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Intake in sugar-rich diets can be limited either via rumen fill or excessive rumen fermentation and source of non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC) in the diet can affect both factors. The aim of the current study was to quantify the effect of partially replacing ground maize (GM) with steam-rolled maize (SRM) or pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) at two concentrate levels in sugarcane-based diets on digestibility, rumen ecosystem and metabolism of Nellore steers. Six rumen-cannulated steers were assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square, replicated in time, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with two levels of concentrate (600 or 800 g concentrate/kg dry matter [DM]) and three NFC sources. Each steer within a period was considered an experimental unit. Feeding more concentrate increased total tract digestibility of organic matter and decreased fibre intake and passage rate. It also reduced rumen populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Streptococcus bovis and increased Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Substituting PCP for GM increased rumen pH, acetic acid and organic matter digestibility. Feeding PCP also reduced R. flavefaciens and R. amylophilus rumen populations. Substituting SRM for GM increased starch digestibility and rumen propionic acid, but decreased rumen ammonia concentration. Feeding SRM increased rumen populations of Megasphaera elsdenii with the high-concentrate diet but reduced Ruminococcus albus populations at both concentrate levels. In conclusion, partial replacement of GM by PCP decreased intake in sugar-rich diets, while increasing total tract neutral detergent fibre digestibility. Replacement of GM with SRM increases rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility of starch.
Replacing ground maize (GM) with steam-rolled maize typically increases feed efficiency in maize-silage-based diets. However, little is known about optimal carbohydrate supplementation in sugarcane silage-based diets. The objective was to quantify the effect of partially replacing GM with steam-rolled maize (SRM) or pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) at two concentrate levels (600 or 800 g/kg DM) in sugarcane-based diets on feeding behaviour, performance and blood parameters of finishing Nellore bulls. One hundred and eight young bulls were allocated to 36 pens in a randomized block design and fed for 84 d. Feeding 800 g/kg concentrate decreased time spending eating and ruminating, but improved G:F ratio, hot carcass weight and carcass dressing, compared to 600 g/kg concentrate. Bulls fed SRM and PCP diets with 600 g/kg concentrate had lower intake compared to GM. Both final weight and average daily gain decreased when bulls were fed PCP and SRM with 600 g/kg concentrate compared to GM diets, and when fed with PCP and 800 g/kg concentrate. Substituting PCP for GM decreased gain efficiency, carcass weight, rumination time and intake efficiency, indicating that the bulls consumed less feed per hour spent eating. Substituting SRM for GM increased backfat thickness and blood urea concentration. In conclusion, the replacement of GM with PCP reduces intake and enhances selection against large particles, decreasing rumination, performance and final carcass weight and dressing. Replacement of GM with SRM increases blood urea and fat deposition, with no impact on performance.
Introduction: Delays in transfer to an in-patient bed of admitted patients boarded in the ED has been identified as one of the chief drivers of ED overcrowding. Our study aims to replicate findings from a previous study in identifying patient characteristics associated with increased boarding time, and the impact of increased boarding time on in-patient length of stay (IPLOS). Methods: We conducted a retrospective single-centre observational study during the period between January 1, 2015 December 31, 2015 at a very high volume community hospital (~ 75,000 ED visits/year). All patients admitted from the ED to Medicine, Pediatrics, Surgery, and Critical Care were identified. The mean time to in-patient bed (TTB), as well as patient-specific and institutional factors that were associated with prolonged boarding times ( 12 hours) were identified. Mean IP LOS was calculated for those with prolonged boarding times and compared to those without prolonged boarding times. Results: There were 8,096 unique admissions during the study period. Patients admitted to the Medicine service exhibited significantly higher boarding times than those admitted to other services, with a mean boarding time of 17.4 hrs, as compared to 4.2 hrs, 5.7 hrs, and 4.0 hrs for those admitted to Surgery, Critical Care and Pediatrics respectively. Within Medicine patients, there was a statistically significant greater odds of prolonged boarding time for patients who were older, had a greater comorbidity burden, and required more specialized in-patient care (i.e. an isolation bed or telemetry bed). Medicine patients with prolonged boarding times also experienced 0.7 days longer IP LOS, even after correcting for age and comorbidity (mean adjusted IP LOS 10.6 days versus 11.3 days). Conclusion: Within our study period, older, sicker patients and those patients requiring more resource-intensive in-patient care have the longest ED boarding times. These prolonged ‘boarding’ times are associated with significantly increased IP LOS.
