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Despite the global importance of Capsicum species, there is limited information on the indigenous endomycorrhizal fungal association in this crop. Therefore, the diversity and colonization patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots of Naga King chilli (Capsicum chinense) were assessed during pre-flowering, flowering and fruit ripening growth stages under a sub-tropical shifting cultivation system of North Eastern India. All the roots examined had AMF colonization and the presence of Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizal morphology is reported for the first time in C. chinense. A total of 11 AMF spore morphotypes were isolated from both field and trap culture soils. Maximum AMF spore density and root colonization were recorded during the pre-flowering and flowering stages, respectively. The influence of Funneliformis geosporum, individually or in combination with Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azotobacter chroococcum, on growth and yield of C. chinense, was evaluated in a pot experiment using sterilized and non-sterilized soils. The application of AMF and P. fluorescens to sterilized soil significantly increased the growth, flower and fruit production, and nutrient content of C. chinense. The highest growth rates and yields of C. chinense in non-sterilized soils were achieved when AMF was combined with both P. fluorescens and A. chroococcum. The results of the current study indicate the value of applying microorganisms to improve plant growth and performance in chillies. One of the mechanisms for this could be the facilitated assimilation of nutrients promoted by AMF and bacterial bioinoculants.
Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. These cellular activations resulted in upregulation of host-protective cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and tumour growth factor-β. This immune polarization was also evidenced by upregulation of nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells p50 and regulated expression of suppressor of mother against decapentaplegic protein-4. rLd-iPGAM stimulation also promoted lymphocyte proliferation and boosted the leishmaniacidal activity of macrophages by upregulating reactive oxygen species. It also induced 1·8-fold higher release of nitric oxide (NO) by promoting the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. Besides, in silico analysis suggested the presence of major histocompatibility complex class I and II restricted epitopes, which can proficiently trigger CD8+ and CD4+ cells, respectively. This study reports rLd-iPGAM as an effective immunoprophylactic agent, which can be used in future vaccine design.
As indicated by the sporadic Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases reported from the districts of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, the disease is endemic in the state despite the fact that a JE vaccination programme has been ongoing in the state since 2006. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the annual trend of JE in UP during January 2011 to December 2013. CSF and/or serum samples collected from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases were referred to the virology laboratory at King George's Medical University, Lucknow and were tested for anti-JEV IgM antibodies by JEV MAC-ELISA kit. The study reveals that 26·9%, 9·9% and 14·8% of AES cases were positive for anti-JEV IgM in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of the total JE confirmed cases, 30% were adults. Males were more commonly affected than females. A distinct peak of JE was seen in the monsoon and post-monsoon season, although sporadic cases were also reported in other months. JE vaccination by district in UP is discussed. This study reports that the proportion of JE positives in AES cases is decreasing in UP although the number of AES cases has not decreased. The study also discusses the probable causes of this decrease, including JE vaccination and natural periodicity due to herd immunity.
The role of ferroelectric LiNbO3 (LNB) in altering the frequency dependence of the capacitance of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films has been investigated. A cost effective spin coating deposition process was used to integrate the oxide heterostructures onto silicon substrates. This study showed that the frequency stability of the CCTO/LNB structure was much improved when the crystallization conditions and physical dimension of each layer were optimized. To integrate this structure with current silicon technology, heterostructures of CCTO and LNB thin films were fabricated on HF terminated Si using chemical solution deposition. It was found that the order of deposition of the two layers was important for the structural quality of the heterostructures with the CCTO layer followed by the LNB layer being the preferred structure. In addition to improvement of the capacitance variation with frequency, the heterostructures also provide a path to tuning the frequency of operation.
Three Critically Endangered Gyps vultures endemic to South Asia continue to decline due to the use of diclofenac to treat livestock. High nephrotoxicity of diclofenac to Gyps vultures, leading to death, has been established by experiment and observation, in four out of five Gyps vulture species which occur in South Asia. Declines have also been observed in South Asia’s four other non-Gyps vulture species, but to date there has been no evidence about the importance of diclofenac as a potential cause. Neither is there any evidence on the toxicity of diclofenac to the Accipitridae other than vultures. In this study, gross and microscopic lesions and diclofenac tissue levels in Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis found at a cattle carcass dump in Rajasthan, India, show evidence of the toxicity of diclofenac for this species. These findings suggest the possibility that diclofenac is toxic to other accipitrid raptors and is therefore a potential threat to much wider range of scavenging species in South Asia.
