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The regulation of lipogenesis and lipolysis mechanisms related to consumption of lipid has not been studied in swimming crab. The aims of present study were to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, enzymes activities, and expression of genes of lipid metabolism in hepatopancreas of juvenile swimming crab. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain crude lipid levels at 5.8 %, 9.9 % and 15.1 %, respectively. Crabs fed the diet containing 15.1 % lipid had significantly lower weight gain, specific growth rate and survival, and higher feed conversion ratio than those fed the 5.8 % and 9.9 % lipid diets. Crabs fed 5.8 % lipid had lower malondialdehyde concentrations in the hemolymph and hepatopancreas than those fed the other diets. Highest glutathione peroxidase in hemolymph and superoxide dismutase in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 5.8 % lipid. The lowest fatty acid synthase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 15.1 % lipid, whereas crabs fed 5.8 % lipid had lower carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity than those fed the other diets. Crabs fed 15.1 % lipid showed lower hepatopancreas expression of genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis, lipoprotein clearance, fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, lipid anabolism and lipid catabolism than those fed the other diets, whereas expression of some genes of lipoprotein assembly and fatty acid oxidation were up-regulated compared with crabs fed 5.8 % lipid. Overall, high dietary lipid level can inhibit growth, reduce feed utilization and reduce antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, dietary lipid influenced enzyme activities and gene expression involved in lipid metabolism of juvenile swimming crab.
The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) is the only population-based registry in Spain. Created in 2006, the registry has been growing more than a decade to become one of the references for twin research in the Mediterranean region. The MTR database currently comprises 3545 adult participants born between 1940 and 1977. It also holds a recently launched satellite registry of university students (N = 204). Along five waves of data collection, the registry has gathered questionnaire and anthropometric data, as well as biological samples. The MTR keeps its main research focus on health and health-related behaviors from a public health perspective. This includes lifestyle, health promotion, quality of life or environmental conditions. Future short-term development points to the expansion of the biobank and the continuation of the collection of longitudinal data.
Schizophrenia is associated with robust hippocampal volume deficits but subregion volume deficits, their associations with cognition, and contributing genes remain to be determined.
Hippocampal formation (HF) subregion volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer 6.0 from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 176, mean age ± s.d. = 39.0 ± 11.5, 132 males) and healthy volunteers (n = 173, mean age ± s.d. = 37.6 ± 11.3, 123 males) with similar mean age, gender, handedness, and race distributions. Relationships between the HF subregion volume with the largest between group difference, neuropsychological performance, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed.
This study found a significant group by region interaction on hippocampal subregion volumes. Compared to healthy volunteers, individuals with schizophrenia had significantly smaller dentate gyrus (DG) (Cohen's d = −0.57), Cornu Ammonis (CA) 4, molecular layer of the hippocampus, hippocampal tail, and CA 1 volumes, when statistically controlling for intracranial volume; DG (d = −0.43) and CA 4 volumes remained significantly smaller when statistically controlling for mean hippocampal volume. DG volume showed the largest between group difference and significant positive associations with visual memory and speed of processing in the overall sample. Genome-wide association analysis with DG volume as the quantitative phenotype identified rs56055643 (β = 10.8, p < 5 × 10−8, 95% CI 7.0–14.5) on chromosome 3 in high linkage disequilibrium with MOBP. Gene-based analyses identified associations between SLC25A38 and RPSA and DG volume.
This study suggests that DG dysfunction is fundamentally involved in schizophrenia pathophysiology, that it may contribute to cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia, and that underlying biological mechanisms may involve contributions from MOBP, SLC25A38, and RPSA.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project of the UPR-MSC and UCC has demonstrated that educational interventions in CTR are very effective in fulfilling the objective of promoting awareness, stimulate interest and increase the knowledge, skills and opportunities, to US, GS and F (participants) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The training sessions (TS) offered through the Title V initiative have become an engine for the involvement in CTR for participants from higher education institutions island-wide. TS consisted of cycles –level 1 and 2–: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO,I,II) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR,I,II), ending in the formation of the Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT)s, in which participants, paired by their research interests, were mentored by a well-established CT researchers in their research project, to be developed in the Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Up to date, 4 TS-level 1 and 2 TS-level 2 were offered. Eighty (80) participants completed level 1, distributed: 42 (52.5%) US in RETO, 21 (26.25%) GS and 17 (21.25%) F in MOTOR and 17 participants completed level 2, distributed: 4 (23.52%) US in RETO, 6 (25.29%) GS and 7 (41.17%) F in MOTOR. From which, 15, with 8 CT researchers, formed 5 CTMTs in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: US, GS and F were integrated in the active process throughout educational levels for their development in CTR.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: We have reported that radiofrequency renal denervation (RF-RDN) in SHR at 20-weeks of age, decreased blood pressure (BP) and fibrosis in kidney cortex and medulla when rats were sacrificed at 6 months. However, whether RF-RDN can have similar benefits in older rats remains unknown. This study examined whether performing RF-RDN in older rats also has a beneficial effect on BP and renal fibrosis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Baseline systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DPB) was measured (telemetry) in nine-month-old SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Groups of rats then received bilateral RF-RDN or Sham-RDN (SHR-RDN, n=9; SHR-Sham, n=10; WKY-RDN, n=5; WKY-Sham, n=8). Rats were then sacrificed at 12-months of age. Kidneys were harvested, sectioned, and assessed for fibrosis by Masson’s trichrome stain. A pathologist, who was blinded to treatment groups, evaluated each kidney section for fibrosis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Compared to SHR with Sham-RDN, RF-RDN prevented a further increase in systolic and diastolic BP from baseline (9-month) in SHR as they aged to 12-months (SHR-Sham mmHg: 9-month 193±4/127±4; 12-month 207±3/142±5; SHR-RDN mmHg: 9-month 197±3/132±2; 12-month 197±4/132±3). RF-RDN did not alter SBP or DBP in aged WKY. One-year-old SHR with prior Sham-RDN showed extensive renal fibrosis in kidney cortex and medulla. In contrast, RF-RDN significantly decreased renal fibrosis in the medulla, but not cortex. There was no fibrosis in kidneys of age matched WKY. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These findings suggest that RF-RDN may be a potential therapy for halting progression of hypertension and decreasing medullary fibrosis in the aged population.
