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Herbicides have been a primary means of managing undesirable brush on grazing lands across southwestern United States for decades. Continued encroachment of honey mesquite and huisache on grazing lands warrants evaluation of treatment life and economics of current and experimental treatments. Treatment life is defined as the time between treatment application and when canopy cover of undesirable brush returns to a competitive level with native forage grasses (i.e. 25% canopy cover for mesquite and 30% canopy cover for huisache). Treatment life of industry standard herbicides was compared to aminocyclopyrachlor plus triclopyr amine (ACP+T) from ten broadcast-applied honey mesquite and five broadcast-applied huisache trials established from 2007 through 2013 across Texas. On average, the treatment life of industry standard treatments (IST) for huisache was 3 years. In comparison, huisache canopy cover was only 2.5% in ACP+T treated plots 3 years after treatment. The average treatment life of industry standard honey mesquite treatments was 8.6 years, while ACP+T treated plots had just 2% mesquite canopy cover at that time. Improved treatment life of ACP+T treatments compared to IST was due to higher mortality resulting in more consistent brush canopy reduction. The net present values of ACP+T and IST, for both huisache and mesquite, were similar until the treatment life of the IST application was reached (3 years for huisache and 8.6 years for honey mesquite). At that point, net present values of the programs diverged as a result of brush competition with desirable forage grasses and additional input costs associated with theoretical follow-up IST necessary to maintain optimum livestock forage production. The ACP+T treatments did not warrant a sequential application over the 12-year analysis for huisache or 20-year analysis for honey mesquite that this research covered. These results indicate ACP+T provides cost-effective, long-term control of honey mesquite and huisache.
Following stage 1 palliation, delayed sternal closure may be used as a technique to enhance thoracic compliance but may also prolong the length of stay and increase the risk of infection.
We reviewed all neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation at our institution between 2010 and 2017 to describe the effects of delayed sternal closure.
During the study period, 193 patients underwent stage 1 palliation, of whom 12 died before an attempt at sternal closure. Among the 25 patients who underwent primary sternal closure, 4 (16%) had sternal reopening within 24 hours. Among the 156 infants who underwent delayed sternal closure at 4 [3,6] days post-operatively, 11 (7.1%) had one or more failed attempts at sternal closure. Patients undergoing primary sternal closure had a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit length of stay. Patients who failed delayed sternal closure had a longer aortic cross-clamp time (123±42 versus 99±35 minutes, p=0.029) and circulatory arrest time (39±28 versus 19±17 minutes, p=0.0009) than those who did not fail. Failure of delayed sternal closure was also closely associated with Technical Performance Score: 1.3% of patients with a score of 1 failed sternal closure compared with 18.9% of patients with a score of 3 (p=0.0028). Among the haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters studied, only superior caval vein saturation following sternal closure was different between patients who did and did not fail sternal closure (30±7 versus 42±10%, p=0.002). All patients who failed sternal closure did so within 24 hours owing to hypoxaemia, hypercarbia, or haemodynamic impairment.
When performed according to our current clinical practice, sternal closure causes transient and mild changes in haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters. Monitoring of SvO2 following sternal closure may permit early identification of patients at risk for failure.
A 14C measurement capability has been developed on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University. At present, this system operates on a medium-precision, low-throughput basis with slow cycling between isotopes. We describe unusual features of the system, and review preliminary experience with this mode of operation, in sample preparation, and with a recently installed injection system.
RXJ0558+5353 was discovered and classified as an intermediate polar during the ROSAT all-sky survey and subsequent optical follow up programme (Haberl et al. 1994). A further pointed ROSAT observation revealed a spin periodicity of 272.74 s and a soft X-ray component well represented by an absorbed 57 eV blackbody, the spin modulation being due principally to intensity variations of the component (rather than variable absorption). Optical spectroscopy showed the orbital period to be 4.15 h. In this paper we show the true spin period to be 545.4555(8) s (Allan, Horne & Hilditch 1995), twice the published X-ray period, and also discuss preliminary results of the first spin-resolved spectroscopy of RXJ0558+5353.
Elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been associated with the development of common mental disorders, such as depression, but its role in symptom resolution is unclear.
We examined the association between IL-6 and symptom resolution in a non-clinical sample of participants with psychological distress.
Relative to high IL-6 levels, low levels at baseline were associated with symptom resolution at follow-up [age- and sex-adjusted risk ratio (RR) = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.25]. Further adjustment for covariates had little effect on the association. Symptomatic participants with repeated low IL-6 were more likely to be symptom-free at follow-up compared with those with repeated high IL-6 (RR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.41). Among the symptomatic participants with elevated IL-6 at baseline, IL-6 decreased along with symptom resolution.
IL-6 is potentially related to the mechanisms underlying recovery from symptoms of mental ill health. Further studies are needed to examine these mechanisms and to confirm the findings in relation to clinical depression.
