sarcomas were diagnosed in the remaining patients. The site of disease was most commonly sinonasal, followed by the oral cavity and larynx.
Wide local excision with clear resection margins is essential to achieve local control and long-term survival. There is a need for cross-specialty collaboration in order to accrue the evidence which will be necessary to improve long-term outcomes.
The ultrasociality thesis proposes that the same “mechanistic evolutionary forces” may be at work in the evolution of insect eusociality and human ultrasociality in relation to agriculture. Wide variation in the reproductive division of labor among differing highly social phyla points to a resemblance of outcomes arising from very different selective environments and possibly different forces.