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While much of the literature on bilingualism and cognition focuses on group comparisons (monolinguals vs bilinguals or language learners vs controls), here we examine the potential differential effects of intensive language learning on subjects with distinct language experiences and demographic profiles. Using an individual differences approach, we assessed attentional performance from 105 university-educated Gaelic learners aged 21–85. Participants were tested before and after beginner, elementary, and intermediate courses using tasks measuring i.) sustained attention, ii.) inhibition, and iii.) attention switching. We examined the relationship between attentional performance and Gaelic level, previous language experience, gender, and age. Gaelic level predicted attention switching performance: those in higher levels initially outperformed lower levels, however lower levels improved the most. Age also predicted performance: as age increased attention switching decreased. Nevertheless, age did not interact with session for any attentional measure, thus the impact of language learning on cognition was detectable across the lifespan.
According to the United States Eye Injury Registry, eye injury is the leading cause of monocular blindness, and there are approximately 2.4 million eye injuries occurring annually in the US, resulting in 500,000 years of lost eyesight annually.1 These injuries occur more often in males (>70%), and 95% of occupational injuries occur in males.2,3 This chapter will describe the approach to the patient with eye trauma in the emergency department (ED), including how to perform a detailed history and physical examination related to eye injuries, as well as covering the traumatic presentations in Table 9.1.
Research participants want to receive results from studies in which they participate. However, health researchers rarely share the results of their studies beyond scientific publication. Little is known about the barriers researchers face in returning study results to participants.
Using a mixed-methods design, health researchers (N = 414) from more than 40 US universities were asked about barriers to providing results to participants. Respondents were recruited from universities with Clinical and Translational Science Award programs and Prevention Research Centers.
Respondents reported the percent of their research where they experienced each of the four barriers to disseminating results to participants: logistical/methodological, financial, systems, and regulatory. A fifth barrier, investigator capacity, emerged from data analysis. Training for research faculty and staff, promotion and tenure incentives, and funding agencies supporting dissemination of results to participants were solutions offered to overcoming barriers.
Study findings add to literature on research dissemination by documenting health researchers’ perceived barriers to sharing study results with participants. Implications for policy and practice suggest that additional resources and training could help reduce dissemination barriers and increase the return of results to participants.
Architected materials play an essential role in achieving next-generation electrochemical systems with unprecedented power and energy capabilities. The geometry and chemistry of architected materials can be engineered to address key areas of performance, including electrochemical kinetics and mechanics. Electrochemical kinetics impact key metrics such as power density, efficiency, and lifetime in batteries, fuel cells, and sensors. Additionally, electrochemical reactions can dramatically change material composition, which may result in large strains (in the hundreds of percent) that cause mechanical failure. In this article, we summarize advances in energy storage offered by architected materials and highlight fabrication methods used to realize these advances. We also discuss electrochemistry as an enabling tool for architected materials with functionality beyond energy storage and sensing.
We previously demonstrated that electrode architectures comprising nanoscale birnessite-like MnOx affixed to three-dimensional carbon nanofoam (CNF) scaffolds offer performance advantages when used as cathodes in rechargeable zinc-ion cells. To discern chemical and physical changes at the MnOx@CNF electrode upon deep charge/discharge in aqueous Zn2+-containing electrolytes, we deploy electroanalytical methods and ex situ characterization by microscopy, elemental analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray pair distribution function analyses. Our findings verify that redox processes at the MnOx are accompanied by reversible precipitation/dissolution of crystalline zinc hydroxide sulfate (Zn4(OH)6(SO4)·xH2O), mediated by the more uniformly reactive electrode structure inherent to the CNF scaffold.
The link between circulating glucocorticoids and leptin in beef calves has not been explored but has been noted in several studies. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of exogenous glucocorticoids given at birth and 1 day of age on serum leptin concentrations in beef calves. Ruminant animals secrete leptin, which is thought to be important for the programming of the hypothalamic appetite centers. Angus crossbred cows (n = 31) bred via natural service were utilized for this experiment. At parturition (day 0), calf BW was recorded and each calf was infused intravenously with either a hydrocortisol sodium succinate solution (HC, 8 males and 8 females) at a dosage of 3.5 μg/kg of BW or a similar volume of saline solution (CONT, 7 males and 8 females). Each calf was given a second infusion of its respective treatment 24 h postpartum at 1.5 μg/kg of BW for HC treatment. Calf treatment was blocked by sex, dam body condition score (BCS), and dam age. Blood samples were taken via jugular venipuncture before infusion, daily from days 0 to 5, then every other day up to day 17. Serum leptin and cortisol concentrations were analyzed via radioimmunoassay. Dam age, dam BCS, calf BW, and serum leptin and cortisol concentrations were analyzed using MIXED procedure of SAS. Dam age was not different (P = 0.81) among HC and CONT calves (4.9±0.5 and 4.7±0.5, respectively). Dam BCS was not different between treatments (5.7±0.2 and 5.6±0.2 HC and CONT, respectively; P = 0.66). There was no difference in calf birth BW between treatments (P = 0.87) and averaged 38.3±1.4 kg. Cortisol concentrations were not different between both treatments (P = 0.23) from birth to day 4 of age. Calves that received the HC treatment showed significantly reduced (P = 0.03) leptin concentrations on days 1 to 13. Calf BW from 60 to 150 days of age was not different between CONT and HC treated calves (P = 0.65). These data indicate that exogenous glucocorticoids can be used to suppress neonatal leptin levels in calves. This could lead to changes in voluntary feed intake of treated calves.
