The refraction effect at small incidence angles was investigated for solid Al2O3 disks of varying surface roughness, and Al2O3 and LaB6 powder layers of varying thickness and roughness using pseudo parallel beam optics. For the disks the peak shift Δ2θ correlated approximately inversely with ζmax, the maximum slope of a sinusoidal model of the surface roughness. For a disk polished with 3θm diamond, Δ2θ exceeded that predicted by the James equation. For the powder layers Δ2θ was very small for the thinnest layers. For thicker, rougher layers Δ2θ was larger and was probably due to displacement error from the 0.4° divergence of the Soller slit used and specular reflection of the diffracted beam from the Soller slit leaves.