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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
In this paper, a novel dynamic navigational planning strategy is proposed for single as well as multiple humanoids in intricate environments on a glowworm-based optimization method. The sensory information regarding the obstacle distances and target information are supplied as inputs to the navigational model. The essential turning angle is generated as the output of the controller to avoid obstacles present in the environment and reach the target location with ease. The proposed model is certified in a V-REP simulation software, and the simulation results are authenticated in a real-time setup arranged under testing conditions.
To determine the radiological prevalence of frontal cells according to the International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification in patients undergoing computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses for clinical symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis, and to examine the association between cell classification and frontal sinusitis development.
A total of 180 (left and right) sides of 90 patients were analysed. The prevalence of each International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification cell was assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the distribution of various cells in patients with and without frontal sinusitis.
The agger nasi cell was the most commonly occurring cell, seen in 95.5 per cent of patients. The prevalence rates for supra agger cells, supra agger frontal cells, supra bullar frontal cells, supra bullar cells, supra-orbital ethmoid cells and frontal septal cells were 33.3 per cent, 22.2 per cent, 21.1 per cent, 36.1 per cent, 39.4 per cent and 21.1 per cent, respectively. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of any of the cell types in patients with frontal sinusitis compared to those without (p > 0.05).
The presence of any of the International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification cells was not significantly associated with frontal sinusitis.
There is a paucity of scientific analysis that has examined spatial heterogeneities in the socioeconomic vulnerabilities related to COVID-19 risk and potential mitigation strategies at the sub-national level in India. The present study examined the demographic, socioeconomic, and health system-related vulnerabilities shaping COVID-19 risk across 36 states and union territories in India.
Using secondary data from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), Government of India; Census of India, 2011; National Family Health Survey, 2015-16; and various rounds of the National Sample Survey, we examined socioeconomic vulnerabilities associated with COVID-19 risk at the sub-national level in India from March 16, 2020 to May 03, 2020.
Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis (PCA), and the negative binomial regression model were used to examine the predictors of COVID-19 risk in India.
There persist substantial heterogeneities in the COVID-19 risk across states and union territories in India. The underlying demographic, socioeconomic and health infrastructure characteristics drive the vulnerabilities related to COVID-19 in India.
This study emphasizes that concerted socially inclusive policy action and sustained livelihood/economic support for the most vulnerable population groups is critical to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in India.
The catastrophic declines of three species of ‘Critically Endangered’ Gyps vultures in South Asia were caused by unintentional poisoning by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac. Despite a ban on its veterinary use in 2006 (India, Nepal, Pakistan) and 2010 (Bangladesh), residues of diclofenac have continued to be found in cattle carcasses and in dead wild vultures. Another NSAID, meloxicam, has been shown to be safe to vultures. From 2012 to 2018, we undertook covert surveys of pharmacies in India, Nepal and Bangladesh to investigate the availability and prevalence of NSAIDs for the treatment of livestock. The purpose of the study was to establish whether diclofenac continued to be sold for veterinary use, whether the availability of meloxicam had increased and to determine which other veterinary NSAIDs were available. The availability of diclofenac declined in all three countries, virtually disappearing from pharmacies in Nepal and Bangladesh, highlighting the advances made in these two countries to reduce this threat to vultures. In India, diclofenac still accounted for 10–46% of all NSAIDs offered for sale for livestock treatment in 2017, suggesting weak enforcement of existing regulations and a continued high risk to vultures. Availability of meloxicam increased in all countries and was the most common veterinary NSAID in Nepal (89.9% in 2017). Although the most widely available NSAID in India in 2017, meloxicam accounted for only 32% of products offered for sale. In Bangladesh, meloxicam was less commonly available than the vulture-toxic NSAID ketoprofen (28% and 66%, respectively, in 2018), despite the partial government ban on ketoprofen in 2016. Eleven different NSAIDs were recorded, several of which are known or suspected to be toxic to vultures. Conservation priorities should include awareness raising, stricter implementation of current bans, bans on other vulture-toxic veterinary NSAIDs, especially aceclofenac and nimesulide, and safety-testing of other NSAIDs on Gyps vultures to identify safe and toxic drugs.
We report an approach to expand the effective number of pixels available to small, two-dimensional electron detectors. To do so, we acquire subsections of a diffraction pattern that are then accurately stitched together in post-processing. Using an electron microscopy pixel array detector (EMPAD) that has only 128 × 128 pixels, we show that the field of view can be expanded while achieving high reciprocal-space sampling. Further, we highlight the need to properly account for the detector position (rotation) and the non-orthonormal diffraction shift axes to achieve an accurate reconstruction. Applying the method, we provide examples of spot and convergent beam diffraction patterns acquired with a pixelated detector.