Due to the poor positive predictive value of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for gonorrhoea when applied to a low-prevalence setting, current guidelines recommend the use of supplementary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting a different gene for confirmation of true positives in urogenital specimens. This study sought to standardize and evaluate performance of an in-house opa gene-based PCR assay for gonorrhoea compared to assays targeting the porA pseudogene and 16S rRNA gene. Four hundred samples (300 endocervical, 100 urethral swabs) from patients attending STD clinics in New Delhi, India were used. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the opa-based PCR were 100%, 97·9%, 89·5% and 100%, respectively. In females, the use of NAATs provided enhanced diagnosis of gonorrhoea.
Abstract:The films of colossal magnetoresistive La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LCMO) and ferroelectric SbSI were grown by pulsed laser deposition method for fabricating their heterostructures. By varying the processing conditions during film growth and controlling subsequently the annealing conditions, the resistivity transport properties of the LCMO films could be greatly modified. Preliminary tests on the ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) based on LCMO-SbSI heterostructure showed that the device behaves like a nonvolatile memory element. The FeFET showed a maximum channel modulation of ∼10% at room temperature, and the switching voltage was less than 2 V.
Thin films of antimony sulpho iodide (SbSI) were grown on platinized silicon substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method. As grown films were amorphous and annealing at 250 °C for 5 minutes introduced crystallinity in the films. Infrared reflectance measurements were done in the frequency range ∼ 500 – 5000 cm−1 (wavelength ∼ 2–20 μm). The reflectance measurements were taken at temperatures above and below the ferroelectric transition of SbSI ∼ 20° C. The index of refraction for a (121) oriented film was determined to be 2.83 ± 0.35 at a temperature of 25.6 °C, and 2.80 ± 0.35 at a temperature of 9.6 °C. For a (002) oriented film, the index was 3.82 ± 0.48 at a temperature of 26.5 °C, and 3.76 ± 0.48 at a temperature of 8.0 °C. Pyro-optic coefficients of 1.5 × 10−3 °C−1 for the (121) oriented film, and 3.2 × 10−3 °C−1 for the (002) oriented film were obtained. These results are consistent with measurements done in the visible region, and demonstrate the potential of SbSI as an infrared detector material.
Si/In203 diodes have been prepared by e-beam evaporation of In203 tablets. Annealing of these devices was carried out in N2 and H2 /N2 mixture at 1 atm. in the temperature range of 400–800°C. Experimental data indicated a large increase in the Schottky barrier height and growth of interfacial oxide during annealing. The interface state density was reduced by a factor of 2, but the results indicated the increase in the barrier height to be mainly due to reduction of positive fixed charge density.
Inelastic light scattering by optical phonons and the temperature dependent electrical conductivity, Hall constant and photosensitivity were studied in oriented CdGeAs2 crystals grown by ultra-low gradient freeze technique from near-stoichiometric melts. Observation of the clear polarization dependence of the inelastic light scattering spectra by optical phonons combined with the absence of any dependence of the intensity and frequency shift of the observed lines with mapping measurements in 300 μm steps indicated the high optical quality and homogeneity of these single crystals. It is shown that surface-barrier structures using these single crystals may be used as wide-band detectors for natural light, as well as selective photoanalyzers for linearly polarized radiation.
Pedigree analysis was used to study the genetic background of 66 Indian early maturing potato selections, the pedigree of which was traced back to 35 ancestors. Six of the 35 contributed 0·42 of the genetic base, which shows the narrow genetic base of Indian early maturing genotypes. Genotypes 2814 (a)1 (f=0·145) and 3069 (d)4 (f=0·145) were the ancestors which appeared most frequently. Based on the coefficient of relationship, the 66 selections were grouped into seven groups with one common ancestor in almost all the selections within a group. The genotypes Kufri Ashoka, Kufri Pukhraj, AGB-69-1, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Alankar, Kufri Lauvkar and Kufri Kuber were identified as very important parents/ancestors, carrying specific gene complexes valuable in new selections. Crosses between selections from different diversity groups can result in the selection of useful clones while increasing or maintaining genetic diversity, which is desirable to ensure sustainable breeding progress in the future.
A high-power millimetre wave (w1, k1) propagating through a magnetized plasma in the presence of a wiggler magnetic field (0, k0) produces density perturbations at (w1, K1 +K0). The density perturbations couple with the oscillatory velocity at (wl, K1) to produce a nonlinear current at (2w1, 2K1 +K0) driving second-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. The amplitude of the generated wave is sensitive to cyclotron resonance.
Laser radiation propagating through a non-uniform plasma along the direction of the density gradient suffers total reflection at the critical layer. However, when a wiggler magnetic field exists near the critical layer, the laser drives a Langmuir wave. For suitable values of Bw and kw, the power transfer from the laser to the Langmuir wave could be as high as 60%. The Langmuir wave deposits its energy on the electrons via Landau damping. This may be an efficient mechanism of laser absorption when large self-generated magnetic fields exist in the plasma.
The theory of particle aspect analysis is extended to the drift wave in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The dispersion relation and growth rate of the wave are evaluated and discussed when the magnetic field gradient is directed opposite to the density gradient. The plasma under consideration is assumed to be anisotropic and the effects of temperature anisotropy on the dispersion characteristics and growth rate of the wave are also studied. The dispersion relation and the growth rate are evaluated for the space plasma parameters.
The landraces of rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess wide diversity, which needs to be properly characterized for their use in genetic improvement. Replicated field studies were conducted in 1998, 1999 and 2000 at two sites in Nepal to determine diversity in 183 landraces of rice adapted to the lowlands and the hills in Nepal. Fourteen improved genotypes were also used for comparison. Thirteen agronomic traits were investigated. Shannon–Weaver diversity index (H) and Simpson's index of diversity (D) were estimated to determine the level of genetic richness among the landraces. The landraces differed significantly for all traits. Except for plant height and maturity, at least one of the landraces compared well with the performance of improved cultivars. A principal component analysis separated the lowland- and hill-adapted landraces into two broad groups.
This paper presents the effect of ripple on the plasma wave excitation process and acceleration of electrons in a laser produced plasma. The plasma wave is generated by the beating of two coaxial lasers of frequencies ω1 and ω2, such that ω1-ω2≅ωp. One of the main laser beams also has intensity spikes. The nonlinearity due to the relativistic mass variation depends not only on the intensity of one laser beam but also on the second laser beam. Therefore the behavior of the first laser beam affects the second laser beam, hence cross-focusing takes place. Owing to the interaction of ripple and the main laser beams, the ripple grows inside the plasma. The behavior of the ripple in the plasma affects the excitation of the electron plasma wave as well as the electron acceleration. The amplitude of the electron plasma wave and the electron energy are calculated, in the presence of ripple.
Head and neck cancer care was analysed in 2167 unselected patients for management compliance and outcome. Median age was 55 years, with a male to female ratio of 5.5[ratio ]1. Major sites were oropharynx (32.4 per cent), larynx (19.8 per cent), oral (16.6 per cent) and hypopharynx (12.9 per cent). Stage-wise distribution was I–II=8.9 per cent, III=20.6 per cent and IV=60.3 per cent and unstaged=10.2 per cent. Squamous cell carcinoma was the dominant histology for 90.9 per cent. Clinic-based cancer-directed treatment decisions were made for 1905 patients: curative intent in 53 per cent, palliative in 35 per cent and for the remaining 262 (12 per cent) supportive care. Overall, 1209 (56 per cent) patients complied with the prescribed treatments; 62 per cent, 54 per cent, and 35 per cent of curative, palliative and supportive care intent groups, respectively. Modalities were radiotherapy alone (64.6 per cent), combined surgery with irradiation (17.6 per cent), and chemoradiotherapy (11.2 per cent). Median follow-up periods were 17.5 and three months in curative and palliative groups respectively. Overall, 712 (33 per cent) cases received curative therapy, with three-year disease-specific survival of 49 per cent. Patient compliance was a major obstacle. The comparison of this series with the USA, Canada and Norway showed wide disparities in stage of presentation and survival.