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Diatoms are unicellular photosynthetic algae that autonomously fabricate a porous organized biosilica shell refined in billion years of evolution. They represent an inexhaustible source of low cost, biocompatible mesoporous silica. Despite the major advances in the genomic field, studies on diatom cell biology are still hampered by a lack of cellular tools. In particular, cell staining assays of diatoms viability are still limited or not well performant. Here we provide a phosphorescent organometallic iridium complex (Ir-Fcx) suitable to act as staining agent to detect diatoms viability.
Introduced species can have strong ecological, social and economic effects on their non-native environment. Introductions of megafaunal species are rare and may contribute to rewilding efforts, but they may also have pronounced socio-ecological effects because of their scale of influence. A recent introduction of the hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius into Colombia is a novel introduction of a megaherbivore onto a new continent, and raises questions about the future dynamics of the socio-ecological system into which it has been introduced. Here we synthesize current knowledge about the Colombian hippopotamus population, review the literature on the species to predict potential ecological and socio-economic effects of this introduction, and make recommendations for future study. Hippopotamuses can have high population growth rates (7–11%) and, on the current trajectory, we predict there could be 400–800 individuals in Colombia by 2050. The hippopotamus is an ecosystem engineer that can have profound effects on terrestrial and aquatic environments and could therefore affect the native biodiversity of the Magdalena River basin. Hippopotamuses are also aggressive and may pose a threat to the many inhabitants of the region who rely upon the Magdalena River for their livelihoods, although the species could provide economic benefits through tourism. Further research is needed to quantify the current and future size and distribution of this hippopotamus population and to predict the likely ecological, social and economic effects. This knowledge must be balanced with consideration of social and cultural concerns to develop appropriate management strategies for this novel introduction.
Background: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a children’s neuromuscular disorder. Although motor neuron loss is a major feature of the disease, we have identified fatty acid abnormalities in SMA patients and in preclinical animal models, suggesting metabolic perturbation is also an important component of SMA. Methods: Biochemical, histological, proteomic, and high resolution respirometry were used. Results: SMA patients are more susceptible to dyslipidemia than the average population as determined by a standard lipid profile in a cohort of 72 pediatric patients. As well, we observed a non-alcoholic liver disease phenotype in apreclinical mouse model. Denervation alone was not sufficient to induce liver steatosis, as a mouse model of ALS, did not develop fatty liver. Hyperglucagonemia in Smn2B/-mice could explain the hepatic steatosis by increasing plasma substrate availability via glycogen depletion and peripheral lipolysis. Proteomic analysis identified mitochondrion and lipid metabolism as major clusters. Alterations in mitochondrial function were revealed by high-resolution respirometry. Finally, low-fat diets led to increased survival in Smn2B/-mice. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence for lipid metabolism defects in SMA. Further investigation will be required to establish the primary mechanism of these alterations and understand how they lead to additional co-morbidities in SMA patients.
The disease caused by the influenza virus is a global public health problem due to its high rates of morbidity and mortality. Thus, analysis of the information generated by epidemiological surveillance systems has vital importance for health decision making. A retrospective analysis was performed using data generated by the four molecular diagnostic laboratories of the Mexican Social Security Institute between 2010 and 2016. Demographics, influenza positivity, seasonality, treatment choices and vaccination status analyses were performed for the vaccine according to its composition for each season. In all cases, both the different influenza subtypes and different age groups were considered separately. The circulation of A/H1N1pdm09 (48.7%), influenza A/H3N2 (21.1%), influenza B (12.6%), influenza A not subtyped (11%) and influenza A/H1N1 (6.6%) exhibited well-defined annual seasonality between November and March, and there were significant increases in the number of cases every 2 years. An inadequate use of oseltamivir was determined in 38% of cases, and the vaccination status in general varied between 12.1 and 18.5% depending on the season. Our results provide current information about influenza in Mexico and demonstrate the need to update both operational case definitions and medical practice guidelines to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics and antivirals.
