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Recent cases of acute kidney injury due to Seoul hantavirus infection from exposure to wild or pet fancy rats suggest this infection is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We conducted a seroprevalence study in England to estimate cumulative exposure in at-risk groups with contact with domesticated and wild rats to assess risk and inform public health advice. From October 2013 to June 2014, 844 individual blood samples were collected. Hantavirus seroprevalence amongst the pet fancy rat owner group was 34.1% (95% CI 23·9–45·7%) compared with 3·3% (95% CI 1·6–6·0) in a baseline control group, 2·4% in those with occupational exposure to pet fancy rats (95% CI 0·6–5·9) and 1·7% with occupational exposure to wild rats (95% CI 0·2–5·9). Variation in seroprevalence across groups with different exposure suggests that occupational exposure to pet and wild rats carries a very low risk, if any. However incidence of hantavirus infection among pet fancy rat owners/breeders, whether asymptomatic, undiagnosed mild viral illness or more severe disease may be very common and public health advice needs to be targeted to this at-risk group.
The observation of 8B solar Neutrinos in the Kamiokande-II detector is presented. Based on 450 days of data in the time period of January 1987 through May 1988, the measured flux obtained with Ee ≥ 9.3 MeV was 0.46 ± 0.13 (stat) ± 0.08 (sys) of the value predicted by the standard solar model. The detector and analysis methods were improved since June 1988 and the background level has been decreased by a factor of about three since then.
Surveys with ISO (Kessler et al 1996), in particular with the CAM (Cesarsky et al 1996) and PHOT (Lemke et al 1996) instruments, will greatly extend our understanding of extra-galactic populations and their cosmological evolution. The main advantages that ISO surveys have over e.g IRAS are increased sensitivity/depth and wavelength coverage. Within the Guaranteed and Open Time programmes there are many field surveys which will efficiently map the limits in these parameters. In this talk I will briefly overview those surveys before concentrating in more detail on one survey in particular, the ISO survey of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF), to illustrate the kind of results that can be expected.
Resilience is the capacity of individuals to resist mental disorders despite exposure to stress. Little is known about its neural underpinnings. The putative variation of white-matter microstructure with resilience in adolescence, a critical period for brain maturation and onset of high-prevalence mental disorders, has not been assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) though, has been reported in the corpus callosum (CC), the brain's largest white-matter structure, in psychiatric and stress-related conditions. We hypothesized that higher FA in the CC would characterize stress-resilient adolescents.
Three groups of adolescents recruited from the community were compared: resilient with low risk of mental disorder despite high exposure to lifetime stress (n = 55), at-risk of mental disorder exposed to the same level of stress (n = 68), and controls (n = 123). Personality was assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Voxelwise statistics of DTI values in CC were obtained using tract-based spatial statistics. Regional projections were identified by probabilistic tractography.
Higher FA values were detected in the anterior CC of resilient compared to both non-resilient and control adolescents. FA values varied according to resilience capacity. Seed regional changes in anterior CC projected onto anterior cingulate and frontal cortex. Neuroticism and three other NEO-FFI factor scores differentiated non-resilient participants from the other two groups.
High FA was detected in resilient adolescents in an anterior CC region projecting to frontal areas subserving cognitive resources. Psychiatric risk was associated with personality characteristics. Resilience in adolescence may be related to white-matter microstructure.
The transformation of TiSi2 from the C49 phase to the C54 crystallographic phase is an irreversible, polymorphic transformation that occurs by a nucleation and growth process. Typical of polymorphic transformations, the transition occurs readily once a stable embryo of the thermodynamically favored phase is formed. Future VLSI applications requiring control of the resistivity and thermodynamic stability of thin TiSi2 films formed on submicron features will necessitate understanding this nucleation and transformation process to a greater extent. We have found that the C54 phase nucleation site density, the resulting microstructure and thermal stability of the film can be strongly influenced by the initial silicide formation conditions. Rapid thermal processing (RTP) has been found to offer a significant advantage over conventional furnace annealing for the silicide formation process.
The effects of small concentrations of metallic impurities have been studied in conjunction with the formation of titanium disilicide. We report that, by introducing small quantities of a refractory metal such as molybdenum or tungsten at or near the titanium/silicon interface, the temperature required to form the C54 phase TiSi2 can be reduced by as much as 100°C. Furthermore, the resulting C54-TiSi2 film exhibits small (∼ 0.2μm) grain size and improved thermal stability. This discovery has the potential to reduce the complexity and cost associated with forming low resistivity TiSi2 on submicron structures and to significantly improve the titanium silicide process window for future sub-half-micron VLSI applications.
Nanoindentation studies were preformed on amorphous metal, multilayered thin films containing alternating layers of Fe50Ti50 and Cu35Nb65 in order to investigate the mechanism for plastic deformation in metallic glass. Films with a total thickness of 1μm and bilayer repeat lengths ranging from 2 to 50 nm were magnetron sputter-deposited onto sapphire substrates. In contrast to many crystalline multilayered systems, where large hardness enhancements have been observed when the bilayer repeat length is reduced below about 10 nm, no significant hardness enhancement as a function of bilayer repeat length was observed in the Fe50Ti50/ Cu35Nb65 amorphous metal system. This result suggests that a dislocation–like mechanism for plastic deformation may not be appropriate for these amorphous metals.