Healthy lifestyle habits are the cornerstone in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Nevertheless, dietary studies on FH-affected populations are scarce. The present study analyses dietary habits, adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern and physical activity in an adult population with FH and compares them with their non-affected relatives.
Data came from SAFEHEART, a nationwide study in Spain.
Individuals (n 3714) aged ≥18 years with a genetic diagnosis of FH (n2736) and their non-affected relatives (n 978). Food consumption was evaluated using a validated FFQ.
Total energy intake was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Percentage of energy from fats was also lower in the FH population (35 % in men, 36 % in women) v. those non-affected (38 % in both sexes, P<0·005), due to the lower consumption of saturated fats (12·1 % in FH patients, 13·2 % in non-affected, P<0·005). Consumption of sugars was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·05). Consumption of vegetables, fish and skimmed milk was higher in the FH population (P<0·005). Patients with FH showed greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Active smoking was lower and moderate physical activity was higher in people with FH, especially women (P<0·005).
Adult patients with FH report healthier lifestyles than their non-affected family members. They eat a healthier diet, perform more physical activity and smoke less. However, this patient group’s consumption of saturated fats and sugars still exceeds guidelines.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Responding to the need and interest of students and faculty of the UHSP in learning about CTR, the Title V Cooperative Project between UPR-MSC and UCC, developed and offered a training cycle (TC) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Undergraduate students (US), undergraduate faculty (UF), and graduate students (GS) were invited to register in: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR), which consisted of 20 hours of training in CTR, with interdisciplinary sessions in: Introduction and preparation of a presentation in CTR; Identify, interview and share a presentation of a CT researcher; participation in conferences and a summer camp in CTR. At the end of the TC, surveys—satisfaction and needs assessment—for training in CTR were administered. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Thirty-three (33) registered in the TC, distributed: 13 (39.39%) US in RETO, 12 (36.36%) GS and 8 (24.24%) UF in MOTOR. Of these, 25 (75.75%) answered and submitted the on-line surveys and received a completion certificate. All (100%) were satisfied with the TC, and for 96% of the respondents, their expectations were fulfilled, and will continue in the TC. They selected critical review, scientific communication, and cultural diversity as thematic areas of interest. In addition, 60% of them selected neuroscience, cancer and medical imaging as main research areas of interest. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The TC demonstrated to be an effective strategy to provide new knowledge, experiences, and interest in CTR. It also established a pathway for future engagement in CTR.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of this study was to investigate whether RF-RDN attenuates renal fibrosis and inflammation in SHR with established hypertension. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Twenty-two-week-old SHR received bilateral RF-RDN or Sham-RDN (Biosense Webster Stockert 70 generator and RF-probe). Four weeks later, SHR were sacrificed and paraffin sections of kidneys were stained for fibrosis by Masson’s trichrome staining. Kidney tissue were homogenized for measurement of cytokines levels by ELISA. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The results showed that Sham-RDN treated SHR had extensive fibrosis as demonstrated by moderate thickening of Bowman’s capsule, collagen deposition in glomerulus, extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and segmental glomerulosclerosis. In contrast, RF-RDN significantly reduced each of these pathological components of fibrosis in kidney cortex and medulla as compared with Sham-RDN treated kidneys. In other studies, RF-RDN decreased B cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells in the kidney of SHR as measured by flow cytometry. Meanwhile, kidney tissue levels of IL-17, INF-γ, MIP-3a, TNF-α, and TGF-β were decreased as compared with respective levels in Sham-RDN. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Together, these findings demonstrate that removal of the influence of heightened renal sympathetic activity by RF-RDN decreases kidney inflammatory markers and attenuates renal fibrosis in hypertensive SHR.