Background: Greater than 80% of patient visits to emergency departments (EDs) are for a pain-related concerns. Approximately 38,000 patients per year have such complaints in our academic hospital ED. 3,300 (8.6%) of those visits are for musculoskeletal (MSK) pain (i.e. back or extremity injury/pain), which are typically triaged as low-acuity presentations, leading to longer times to clinician assessment. Delays to adequate analgesia result in unnecessary suffering, worse patient care and satisfaction, and increased patient complaints. Aim Statement: We aimed to reduce the time-to-analgesia (TTA; time from patient triage to receipt of analgesia) for patients with MSK pain in our ED by 55% (to under 60 minutes) in 9 months’ time (May 2018). Measures & Design: Our outcome measures were TTA (in minutes) and ED length of stay (LOS; in minutes). Process measures included nurses’ use of medical directive and rate of analgesia administration. Balancing measures included patient adverse events and time spent triaging for nurses. We utilized weekly data capture for the Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart, and we used Mann-Whitney U test for our before-and-after evaluation. Utilizing the Model for Improvement, we performed wide stakeholder engagement and root cause analyses, and we created a Pareto chart. This led to our Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles: 1) nurse-initiated analgesia (NIA) at triage; 2) new triage documentation aid for medication administration; 3) quick reference medical directive badge tag for nurses; 4) weekly targeted feedback of the project's progress at clinical team huddle. Evaluation/Results: TTA decrease from 129 minutes (n = 153) to 100 minutes (22.5%; n = 87, p < 0.05). ED LOS decreased from 580 minutes (n = 361) to 519 minutes (10.5%; n = 187; p = 0.77). Special cause variation was identified on the ED LOS SPC chart with eight consecutive points below the midline, after PDSA 1. The number of patients who received any analgesia increased from 42% (n = 361) to 47% (n = 187; p = 0.13). The number of patients who received medications via medical directives increased from 22% (n = 150) to 44% (n = 87; p < 0.001). Balancing measures were unchanged. Discussion/Impact: The significant reduction in the TTA and increase in the use of medical directives in the before-and-after analyses were likely due to our front-line focused improvements and deliberate nursing engagement. With continued success and sustainable processes, we are planning to spread our project to other EDs and broaden our initiative to all pain-related concerns.
We report four cases of Taenia saginata taeniasis in different urban communities of Aragua state, Venezuela. After subsequent treatment with praziquantel and a saline purge, adult tapeworms were collected from all four patients and demonstrated to be T. saginata by morphological and molecular characterization. The finding of T. saginata in four distinct and separate urban municipalities of the Aragua state indicates the pertinence of rigorous meat inspection, and the importance of establishing parasite prevalence in human and bovine Venezuelan populations.
The elastic constants, elastic modulus, anisotropy, Debye temperature, and sound velocity properties of Mo0.85Nb0.15B3 were investigated by first-principles calculations under pressure based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) proposed by Perdew–Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). Employing the stress-strain method and the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximations, were calculated the elastic properties of single and polycrystalline crystals; Bulk modulus (B), Young modulus (E), Poisson ratio (ν), Pugh ratio (G/B), Debye temperature and the Cauchy pressure terms. The calculated ν, Cauchy pressure, and Pugh ratio G/B values indicate that Mo0.85Nb0.15B3 shows a transition from brittle to ductile under pressure. Finally, the Density of States decreases as pressure increases.
The adsorption/degradation of caffeine and irgasan from aqueous artificial solutions by using.Lignocellulosic residues (LR) impregnated with TiO2 nanoparticles was studied. Three different LR were used: bamboo (Guadua angustifolia), laurel (Cordia allidora) and moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.), each one with three nominal particle size ranges: 75–149, 45–75, and ≤45 μm. Commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles were added to these residues using the wet impregnation technique. The chemical composition of the LR was determined according to ASTM standards. FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the functional groups and morphology of the modified materials, respectively. Adsorption/degradation tests were carried out in batch systems as a function of adsorbent concentration, contact time, nanoparticle content on the impregnated residues and light type influence. The maximum adsorption capacity was (37.1 mg. g-1/55.3 mg.g-1), using 40 wt.% nanoparticle-impregnated ≤45 μm laurel residues during 180 minutes, for a (7.0/0.7 g.L-1) concentration of (caffeine/irgasan). The caffeine adsorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, while the Freundlich model describes irgasan adsorption. The use of UV radiation accelerated threefold the removal process.
Particular attention has been recently devoted to the development of biohybrid photoconverters based on the bacterial Reaction Center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. This highly efficient photoenzyme has a conversion yield close to unit that makes it extremely appealing in the field of artificial photosynthesis. Isolated RCs suffer of a limited absorption cross-section in the visible spectral region that limits their applicative employment. Here we report the synthesis of two heptamethine cyanine molecules, whose photophysical properties make them potentially suitable as light harvesting antennas for the RC.
Optimizing interfaces between photosynthetic natural photoconverters, like photosynthetic bacterial Reaction Centers (RCs) and electrode surfaces represents a challenge in the progress of bio-optoelectronic devices. The features of the surfaces may result detrimental for the tertiary and quaternary structures of the RC, even resulting in the denaturation of the enzyme. Functional surfaces possessing both confinement capability and conductive features able to preserve the conformation of the biomolecule and its bioelectronic behaviours are highly needed. In this work, the RC is adsorbed on diatomaceous silica and plasma treated hydrophobic silicon based materials. Both the materials are demonstrated to be able to preserve and enhance the RC photoconverting activity. In particular, we evaluate the functioning of isolated bacterial RC interacting with flat pSi electrode through two nanotextured interfaces designed to address the RC: a thin conductive silicon film nanotextured in pillars via plasma treatment, and a cast film of nanostructured dielectric biosilica obtained from diatomaceous earth. The characterization of these interfaces, together with the RC photocurrent production measurements, pave the way to new generation RC based bio-devices for photocurrent investigation.
Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) are sites identified as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations on the basis of an internationally agreed set of criteria. We present the first review of the development and spread of the IBA concept since it was launched by BirdLife International (then ICBP) in 1979 and examine some of the characteristics of the resulting inventory. Over 13,000 global and regional IBAs have so far been identified and documented in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems in almost all of the world’s countries and territories, making this the largest global network of sites of significance for biodiversity. IBAs have been identified using standardised, data-driven criteria that have been developed and applied at global and regional levels. These criteria capture multiple dimensions of a site’s significance for avian biodiversity and relate to populations of globally threatened species (68.6% of the 10,746 IBAs that meet global criteria), restricted-range species (25.4%), biome-restricted species (27.5%) and congregatory species (50.3%); many global IBAs (52.7%) trigger two or more of these criteria. IBAs range in size from < 1 km2 to over 300,000 km2 and have an approximately log-normal size distribution (median = 125.0 km2, mean = 1,202.6 km2). They cover approximately 6.7% of the terrestrial, 1.6% of the marine and 3.1% of the total surface area of the Earth. The launch in 2016 of the KBA Global Standard, which aims to identify, document and conserve sites that contribute to the global persistence of wider biodiversity, and whose criteria for site identification build on those developed for IBAs, is a logical evolution of the IBA concept. The role of IBAs in conservation planning, policy and practice is reviewed elsewhere. Future technical priorities for the IBA initiative include completion of the global inventory, particularly in the marine environment, keeping the dataset up to date, and improving the systematic monitoring of these sites.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus linked to mucosal and cutaneous carcinogenesis. More than 200 different HPV types exist. We carried out a transversal study to investigate the prevalence of HPV types in two regions of Mexico. A total of 724 genital and non-genital samples from women (F) and men (M) were studied; 241 (33%) from North-Eastern (NE) and 483 (66%) from South-Central (SC) Mexico. The overall prevalence was 87%. In genital lesions from females, the NE group showed a prevalence of HPV types 16 (37%), 6 (13%), 59 (6%), 11, 18 and 66 (5.4% each); and the SC group showed types 6 (17%), 16 (15%), 11 (14.5%), 18 (12%) and 53 (6%). In the genital lesions from males, NE group showed types 16 (38%), 6 (21%), 11 (13%) and 59 plus 31 (7.5%) and the SC group showed types 6 (25%), 11 (22%), 18 (17%) and 16 (11.5%). When the two regions were compared, a higher prevalence of low-risk HPV 6 and 11 was found in the SC region and of high-risk HPV 59, 31 and 66 (the latter can also be present in benign lesions) in the NE region. Our findings complement efforts to understand HPV demographics as a prerequisite to guide and assess the impact of preventive interventions.
The family Clinostomidae Lühe, 1901 contains 29 species allocated to seven genera, of which Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 is the most diverse, with c. 14 valid species. The diversity of Clinostomum has been assessed, combining morphological and molecular data. The genetic library for species in this genus has increased steadily, although there is little or no information for the other genera included in the family. Molecular phylogenetic relationships among the genera of clinostomids have not been assessed, and their classification is still based on morphological traits. The monotypic Ithyoclinostomum was described from a fish-eating bird in Brazil, and its metacercariae have been found in several locations in South America, parasitizing erythrinid freshwater fishes. We collected unusually large metacercariae from the body cavity of cichlids in several locations across Middle America. These metacercariae exhibited some resemblance to Ithyoclinostomum, although several differences prevent their inclusion in Ithyoclinostomum dimorphum, casting doubt on their taxonomic identification. The main objective of this paper was to characterize the metacercariae collected in cichlids using both morphology and molecular data from three molecular markers, and to assess the molecular phylogenetic relationships among the genera of Clinostomidae to establish the position of the newly generated sequences. We took a conservative position and tentatively placed the metacercariae as belonging to Ithyoclinostomum.
The chemical decoration of biosilica shells (frustules) from microalgae with several classes of organic molecules is a convenient, scalable biotechnological route to silica nanostructures with applications ranging from photonics to biomedicine. Here we report for the first time the in vivo staining of Thalassiosira weissflogii diatoms with a two photon red emitting triphenylamine-based fluorescent dye bearing a triethoxysilyl functional group (tPhA-Silane). In vivo staining of the cells has been investigated with confocal microscopy and hybrid silica structures comprising the dye embedded into the biosilica have been isolated by proper protocols able to remove the organic protoplasm.
A raw clay from Uruguay was modified with aluminium to obtain an aluminium pillared clay (Al-PILC). The solids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The Al-PILC retained the typical laminar structure of montmorillonite. The specific surface area and the microporous volume of the Al-PILC, 235 m2 g-1 and 0.096 cm3 g-1, respectively, were much higher than those of the clay. The phosphate adsorption capacity of the Al-PILC was higher than those of the clay. The phosphate adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-first-order model for both, the clay and the Al-PILC, and the phosphate adsorption isotherm for the Al-PILC fit the Freundlich model.