The purpose of this paper is to disclose improved crystal based frequency source system covering design techniques and experimental methodologies for the stabilization of phase noise performance of X-band phase-locked loop (PLL) at 10.6 GHz. Phase noise performance of PLL-based unit under test (UUT) is prone to disturbance occurred in random vibration profile frequency spectrum. UUT self-resonance plays vital role in occurrence of disturbance in random vibration profile. The stabilization of phase noise performance during dynamic (random) vibration condition is achieved by following methodologies, i.e. vibration-isolator compensation techniques, purification tactic for reference crystal of PLL, and spatial location analysis for finding out mounting position of reference crystal. Spatial analysis helps to filter out UUT self-resonance frequency from random vibration spectrum which leads to reduction of frequency resonance pickups during random vibration testing.
To depict various temporal bone abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography in congenital aural atresia patients, and correlate these findings with auditory function test results and microtia subgroup.
Forty patients (56 ears) with congenital malformation of the auricle and/or external auditory canal were evaluated. Auricles were graded according to Marx's classification, divided into subgroups of minor (grades I and II) and major (III and IV) microtia. Other associated anomalies of the external auditory canal, tympanic cavity, ossicular status, oval and round windows, facial nerve, and inner ear were evaluated.
Minor and major microtia were observed in 53.6 and 46.4 per cent of ears respectively. Mean hearing levels were 62.47 and 62.37 dB respectively (p = 0.98). The malleus was the most commonly dysplastic ossicle (73.3 vs 80.8 per cent of ears respectively, p = 0.53). Facial nerve (mastoid segment) abnormalities were associated (p = 0.04) with microtia subgroup (80 vs 100 per cent in minor vs major subgroups).
Microtia grade was not significantly associated with mean hearing levels or other ear malformations, except for external auditory canal and facial nerve (mastoid segment) anomalies. High-resolution computed tomography is essential in congenital aural atresia, before management strategy is decided.
To assess the coverage of the adolescent weekly iron and folic acid supplementation (WIFS) programme in rural West Bengal, India.
We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey of intended WIFS programme beneficiaries (in-school adolescent girls and boys and out-of-school adolescent girls).
Birbhum Health and Demographic Surveillance System.
A total of 4448 adolescents 10–19 years of age participated in the study.
The percentage of adolescents who reported taking four WIFS tablets during the last month as intended by the national programme was 9·4 % among in-school girls, 7·1 % for in-school boys and 2·3 % for out-of-school girls. The low effective coverage was due to the combination of large deficits in WIFS provision and poor adherence. A large proportion of adolescents reported they were not provided any WIFS tablets in the last month: 61·7 % of in-school girls, 73·3 % of in-school boys and 97·1 % of out-of-school girls. In terms of adherence, only 41·6 % of in-school girls, 38·1 % of in-school boys and 47·4 % of out-of-school girls reported that they consumed all WIFS tablets they received. Counselling from teachers, administrators and school staff was the primary reason adolescents reported taking WIFS tablets, whereas the major reasons for non-adherence were lack of perceived benefit, peer suggestion not to take WIFS and a reported history of side effects.
The effective coverage of the WIFS programme for in-school adolescents and out-of-school adolescent girls is low in rural Birbhum. Integrated supply- and demand-side strategies appear to be necessary to increase the effective coverage and potential benefits of the WIFS programme.
This paper emphasizes on Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm for effective and efficient navigation of humanoid NAO, which uses the foraging quality of bacteria Escherichia coli for getting shortest path between two locations in minimum time. The Gaussian cost function assigned to both attractant and repellent profile of bacterium performs a major role in obtaining the best path between any two locations. Mathematical formulations have been performed to design the control architecture for humanoid navigation using the proposed methodology. The developed approach has been tested in a simulation platform, and the simulation results have been validated in an experimental platform. Here, motion planning for both single and multiple humanoid robots on a common platform has been performed by integrating a petri-net architecture for multiple humanoid navigation. Finally, the results obtained from both the platforms are compared in terms of suitable navigational parameters, and proper agreements have been observed with minimal amount of error limits.
Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak occurred in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India in 2018 with a case fatality rate of 91% (21/23). In 2019, a single case with full recovery occurred in Ernakulam district. We described the response and control measures by the Indian Council of Medical Research and Kerala State Government for the 2019 NiV outbreak. The establishment of Point of Care assays and monoclonal antibodies administration facility for early diagnosis, response and treatment, intensified contact tracing activities, bio-risk management and hospital infection control training of healthcare workers contributed to effective control and containment of NiV outbreak in Ernakulam.