L. J. Spilker, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, California, USA,
C. Ferrari, Université Paris-Diderot Paris, FRANCE,
N. Altobelli, European Space Agency Madrid, SPAIN,
S. Pilorz, SETI Institute Mountain View, California, USA,
R. Morishima, University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, California, USA
Our view of planetary ring particles and the characteristics of their thermal emission has undergone a major paradigm shift since the arrival of Cassini at Saturn. Our understanding of the microstructure and microphysics of the rings has evolved from rings randomly filled with individual particles to Saturn's A and B rings containing particles that tend to clump into transient structures of characteristic sizes and orientations. The dynamics and evolution of rings strongly depend on the outcome of interparticle collisions and on the self-gravity of the rings. Energy loss, mass transfer, and sticking probability for relevant impact velocities will favor either aggregation or disruption and erosion of particles, modifying the size distribution and velocity dispersion, and thus the dynamics and structure of the rings.
The thermal response of a ring is determined by absorbed and emitted radiation or conducted heat within the particles. The radiation source functions depend upon the ring structure. Energy sources include direct, reflected and scattered solar light, mutual heating by neighboring ring particles, and thermal and visible radiation from Saturn. Because of mutual shading and heating between particles, the thermal emission is determined not only by the physical properties of the ring particles, but also by the structural and dynamical properties of the ring disk itself. Friction in mutual dissipative collisions between particles, due to their irregular surfaces, transforms orbital kinetic energy into spin. The particle surface temperature and its thermal emission are expected to vary on the surface along the rotation axis and azimuthally. Ring particles, as they collide into one another, are tumbling around the ring mid-plane with a vertical excursion governed by the local ring dynamics. The thermal history of a particle along its orbit is then an indicator of vertical dynamics. The particle is conditioned by the time it spends in sunlight and in the planetary shadow. At the exit of the shadow, its ability to warm up is a function of the thermal inertia. Any difference in the heating curves between the lit and unlit sides should reveal the time each particle spends on each side.
The Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) is a proposed radio continuum survey
of the Southern Hemisphere up to declination + 30°, with the Australian
Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). EMU will use an automated source
identification and measurement approach that is demonstrably optimal, to
maximise the reliability and robustness of the resulting radio source
catalogues. As a step toward this goal we conducted a “Data
Challenge” to test a variety of source finders on simulated images. The
aim is to quantify the accuracy and limitations of existing automated source
finding and measurement approaches. The Challenge initiators also tested the
current ASKAPsoft source-finding tool to establish how it could benefit from
incorporating successful features of the other tools. As expected, most finders
show completeness around 100% at ≈ 10σ dropping to about 10% by
≈ 5σ. Reliability is typically close to 100% at ≈
10σ, with performance to lower sensitivities varying between finders. All
finders show the expected trade-off, where a high completeness at low
signal-to-noise gives a corresponding reduction in reliability, and vice versa.
We conclude with a series of recommendations for improving the performance of
the ASKAPsoft source-finding tool.
Controlled amounts of colloidal Au nanoparticles (NPs), electrochemically pre-synthesized, were directly deposited on MWCNTs sensor devices by electrophoresis. Pristine and Au-functionalized MWCNT networked films were tested as active layers in resistive gas sensors for detection of pollutant gases. Au-modified CNT-chemiresistor demonstrated higher sensitivity to NO2 detecting up to sub-ppm level compared to pristine one. The investigation of the cross-sensitivity towards other pollutant gases revealed the decrease of the sensitivity to NO2 with the increase of Au content, and, on the other side, the increase of that to H2S; therefore the fine tune of the metal loading on CNTs has allowed to control not only the gas sensitivity but also the selectivity towards a specific gaseous analyte. Finally, the sensing properties of Au-decorated CNT sensor seem to be promising in environmental and automotive gas sensing applications, based on low power consumption and moderate operating temperature.