We demonstrate that the addition of a molybdenum interlayer between titanium and silicon enhances the formation of C54 TiSi2, without bypassing the formation of the C49 TiSi2 phase. In situ x-ray diffraction analysis during rapid thermal annealing, at a rate of 3 °C/s, was used to study the phase formation sequence of TiSi2 starting from a blanket bilayer of Ti on Mo on a polycrystalline Si substrate. It was shown, as in the case without the Mo layer, that the C49 TiSi2 phase forms first, followed by the C54 TiSi2 phase. The results were similar for undoped or arsenic, boron, and phosphorous doped polycrystalline silicon substrates. The temperature range over which the C49 phase is stable is reduced, on average, by 80 °C. The lower end of the range (appearance of C49) is increased by approximately 60 °C and the upper end of the range (disappearance of C49) is decreased by about 20 0C. The orientation of the C49 phase differs in that both the C49(131) and C49(060) orientations are observed, compared to the case without the Mo layer where only the C49(131) orientation is observed.
To better understand the specific charge transfer events that occur within a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), we synthesized well-defined ZnO:dye dyads. The ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized following literature procedures from zinc acetate and a hydroxide source in ethanol. The absorption onset of the ZnO nanocrystals was observed using UV-vis measurements, from which estimated nanocrystal diameters were determined. At room temperature, the synthesis yielded nanocrystals ranging in diameter from 2-4 nm. Dispersions of ZnO nanocrystals in ethanol were mixed with solutions containing 5΄΄-phenyl-3΄,4΄-di(nbutyl)-[2,2΄:5΄,2΄΄] terthiophene-5-carboxylic acid. Using FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopy, it was verified that the dye molecules were adsorbed to the ZnO surface via their carboxylate groups while the number of dye molecules adsorbed to the surface was quantified using a combination of techniques. Adsorption isotherms were employed to probe surface coverage of the dye onto the nanocrystals to yield an adsorption equilibrium constant of 1.5 ± 0.2 x 105 M-1. The ability of ZnO nanocrystals to quench the emission of the dye by an electron transfer mechanism was observed and elucidated using ultra-fast laser spectroscopy where the time-scale for electron injection from the dye to the ZnO was determined to be 5.5 ps.
Nanoindentation with spherical tipped indenters provides a powerful technique to explore surface and thin film mechanical properties through the application of Hertzian contact mechanics. The full range of mechanical response can be obtained from elastic, through the yield point, to permanent deformation. In this study spherical indentation has been used for probing MBE-grown NiTiCu alloy thin films into superelasticity or stress-induced martensitic transformation. By this way, obstacles typically occurring related to the fabrication of freestanding films (film thickness < 1 μm) are avoided. The indentation measurements were performed starting from the parent austenite state. Notably, for loads as small as 0.5 mN, deformation appears to be completely reversible. As loading is increased (up to 5 mN) the indent becomes irreversible following local plastic deformation within the tip-specimen contact area. Using finite-element simulations the indentation data were converted into a stress-strain diagram aimed at simulating uniaxial tension load. Therefrom, the superelastic strain is estimated to be around 3%.
Instrumented indentation was used to characterize the mechanical response of polymeric materials. A model based on contact between a rigid probe and a linear viscoelastic material was used to calculate values for creep compliance and stress relaxation modulus for epoxy, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and two poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) elastomers. Results from bulk rheometry studies were used for comparison to the indentation creep and stress relaxation results. For the two glassy polymers, the use of sharp pyramidal tips produced responses that were considerably more compliant (less stiff) than rheometry values. Additional study of the deformation remaining in epoxy after creep testing revealed that a large portion of the creep displacement measured was due to post-yield flow. Indentation creep measurements of the epoxy using a rounded conical tip also produced nonlinear responses, but the creep compliance values appeared to approach linear viscoelastic values with decreasing creep force. Responses measured for the PDMS were mainly linear elastic, but the filled PDMS exhibited some time-dependence and nonlinearity in both rheometry and indentation measurements.
Dynamic nanoindentation was performed on a poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA), and two different poly(dimethyl siloxane, PDMS) samples having different crosslink densities. Comparison was made between dynamic nanoindentation and rheological instrumentation measurements in the glassy and rubbery plateau regions of polymeric materials. Excellent agreement between bulk rheological data and dynamic nanoindentation data was observed for the two glassy materials and the less compliant of the two PDMS samples. Results were divergent for the more compliant PDMS sample.
The design and performance analysis of a wing tip device proposed within the M-DAW project by ONERA is presented. A proto-design process is described and the device was thoroughly assessed (mainly with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations). The process was further explained through wind-tunnel tests at both low speed and high speed in the pressurised and cryogenic European transonic wind tunnel in Cologne. The device is a downward pointing winglet designed for a retrofit scenario (the wing could be modified only within the 96% – 100% bounds of the span). It was designed to keep the wing root bending moment of the clean wing at cruise unchanged so that the aerodynamic gains are the net gains provided by the device that can be directly installed without structural modifications of the wing.