Twin registers are wonderful research resources for research applications in medical and behavioral genetics, epidemiology, psychology, molecular genetics, and other areas of research. New registers continue to be launched all over the world as researchers from different disciplines recognize the potential to boost and widen their research agenda. In this article, we discuss multiple aspects that need to be taken into account when initiating a register, from its preliminary sketch to its actual development. This encompasses aspects related to the strategic planning and key elements of research designs, promotion and management of a twin register, including recruitment and retaining of twins and family members of twins, phenotyping, database organization, and collaborations between registers. We also present information on questions unique to twin registers and twin-biobanks, such as the assessment of zygosity by SNP arrays, the design of (biomarker) studies involving related participants, and the analyses of clustered data. Altogether, we provide a number of basic guidelines and recommendations for reflection when planning a twin register.
A uniform nanometric thin liquid film on a solid substrate can become unstable due to the action of van der Waals (vdW) forces. The instability leads to dewetting of the uniform film and the formation of drops. To minimize the total free energy of the system, these drops coarsen over time until one single drop remains. Here, using a thermodynamically consistent framework, we derive a new model for thin films in partial wetting with a free energy that resembles the Cahn–Hilliard form with a height-dependent surface tension that leads to a generalized disjoining pressure, and revisit the dewetting problem. Using both linear stability analysis and nonlinear simulations we show that the new model predicts a slightly smaller critical instability wavelength and a significantly (up to six-fold) faster growth rate than the classical model in the spinodal regime; this faster growth rate brings the theoretical predictions closer to published experimental observations. During coarsening at intermediate times, the dynamics become self-similar and model-independent; we therefore observe the same scalings in both the classical (with and without thermal noise) and new models. Both models also lead to a mean-field Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW)-type droplet-size distribution at intermediate times for small drop sizes. We, however, observe a skewed drop-size distribution for larger drops in the new model; while the tail of the distribution follows a Smoluchowski equation, it is not associated with a coalescence-dominated coarsening, calling into question the association made in some earlier experiments. Our observations point to the importance of the height dependence of surface tension in the early and late stages of dewetting of nanometric films and motivate new high-resolution experimental observations to guide the development of improved models of interfacial flows at the nanoscale.
A 1.1-m reflectarray antenna has been designed, manufactured, and tested to fulfill the requirements of a satellite antenna in Ku-band that provides South-American coverage in Tx and Rx. The reflectarray cells consist of four dipoles for each polarization in two dielectric layers, selected because of their simplicity and high performance. The dipole dimensions are optimized in all the reflectarray cells to accomplish the prescribed radiation patterns, by iteratively calling an analysis routine based on method of moments in spectral domain and local periodicity. The measured radiation patterns of the manufactured antenna have been satisfactorily compared with simulations and with a three-layer reflectarray previously designed, manufactured, and tested for the same mission.
Imazapyr and imazamox are frequently applied postemergence to control grass and broadleaf weeds in imidazolinone-resistant sunflower in Argentina. Herbicide carryover to rotational crops represents a disadvantage of these herbicides, particularly in regions with low rainfall during the months prior to rotational crop sowing. Between 2009 and 2012, field and greenhouse studies were conducted on four important sunflower-cropped areas of Argentina. The objective was to quantify the effects of imazapyr alone and imazamox plus imazapyr applied in sunflower crops on the subsequent establishment, growth, and yield of barley, oat, and wheat. In all field experiments, imazapyr alone and imazamox plus imazapyr were applied at recommended rates (80 gha–1 and 66 plus 30 gha–1, respectively), and also, in some experiments, at double the recommended rates. Soil bioassays were also conducted in the greenhouse to study the effect of these herbicides on barley, oat, and wheat seedlings. The mixture of imazamox plus imazapyr was safer for rotational crops than imazapyr applied alone, because of the reduced rate of imazapyr in the mixture treatments. Barley was more sensitive to imidazolinones, particularly imazapyr, than the other winter cereals. Imazapyr at double rate (160 gha–1) reduced barley yield by 45% when seeds were sown 165 d after herbicide application and with 240 mm rainfall after herbicide application.
The prolonged interval from calving to first ovulation in beef cows is primarily due to the suckling-mediated inhibition of pulsatile LH release. Undernutrition both before and after calving also suppresses LH release, reduces ovarian follicular growth and delays ovulation. The interactive effects of these factors on the interval from calving to first ovulation in beef cows were quantified by studying the incidence of ovulation, following acute calf isolation and once-a-day suckling (restricted access), after emergence of the fourth follicular wave post partum in cows in differing body condition at calving and offered low or high planes of nutrition after calving.
The experiment was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, in which the factors were body condition score at calving (Low v. Moderate), feeding level after calving (0.6 v. 1.0 MJ ME/d/kg M0.75), and restricted (once-a-day) v. ad libitum access and suckling. The experiment, duplicated at each of the four participating sites, involved 16 Simmental, 16 Sarda, 16 Brown Swiss and 16 Hereford x Friesian multi-parous cows. Follicle growth was monitored daily from day 21 post partum until the earlier of second ovulation or Day 90 post partum using transrectal ovarian ultrasonography.