Global climate change poses significant threats to the Caribbean islands. Yet, little is known about the long-term disturbance regimes in island ecosystems. This research investigates 2000 yr of natural and anthropogenic fire disturbance through the analysis of a latitudinal transect of sediment records from coastal salt ponds in the British Virgin Islands (BVI). The two research objectives in this study are (1) to determine the fire regime history for the BVI over the last 2000 yr and (2) to explore ecological impacts from anthropogenic landscape modification pre- and post-European settlement. The magnitude of anthropogenic landscape modification, including the introduction of agriculture, was investigated through a multiproxy approach using sedimentary records of fossil pollen and charcoal. Our results suggest fire regimes from Belmont Pond, Thatch Island, and Skeleton Pond have been influenced by human activity, particularly during the postsettlement era, from 500 cal yr BP to modern. Our results suggest that fire regimes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly were responding to changes in climate via dominant atmospheric drivers. The presettlement fire regimes from these islands suggest that fires occurred every 90 to 120 yr. This research represents a significant data contribution to a region with little disturbance and vegetation data available.
This paper summarises developments in understanding sea level change during the Quaternary in Scotland since the publication of the Quaternary of Scotland Geological Conservation Review volume in 1993. We present a review of progress in methodology, particularly in the study of sediments in isolation basins and estuaries as well as in techniques in the field and laboratory, which have together disclosed greater detail in the record of relative sea level (RSL) change than was available in 1993. However, progress in determining the record of RSL change varies in different areas. Studies of sediments and stratigraphy offshore on the continental shelf have increased greatly, but the record of RSL change there remains patchy. Studies onshore have resulted in improvements in the knowledge of rock shorelines, including the processes by which they are formed, but much remains to be understood. Studies of Late Devensian and Holocene RSLs around present coasts have improved knowledge of both the extent and age range of the evidence. The record of RSL change on the W and NW coasts has disclosed a much longer dated RSL record than was available before 1993, possibly with evidence of Meltwater Pulse 1A, while studies in estuaries on the E and SW coasts have disclosed widespread and consistent fluctuations in Holocene RSLs. Evidence for the meltwater pulse associated with the Early Holocene discharge of Lakes Agassiz–Ojibway in N America has been found on both E and W coasts. The effects of the impact of storminess, in particular in cliff-top storm deposits, have been widely identified. Further information on the Holocene Storegga Slide tsunami has enabled a better understanding of the event, but evidence for other tsunami events on Scottish coasts remains uncertain. Methodological developments have led to new reconstructions of RSL change for the last 2000 years, utilising state-of-the-art GIA models and alongside coastal biostratigraphy to determine trends to compare with modern tide gauge and documentary evidence. Developments in GIA modelling have provided valuable information on patterns of land uplift during and following deglaciation. The studies undertaken raise a number of research questions which will require addressing in future work.
We consider pressure-driven flow of an ion-carrying viscous Newtonian fluid through a non-uniformly shaped channel coated with a charged deformable porous layer, as a model for blood flow through microvessels that are lined with an endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL). The EGL is negatively charged and electrically interacts with ions dissolved in the blood plasma. The focus here is on the interplay between electrochemical effects, and the pressure-driven flow through the microvessel. To analyse these effects we use triphasic mixture theory (TMT) which describes the coupled dynamics of the fluid phase, the elastic EGL, ion transport within the fluid and electric fields within the microvessel. The resulting equations are solved numerically using a coupled boundary–finite element method (BEM-FEM) scheme. However, in the physiological regime considered here, ion concentrations and electric potentials vary rapidly over a thin transitional region (Debye layer) that straddles the lumen–EGL interface, which is difficult to resolve numerically. Accordingly we analyse this region asymptotically, to determine effective jump conditions across the interface for BEM-FEM computations within the bulk EGL/lumen. Our results demonstrate that ion–EGL electrical interactions can influence the near-wall flow, causing it to become reversed. This alters the stresses exerted upon the vessel wall, which has implications for the hypothesised role of the EGL as a transmitter of mechanical signals from the blood flow to the endothelial vessel surface.