Two community-based density case-control studies were performed to assess risk factors for cholera transmission during inter-peak periods of the ongoing epidemic in two Haitian urban settings, Gonaives and Carrefour. The strongest associations were: close contact with cholera patients (sharing latrines, visiting cholera patients, helping someone with diarrhoea), eating food from street vendors and washing dishes with untreated water. Protective factors were: drinking chlorinated water, receiving prevention messages via television, church or training sessions, and high household socioeconomic level. These findings suggest that, in addition to contaminated water, factors related to direct and indirect inter-human contact play an important role in cholera transmission during inter-peak periods. In order to reduce cholera transmission in Haiti intensive preventive measures such as hygiene promotion and awareness campaigns should be implemented during inter-peak lulls, when prevention activities are typically scaled back.
Diagnosis of depressive disorder using interviewer-administered instruments is expensive and frequently impractical in large epidemiological surveys. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of three self-completion measures of depressive disorder and other psychiatric disorders in older people against an interviewer-administered instrument.
A random sample stratified by sex, age and social position was selected from the Whitehall II study participants. This sample was supplemented by inclusion of depressed Whitehall II participants. Depressive disorder and other mental disorders were assessed by the interviewer-administered structured revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) in 277 participants aged 58–80 years. Participants also completed a computerized self-completion version of the CIS-R in addition to the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).
The mean total score was similar for the interviewer-administered (4.43) and self-completion (4.35) versions of the CIS-R [95% confidence interval (CI) for difference −0.31 to 0.16]. Differences were not related to sex, age, social position or presence of chronic physical illness. Sensitivity/specificity of self-completion CIS-R was 74%/98% for any mental disorder and 75%/98% for depressive episode. The corresponding figures were 86%/87% and 78%/83% for GHQ and 77%/89% and 89%/86% for CES-D.
The self-completion computerized version of the CIS-R is feasible and has good validity as a measure of any mental disorder and depression in people aged ⩾ 60 years. GHQ and CES-D also have good criterion validity as measures of any mental disorder and depressive disorder respectively.
Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate- or low-penetrance variants exist among the subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies, which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high-density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by less dense arrays. However, our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small-effect variants.
Genes in the TGF9 signaling pathway play important roles in the regulation of ovarian follicle growth and ovulation rate. Mutations in three genes in this pathway, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and the bone morphogenetic protein receptor B 1 (BMPRB1), influence dizygotic (DZ) twinning rates in sheep. To date, only variants in GDF9 and BMP15, but not their receptors transforming growth factor ß receptor 1 (TGFBR1), bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) and BMPR1B, have been investigated with respect to their roles in human DZ twinning. We screened for rare and novel variants in TGFBR1, BMPR2 and BMPR1B in mothers of dizygotic twins (MODZT) from twin-dense families, and assessed association between genotyped and imputed variants and DZ twinning in another large sample of MODZT. Three novel variants were found: a deep intronic variant in BMPR2, and one intronic and one non-synonymous exonic variant in BMPRB1 which would result in the replacement of glutamine by glutamic acid at amino acid position 294 (p.Gln294Glu). None of these variants were predicted to have major impacts on gene function. However, the p.Gln294Glu variant changes the same amino acid as a sheep BMPR1B functional variant and may have functional consequences. Six BMPR1B variants were marginally associated with DZ twinning in the larger case-control sample, but these were no longer significant once multiple testing was taken into account. Our results suggest that variation in the TGF9 signaling pathway type II receptors has limited effects on DZ twinning rates in humans.
The reactivity of siderite (FeCO3) was investigated under ambient atmosphere and acidic aerosols using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Scans of freshly cleaved siderite crystals showed a relatively irregular microtopography, consisting of high-density kink-steps, compared to other isostructural carbonates (e.g. Iceland-spar calcite). Under ambient conditions siderite is inert with no spontaneous surface reconstruction as is reported for calcite. Under controlled conditions of pH and humidity, siderite was exposed to mists of HC1 and H2CO3 and the reaction was imaged with submicron resolution. The kinetics of the reaction varied with pH, humidity levels, and also as a function of the initial microtopography. Preferential growth and dissolution were observed as a function of initial topography and due to crystallographic anisotropies. Although extreme reaction conditions were excluded by certain aspects of AFM (high capillary forces, tip corrosion, charged surface), this technique has allowed real-time, in situ observations of surface reactions.
In this study, mechanochemical milling (also known as mechanical alloying), has been used as an alternative means of synthesis of ceramic metal oxide electrolytes at room temperature and compared to the conventional calcination methods. The oxide electrolytes prepared by mechanical milling, were, the lanthanide-doped fcc Bismuth Oxides and Cerium Oxides, both of which are oxygen deficient. Conductivities for some of these milled oxides, measured by the four probe technique, were found to be enhanced when compared to those for conventionally prepared materials.
Phase formation in the system Li3SbO4-CuO has been studied by solid state chemistry reaction, at temperatures between 650° and 1150°C. Two new complex oxides were found and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Li3CuSbO5 (O) and Li3Cu2SbO6 (S). The latter exhibits a new partially ordered rock salt structure and shows a low level of electronic conductivity . The crystal structure of Li3SbO4was determined .