Five children with a neuroendocrine tumour (NET) of the appendix associated with a parasitic bowel infection are described, and the possibility of inflammation-triggered carcinogenesis is discussed. Schistosoma haematobium is linked primarily to bladder cancer but it has been reported in association with several other histotypes, including NETs of the gastrointestinal tract. Conversely, Enterobius vermicularis has not yet been claimed to participate in the onset of pre-cancerous conditions or tumours. The rare occurrence of contemporary appendiceal NETs and parasitic infection, raises the intriguing hypothesis of an inflammation-related carcinogenesis, although a cause–effect relationship cannot be established. Larger international series of childhood appendiceal NETs, which also include countries with higher prevalence of parasitic bowel infections, are needed to further clarify this possible cause–effect relationship.
The effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation from 9 days of age until the end of post-weaning on piglets hormonal and immune responses and on growth performance were investigated. During lactation (days 9 to 21) and post-weaning (days 22 to 55) 10 [HBI Fomeva11 × (Large White × Landrace)] litters (n = 108 piglets) had ad libitum access to two standard diets, both supplemented with 0% (T0 group) or 0.1% (T1 group) of yeast extract nucleotides. BW of piglets at days 21 (P < 0.10), 35 and 55 (P < 0.05) was greater in T1 compared with T0. Feed intake was not different between groups (P > 0.05). Cortisol content was lower in T1 than in T0 at days 28 and 35 (P < 0.05), whereas growth hormone was lower at day 35 (P < 0.05). Levels of IGF-1 were similar across groups (P > 0.05). Nucleotide-supplemented diets increased lymphocyte subpopulation CD4−CD8+high at days 21 and 35 (P < 0.05), whereas CD4+CD8− cells were higher in T1 than in T0 at day 21 (P < 0.05). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells cytokine expression was influenced by dietary nucleotide supplementation. At weaning, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β expression was lower (P < 0.05) in T1 compared with T0, whereas the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-10 was higher (P < 0.05). At day 28, piglets in T1 showed higher values of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression than T0 and lower values of IL-10 expression (P < 0.05). Dietary nucleotide supplementation had a suppressive effect on IL-6 and IL-10 expression (P < 0.05) at day 35. On the contrary, the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β was enhanced (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that starting a dietary nucleotide supplementation before weaning can improve the adaptive capabilities of weaned piglets to the stressors, enhancing the growth performance.
The unique properties of superconductors such as radiation hardness and high microwave performances [1-3] make the integration with semiconductor conventional electronics a stimulating challenge. Many attempts have been tried to obtain good quality YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films on Si substrates, with the aim of taking advantage from the properties of both materials, but interdiffusion reactions and a poor lattice and thermal expansion coefficient matching require the use of a buffer layer at the semiconductor/superconductor interface. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), Y2O3, MgO, SrTiO3, CeO2 and their combinations have been proposed and used as buffer layers in the case of Si/YBCO systems. In this paper we report on annealing treatments performed on Si/CeO2 bilayers. A set of optimized samples with deposition temperatures ranging from 100°C to 800°C has been radiatively heated at two different annealing temperatures, in N2 and O2 atmospheres. All the samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy. The preferential grain orientation, the lattice parameter, the crystals dimensions, the surface roughness have been studied. As a preliminary tentative, we report on YBCO film growth on the top of CeO2/Si optimized bi-layer before undergoing annealing treatment. This YBCO film resulted to be a-axis preferential oriented, with some contribution of c-axis oriented grains.
The results of a systematic investigation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), X-ray diffraction and topography and scanning force microscopy (SFM) techniques on several InGaAs/InP compressive and tensile strained layers covering the misfit range from −2.3 to 1.5×10−2 and grown by the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) technique are reported. In compressively strained films the same dependence for the residual strain vs the film thickness as for the InGaAs/GaAs is found whereas a different strain release rate and different extended defects are found in tensile stressed InGaAs alloy. In particular in tensile stressed samples, grooves, planar defects and cracks are present in addition to the interfacial network of misfit dislocations. The correlation between the observed planar defects and the mechanisms of strain relaxation in the case of tensile strained layers is discussed.
Low temperature monochromatic cathodoluminescence (CL) spectral analyses and imaging were used to determine the widths of resistive regions (due to Fe diffusion) in multi-quantum-well (MQW) InP-based laser devices and to detect the different amount of damage induced by alternative In-situ Etching (ISE) and Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) techniques. The widths of the resistive regions were estimated by comparing the 5 K CL emission width from the MQW and the actual width as obtained by SEM investigations. Monochromatic CL also did not reveal any emission from the InP:Sn layer between semi-insulating material (Fe-doped lnp) and p-type layer (Zn-doped InP), indicating interdiffusion of Fe and Zn laterally the MQW, and the presence of substantial Sn diffusion (up to 2500 nanometers) into the substrate.
Studies were carried out in South America to assess the effect of maternally derived antibody (MDA) on the responsiveness of calves to FMD vaccination. It was found that calves with MDA did not merely fail to respond to vaccination, but that their serum titres were depressed. This depression was proportional to the level of pre-existing MDA at the time of vaccination and following primary vaccination it persisted for a least 60 days. High MDA titres interfered with both primary and secondary responses. Animals with relatively low MDA titres were able to respond to vaccination, or at least to be sensitized so that on revaccination they showed a satisfactory response. The half-life of MDA was shown to be approximately 22 days, suggesting that under field conditions significant MDA titres are likely to persist for 4–5 months. A trial carried out in Brazil in which the primary course of two inoculations, 4 weeks apart, was initiated when the calves were 5–6 months of age, resulted in the reduction of FMD in the calf population from 11% to 0·9% over a 12-month period. The use of vaccination programmes of this type to lessen the incidence of FMD in young bovines is discussed.
Switched systems are described by a set of continuous state-space models together with conditions that decide which model of this set is valid for the current continuous state. As an extension of the classical linear or affine state-space representations of dynamical systems, this modelling formalism has been thoroughly investigated, as this chapter shows. The identification of the model parameters, observability, and stability analysis as well as methods for stabilization and control of switched systems are surveyed. As shown in the last section, many analysis and design problems for switched systems have a high computational complexity or are even undecidable.
Definition of the system class
Switched systems represent a type of model of hybrid systems that has been studied extensively. The reason for this research activity is given by the fact that this class of systems is very close to “non-hybrid” systems and an extension of the theory of continuous systems towards hybrid systems is, therefore, rather straightforward. Nevertheless, this system class already exhibits several important phenomena of hybrid dynamical systems.
The basic representation format is the state-space model
which describes the dynamical behavior of the system for the input u ∈ ℝm and the operation mode q ∈ Q. The vector field f and the output function g are assumed to be Lipschitz continuous with respect to x and u so that for a fixed operation mode q solutions to the state-space model exist.
The dispersion equation for helicon waves in a plasma-filled wave-guide is derived. The relation between the solution and the quasi-static modes of Trivelpiece & Gould is discussed. An approximate dispersion relation, appropriate for cases where Ωe≫ ν ≫ ω, is obtained allowing the real and imaginary parts of the propagation constant to be expressed very simply in a normalized form. Curves are presented for this approximation.
Zirconium oxide thin films were deposited by sputtering a ZrO2 target
under an argon-oxygen gas mixture and different total gas pressures. Their
composition, structure and optical constants were characterised by mean of
Auger profiles, XRD, XPS, m-line and UV-visible spectroscopies. All the
deposits were found to be sub-stoechiometric with O/Zr ratio decreasing from
1.6 to 1.45 when the deposition pressure increased from 0.01 to 0.05 Torr. A
SRIM simulation was used to explain this behaviour. The XRD showed a
monoclinic phase for all sample with different grain size and residual
stress. Finally, the optical constants were determined. The refractive index
decreased slightly when the deposition pressure increased whereas the
optical gap and the Urbach energy were found to be quite constant whatever
the sputtering pressure.