The objective of this Research Communication was to use polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis to investigate a region of the bovine TLR4 gene (TLR4) in pasture-fed New Zealand (NZ) Holstein-Friesian × Jersey (HF × J) cross dairy cows and to determine whether gene variation was associated with milk production traits. Genetic variation was observed, with two variants (A and B) containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (c.2021C/T) that was non-synonymous and putatively results in a p.Thr674Ile substitution in the transmembrane/cytoplasmic domain of TLR4. Variant A was associated with higher milk yields, but lower milk fat percentages, whereas B was associated with lower milk yields, but higher fat and protein percentages. Cows of genotype AA produced more milk than AB or BB cows, but the milk produced by AA cows contained less fat than AB or BB cows.
We deposited TaWSi amorphous metal thin films to determine how composition affects film crystallization and oxidation at high temperatures. Films were deposited by magnetron sputtering from targets of nominal compositions Ta : W : Si = 40 : 40 : 20, 30 : 50 : 20, and 30 : 30 : 40, and studied by electron probe microanalysis, electron microscopy, electrical methods, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy. All films remained amorphous to 800 °C or higher temperatures. Films prepared from the target composition 30 : 30 : 40 yielded the film composition Ta41.7W38.4Si19.9, which retained its film integrity and amorphous structure to 1100 °C, even after annealing in air.
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of early and mid-gestation nutrient restriction on maternal metabolites and foetal growth. Primiparous Angus cows were synchronized and inseminated with semen from one sire. Dietary treatments were: control to gain 1 kg/week (CON) or 0.55% maintenance energy and CP requirements (nutrient restricted; NR). A subset of dams was fed NR (n=8) or CON (n=8) from days 30 to 110 of gestation. Another group was fed CON (n=8), days 30 to 190; NR (n=7), days 30 to 110 followed by CON days 110 to 190; or CON, (n=7) days 30 to 110 followed by NR days 110 to 190. Cows were harvested at days 110 or 190 of gestation, when foetal measurements and samples were collected. Cows that were NR during days 30 to 110 or 110 to 190 of gestation lost significant BW and body condition score (P<0.001), this was associated with reduced plasma glucose during NR (P<0.002). Foetal weights, empty foetal weights, abdominal and thoracic circumferences were all reduced (P<0.03) in day 110 NR animals. Foetal perirenal adipose as a percentage of empty foetal weight was increased (P=0.01) in NR day 110 female foetuses compared with CON foetus. Maternal serum triglycerides at day 110 of gestation were decreased (P<0.05) in NR dams, whereas foetal serum triglycerides were increased (P<0.05) in response to maternal NR. Foetal weights tended to be reduced (P=0.08) in NR/CON and CON/NR v. CON/CON cattle at day 190 of gestation. Empty foetal weights, abdominal and thoracic circumferences were reduced (P⩽0.03) in NR/CON and CON/NR v. CON/CON cattle. Brain weight as a percentage of empty foetal weight was increased (P<0.001) in NR/CON and CON/NR v. CON/CON cattle. Foetal perirenal adipose as a percentage of empty foetal weight was increased (P=0.003) in NR/CON and CON/NR v. CON/CON cattle. Maternal serum triglycerides at day 190 of gestation were decreased (P<0.05) in association with maternal NR. Foetal serum triglycerides at day 190 of gestation were increased (P<0.05) in response to maternal NR during early gestation but decreased by NR in mid gestation compared with CON foetuses. The data show that maternal nutrient restriction during early or mid-gestation cause’s asymmetrical foetal growth restriction, regardless if the restriction is preceded or followed by a period of non-restriction.
Studies of learner-learner interactions have reported varying degrees of pronunciation-focused discourse, ranging from 1% (Bowles, Toth, & Adams, 2014) to 40% (Bueno-Alastuey, 2013). Including first language (L1) background, modality, and task as variables, this study investigates the role of pronunciation in learner-learner interactions. Thirty English learners in same-L1 or different-L1 dyads were assigned to one of two modes (face-to-face or audio-only synchronous computer-mediated communication) and completed three tasks (picture differences, consensus, conversation). Interactions were coded for language-related episodes (LREs), with 14% focused on pronunciation. Segmental features comprised the majority of pronunciation LREs (90%). Pronunciation LREs were proportionally similar for same-L1 and different-L1 dyads, and communication modality yielded no difference in frequency of pronunciation focus. The consensus task, which included substantial linguistic input, yielded greater pronunciation focus, although the results did not achieve statistical significance. These results help clarify the role of pronunciation in learner-learner interactions and highlight the influence of task features.
Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) plays a role in the regulation of body temperature, metabolic rate and energy expenditure in animals. While variation in UCP1 and its phenotypic effect has been investigated in humans and sheep, little is known about this gene in cattle. In this study, four regions of bovine UCP1 were investigated in 612 Holstein-Friesian × Jersey (HF × J) dairy cows using polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analyses. In the four regions of the gene analysed, a total of 13 SNPs were detected. Three sequences (a, b and c) were found in Region-2 and three sequences (A, B and C) were found in Region-4, and these were assembled into three (a-B, b-B and c-A) common and three (b-C, c-B and c-C) rare haplotypes. Of the three common haplotypes, b-B and c-A were associated (P < 0·007 and P < 0·043, respectively) with increased milk yield and tended to be associated (P < 0·085 and P < 0·070, respectively) with decreased fat percentage. Cows with genotype b-B/a-B produced more milk (P < 0·004), but with a lower percentage of fat (P < 0·035) and protein (P < 0·038) than cows with genotype a-B/a-B. Cows of genotype a-B/c-A had milk of low fat percentage (P < 0·017), but tended to produce more milk (P < 0·059) than cows of genotype a-B/a-B. This suggests that UCP1 affects milk yield, milk fat percentage and milk protein percentage.
We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 466 underweight and 446 normal-weight children aged 6–24 months living in the urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh to determine the association between vitamin D and other micronutrient status with upper respiratory tract infection (URI) and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Incidence rate ratios of URI and ALRI were estimated using multivariable generalized estimating equations. Our results indicate that underweight children with insufficient and deficient vitamin D status were associated with 20% and 23–25% reduced risk of URI, respectively, compared to children with sufficient status. Underweight children, those with serum retinol deficiency were at 1·8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·4–2·4] times higher risk of ALRI than those with retinol sufficiency. In normal-weight children there were no significant differences between different vitamin D status and the incidence of URI and ALRI. However, normal-weight children with zinc insufficiency and those that were serum retinol deficient had 1·2 (95% CI 1·0–1·5) times higher risk of URI and 1·9 (95% CI 1·4–2·6) times higher risk of ALRI, respectively. Thus, our results should encourage efforts to increase the intake of retinol-enriched food or supplementation in this population. However, the mechanisms through which vitamin D exerts beneficial effects on the incidence of childhood respiratory tract infection still needs further research.
The endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) is a macromolecular layer that lines the inner surface of blood vessels. It is believed to serve a number of physiological functions in the microvasculature, including protection of the vessel walls from potentially harmful levels of fluid shear, as a molecular sieve that acts to regulate transendothelial mass transport, and as a transducer of mechanical stress from the vessel lumen. To best fulfil some of its roles, it has been suggested that the EGL redistributes, so that it is thickest at the cell–cell junctions. It has also been suggested that the majority of mechanotransduction occurs through the solid phase of the EGL, rather than via its fluid phase. The difficulties associated with measuring the distribution of the EGL in vivo make these hypotheses difficult to confirm experimentally. Consequently, to gauge the impact of EGL redistribution from a theoretical standpoint, we compute the flow through a porous-lined microvessel, the endothelial surface of which has been informed by confocal microscopy images of a postcapillary venule. Following earlier studies, we model the poroelastohydrodynamics of the EGL using biphasic mixture theory, taking advantage of a recently developed boundary integral representation of these equations to solve the coupled poroelastohydrodynamics using the boundary element method. However, the low permeabilities of the EGL mean that viscous effects are confined to thin layers, thereby also enabling an asymptotic treatment of the dynamics in this limit. In this asymptotic regime, we also consider a two-layer Stokes flow model for the lumen flow to approximate the effect of red blood cells within the lumen. We demonstrate that redistribution of the EGL can have a substantial impact upon microvessel haemodynamics. We also confirm that the bulk of the mechanical stress is indeed carried through the solid phase of the EGL.
To provide a comprehensive synthesis of the effects of Zn supplementation on childhood body composition and adiposity-related hormone levels.
Five electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of Zn supplementation studies published before 28 February 2015. No statistical pooling of results was carried out due to diversity in study designs.
Community- or hospital-based, from fourteen developing and developed countries.
Children and adolescents aged 0 to 10 years.
Seven of the fourteen studies reported an overall or subgroup effect of Zn supplementation on at least one parameter of body composition, when determined by anthropometric measurements (increased mid upper-arm circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold and mid upper-arm muscle area, and decreased BMI). Three out of the fourteen studies reported increased mean value of total body water estimated by bio-impedance analysis and increased fat-free mass estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body water. Zn supplementation was associated with increased fat-free mass among stunted children. One study found supplementation decreased leptin and insulin concentrations.
Due to the use of anthropometry when determining body composition, a majority of the studies could not accurately address whether alterations in the fat and/or fat-free mass components of the body were responsible for the observed changes in body composition. The effect of Zn supplementation on body composition is not consistent but may modify fat-free mass among children with pre-existing growth failure.