India, with its rich and distinct socio-cultural heritage, bestow diverse impact over individual symptom complexes, coloring the picture and causing wide variation in presentation and prognosis of psychiatric illnesses. With the widespread use of atheoretical categorical diagnostic systems such as DSM-IV, ICD-10, etc. and success of psychopharmacological treatment approach, psychiatrists in developing and underdeveloped countries have tended to overlook the role of psycho-social and cultural factors and their interplay with neurobiological factors in governing illness patterns, and are reluctant initiators of non-pharmacological treatment measures.
The study aims to descriptively analyze and compare the use of pharmacological to non-pharmacological intervention initiation in outpatients in a general hospital setting.
The study sample will comprise of consecutive patients referred to psychiatry outpatient department from February to July 2009. The socio-demographic and clinical profile will be analyzed using a semi-structured proforma and diagnosis will be made as per ICD-10-DCR. An analysis of pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention initiation will be made and compared. Descriptive statistical analysis for continuous and categorical variables will be done as needed.
The study is currently been undertaken and the results and conclusion will be presented at the conference.
The widespread evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations has become an increasing concern for no-tillage (NT) growers in semiarid regions of the U.S. Great Plains. Lack of cost-effective and alternative new herbicide sites of action further exacerbates the problem of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds and threatens the long-term sustainability of prevailing cropping systems in the region. A recent decline in commodity prices and increasing herbicide costs to manage HR weeds has spurred research efforts to build a strong rationale for developing ecologically based integrated weed management (IWM) strategies in the U.S. Great Plains. Integration of cover crops (CCs) in NT dryland production systems potentially offers several ecosystem services, including weed control, soil health improvement, decline in selective pest pressure, and overall reduction in pest management inputs. This review article aims to document the role of CCs for IWM, with emphasis on exploring emerging weed issues; ecological, economic, and agronomic benefits of growing CCs; and constraints preventing adoption of CCs in NT cropping systems in the semiarid Great Plains. We attempt to focus on changes in weed management practices, their long-term impacts on weed seedbanks, weed shifts, and herbicide-resistance evolution in the most common weed species in the region. We also highlight current knowledge gaps and propose new research priorities based on an improved understanding of CC management strategies that will ultimately aid in achieving sustainable weed management goals and preserving natural resources in water-limited environments.
The Psychiatrists are called to assess the level of risk in violent and sex offenders’ population. There are differing perceptions about formalising the severity and management of risk. The proponents of actuarial decision making propose that it is scientific and evidence based approach. The advocates of professional judgment however think that actuarial tools usually miss out on the interplay of compounding factors and can under or over estimate the level of risk.
To review consecutive patient assessments and qualitatively compare it with HCR-20 and RSVP tools for violent and sex offending patients.
To report the difference in outcome in the domains of overall severity of risk, risk formulation and clinical decision making for management of the risk in these patient groups.
We aim to compare twenty consecutive patients where professional judgment of the clinician determined the severity of the risk, risk formulation and management. We then aim to use the information available to check for any differences in these areas when HCR-20 and RSVP are employed.
The comparison and benefits of professional judgment and actuarial decision making are reported.
The professionals (providers) are being increasingly compelled by commissioners(purchasers) to evidence base their clinical decision making. The professional judgments are more likely to be challenged in the courts. People are easily impressed by decisions which are evidence based though they may have limited understanding of research environment and population studied.
Epilepsy is a common neurological condition affecting 1–2 percent of the population. At least 3,50,000 are affected in the UK, one quarter of whom have active epilepsy. There is higher representation of epilepsy in estimated 1.2 million learning disabled population in the UK. Rough estimates predict some 5 percent of such population are in institutional care; 30 percent requiring medical attention.
Lighthouse Healthcare provides inpatient tertiary care services to Learning Disability population with complex needs. A sizeable proportion of the inpatient population has complex and refractory epilepsy. As the services are provided at various hospital sites, we wanted to review the care of all the patients with epilepsy and compare it with national standards as set by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence in England and Wales (NICE).
As most of the patients were already diagnosed elsewhere, we reviewed the medical records and compared the care with the standards envisaged in the NICE guidelines on the management of Epilepsies.
We contacted the Clinicians responsible for the care of all current inpatients and identified the cohort with epilepsy. We then reviewed the medical records for their conformity with NICE recommendations.
Besides missing records, we identified that there were major deficiencies in recording the breakthrough seizure activity as well as epilepsy review on yearly basis either by general practitioner or in specialist clinics.
The care provided to this vulnerable group falls short of standards expected in a secondary/tertiary care setting.
1) To find out the prevalence of ADHD in adults who attend the mental health services in Sligo / Leitrim county.
2) To understand how many cases of ADHD are undiagnosed in the specific adult population
3) To investigate comorbid illness.
All outpatients, aged 18-65 having a minimum of 5 years education, able to speak, read & write English language are included. patients with severe learning disabilities, patients with severe brain injury &with amnesic disorders were excluded.
1) Two screening scales were used (Adult Self -Report scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale)
2) Demographics (Age, Gender, Occupation)
The study is ongoing & preliminary data analysis shows :
184 people were screened
37 excluded (20%)
147 included (80%)
71 males (48.3%), 76 Females (51.7%) In the included category 60 were Positive at ASRS (41%), 46 were positive at WURS (31.5%), 27 were positive for both scales (17%)
The high percentages of ADHD in this particular population can interpreted in two ways. Many cases were missed during the childhood (unlikely) or that there is an overlap of ADHD symptoms with other psychiatric conditions in the adulthood. A third explanation is that both scales over diagnose ADHD but this is not supported from previous research.
The objective of this study was to investigate protective potential of 17β estradiol (E2) treatment on the activity of monoamine oxidase, calcium homeostasis, membrane polarization, genomic DNA degradation, 4- hydroxynonenal and protein oxidation levels occurring in brains of female rats of 3 months (young), 12 months (adult) and 24 months (old) age groups, and to see whether these changes are restored to normal levels after exogenous administration of estradiol.
The aged rats (12 and 24 months old) (n= 8 for each group) were given subcutaneous injection of 17b-estradiol (0.1 μg/g body weight) daily for one month. After 30 days of hormone treatment, experimental animals of all the groups were sacrificed and brains were isolated for further study.
The results obtained in the present work revealed that normal aging was associated with significant increases in the activity of monoamine oxidase, calcium homeostasis, genomic DNA degradation, 4- hydroxynonenal and protein oxidation levels in the brains of aging female rats, and a decrease in membrane polarization. Our data showed that exogenous administration of E2 brought these changes to near normalcy in aging female rats.
It can therefore be concluded that E2's beneficial effects seemed to arise from its, antioxidant and antilipidperoxidative effects, implying a therapeutic potential drug for age related changes. Based on our studies and others, we conclude that E2 have therapeutic potential for adjunctive therapy along with dopamine replacement in Parkinson's disease.
The term endophenotype was first used by Gottesman to describe a trait that may be intermediate on the chain of causality from genes to diseases. An endophenotype may be neuropathological, neurocognitive, emotional, neuro-physiological or neurobiological in nature. There is dearth of studies about the use of neurocognive dysfunction as endophenotype marker of BPAD, particularly from developing countries.
Aim and Hypothesis-
We aimed to evaluate neurocognitive dysfunctions as endophenotype markers of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) in first degree relative of BPAD patients. We hypothesized that first degree relative of BPAD patients differ significantly in regard to neurocognitive dysfunction from matched controls.
A cross sectional study was carried out. Sample was drawn from first degree relatives (FDR) of patients of BPAD and controls. After assessment of neurocognitive function first degree relatives of BPAD were compared with controls on measures of attention, verbal working memory, auditory verbal memory, Visuo spatial working memory, visual attention and executive functions.
Results indicated that, first degree relatives of BPAD scored poorly on measures of neurocognition then controls. On conducting comparison over composite neurocognitive score 'we found that cognitive index in combination better discriminate the first degree relatives of BPAD from controls.
Neurocognitive dysfunction on measures of attention, verbal episodic memory, auditory verbal working memory, visuospatial working memory and executive functions significantly differentiated first degree relatives of BPAD patients from controls.
Decreasing the hyper excitability of neurons through opening of voltage-gated potassium (Kv7, also termed as KCNQ) channels has been suggested as one of the protective mechanisms in the effective management of neuropathic pain. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and inflammatory pathways are well implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. Further, M current generated by opening of KCNQ channels has been modulated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species.
Aim & Objectives
The present study has been designed to elucidate the nitric oxide modulatory mechanism in the protective effect of retigabine against spinal nerve ligation induced neuropathic pain in rats.
Ligation of L5 and L6 spinal nerves resulted alterations in various behavioral (as evident from marked increase in thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia), biochemical (raised lipid peroxidation, nitrite, & depletion of GSH, SOD, catalase) and inflammatory parameters (raised TNF-alpha) as compared to naive treatment.
Administration of retigabine (10 mg/kg) for 28 days attenuated these behavioral, biochemical and inflammatory cascades as compared to control. Further, L-arginine (100 mg/kg) pretreatment with retigabine (5 mg/kg) significantly reversed the protective effect of retigabine in spinal nerve ligated rats. However, L-NAME (10 mg/kg) pretreatment with retigabine (5 mg/kg) significantly potentiated their protective effects which were significant as compared to their effect per se respectively.
Present study highlights the involvement of nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of retigabine against L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats.