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New Orleans is an indispensable element of America's national identity. As one of the most fabled cities in the world, it figures in countless novels, short stories, poems, plays, and films, as well as in popular lore and song. This book provides detailed discussions of all of the most significant writing that this city has ever inspired - from its origins in a flood-prone swamp to the rise of a creole culture at the edges of the European empires; from its emergence as a cosmopolitan, hemispheric crossroads and a primary hub of the slave trade to the days when, in its red light district, the children and grandchildren of the enslaved conjured a new kind of music that became America's greatest gift to the world; from the mid-twentieth-century masterpieces by William Faulkner, Tennessee Williams and Walker Percy to the realms of folklore, hip hop, vampire fiction, and the Asian and Latin American archives.
Inadequate protein quality may be a risk factor for poor growth. To examine the effect of a macronutrient–micronutrient supplement KOKO Plus (KP), provided to infants from 6 to 18 months of age, on linear growth, a single-blind cluster-randomised study was implemented in Ghana. A total of thirty-eight communities were randomly allocated to receive KP (fourteen communities, n 322), a micronutrient powder (MN, thirteen communities, n 329) and nutrition education (NE, eleven communities, n 319). A comparison group was followed cross-sectionally (n 303). Supplement delivery and morbidity were measured weekly and anthropometry monthly. NE education was provided monthly. Baseline, midline and endline measurements at 6, 12 and 18 months included venous blood draws, diet, anthropometry, morbidity, food security and socio-economics. Length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) was the primary outcome. Analyses were intent-to-treat using mixed-effects regressions adjusted for clustering, sex, age and baseline. No differences existed in mean LAZ scores at endline (−1·219 (sd 0·06) KP, −1·211 (sd 0·03) MN, −1·266 (sd 0·03) NE). Acute infection prevalence was lower in the KP than NE group (P = 0·043). Mean serum Hb was higher in KP infants free from acute infection (114·02 (sd 1·87) g/l) than MN (107·8 (sd 2·5) g/l; P = 0·047) and NE (108·8 (sd 0·99) g/l; P = 0·051). Compliance was 84·9 % (KP) and 87·2 % (MN) but delivery 60 %. Adjusting for delivery and compliance, LAZ score at endline was significantly higher in the KP v. MN group (+0·2 LAZ; P = 0·026). A macro- and micronutrient-fortified supplement KP reduced acute infection, improved Hb and demonstrated a dose–response effect on LAZ adjusting consumption for delivery.
Background: Cervical sponylotic myelopathy (CSM) may present with neck and arm pain. This study investiagtes the change in neck/arm pain post-operatively in CSM. Methods: This ambispective study llocated 402 patients through the Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network. Outcome measures were the visual analogue scales for neck and arm pain (VAS-NP and VAS-AP) and the neck disability index (NDI). The thresholds for minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) for VAS-NP and VAS-AP were determined to be 2.6 and 4.1. Results: VAS-NP improved from mean of 5.6±2.9 to 3.8±2.7 at 12 months (P<0.001). VAS-AP improved from 5.8±2.9 to 3.5±3.0 at 12 months (P<0.001). The MCIDs for VAS-NP and VAS-AP were also reached at 12 months. Based on the NDI, patients were grouped into those with mild pain/no pain (33%) versus moderate/severe pain (67%). At 3 months, a significantly high proportion of patients with moderate/severe pain (45.8%) demonstrated an improvement into mild/no pain, whereas 27.2% with mild/no pain demonstrated worsening into moderate/severe pain (P <0.001). At 12 months, 17.4% with mild/no pain experienced worsening of their NDI (P<0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that neck and arm pain responds to surgical decompression in patients with CSM and reaches the MCIDs for VAS-AP and VAS-NP at 12 months.
The widespread use of herbicides in cropping systems has led to the evolution of resistance in major weeds. The resultant loss of herbicide efficacy is compounded by a lack of new herbicide sites of action, driving demand for alternative weed control technologies. While there are many alternative methods for control, identifying the most appropriate method to pursue for commercial development has been hampered by the inability to compare techniques in a fair and equitable manner. Given that all currently available and alternative weed control methods share an intrinsic energy consumption, the aim of this review was to compare methods based on energy consumption. Energy consumption was compared for chemical, mechanical, and thermal weed control technologies when applied as broadcast (whole-field) and site-specific treatments. Tillage systems, such as flex-tine harrow (4.2 to 5.5 MJ ha−1), sweep cultivator (13 to 14 MJ ha−1), and rotary hoe (12 to 17 MJ ha−1) consumed the least energy of broadcast weed control treatments. Thermal-based approaches, including flaming (1,008 to 4,334 MJ ha−1) and infrared (2,000 to 3,887 MJ ha−1), are more appropriate for use in conservation cropping systems; however, their energy requirements are 100- to 1,000-fold greater than those of tillage treatments. The site-specific application of weed control treatments to control 2-leaf-stage broadleaf weeds at a density of 5 plants m−2 reduced energy consumption of herbicidal, thermal, and mechanical treatments by 97%, 99%, and 97%, respectively. Significantly, this site-specific approach resulted in similar energy requirements for current and alternative technologies (e.g., electrocution [15 to 19 MJ ha−1], laser pyrolysis [15 to 249 MJ ha−1], hoeing [17 MJ ha−1], and herbicides [15 MJ ha−1]). Using similar energy sources, a standardized energy comparison provides an opportunity for estimation of weed control costs, suggesting site-specific weed management is critical in the economically realistic implementation of alternative technologies.
For patients with possible Staphylococcus aureus infection, providers must decide whether to treat empirically for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Nares MRSA colonization screening tests could inform decisions regarding empiric MRSA-active antibiotic use.1,2
Disease surveillance in wildlife populations presents a logistical challenge, yet is critical in gaining a deeper understanding of the presence and impact of wildlife pathogens. Erinaceus coronavirus (EriCoV), a clade C Betacoronavirus, was first described in Western European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Germany. Here, our objective was to determine whether EriCoV is present, and if it is associated with disease, in Great Britain (GB). An EriCoV-specific BRYT-Green® real-time reverse transcription PCR assay was used to test 351 samples of faeces or distal large intestinal tract contents collected from casualty or dead hedgehogs from a wide area across GB. Viral RNA was detected in 10.8% (38) samples; however, the virus was not detected in any of the 61 samples tested from Scotland. The full genome sequence of the British EriCoV strain was determined using next generation sequencing; it shared 94% identity with a German EriCoV sequence. Multivariate statistical models using hedgehog case history data, faecal specimen descriptions and post-mortem examination findings found no significant associations indicative of disease associated with EriCoV in hedgehogs. These findings indicate that the Western European hedgehog is a reservoir host of EriCoV in the absence of apparent disease.
In some environments, the survival and production of ryegrass and fescue is heavily reliant on its mutualistic association with Epichloë endophytes. Epichloë endophytes produce a range of bioactive alkaloids, or secondary metabolites that can be effective in deterring insect pests, although some have also been shown to be toxic to grazing animals. These endophytes are being used in grassland farming systems in Australia, New Zealand, USA and some parts of South America. However, to achieve this outcome there has been considerable investment into developing a research pipeline for delivery of animal-safe endophyte strains that are still capable of deterring insect pests and providing protection against abiotic stresses. The pipeline starts with the discovery and isolation of endophytes from wild populations of ryegrass and fescue, characterisation of the known alkaloids they produce, use of genetic markers to determine the relationship between known well-characterised strains and new strains entering the collection, determination of their bioactivity against insect pests of economic significance, understanding issues of compatibility of a strain of interest with the elite germplasm into which it has been inoculated, determining ease of transmission to subsequent seed generations, and ensuring there will be no or minimal animal health and welfare issues associated with using the strain in grazing systems.
Models of social anxiety suggest that intrusive images/memories are common in social anxiety and contribute to the maintenance of social anxiety.
We examined the context and phenomenological features of intrusive social images using quantitative and qualitative measures across various levels of social anxiety.
Undergraduate students (n = 191) completed measures of social anxiety (i.e. Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale) and wrote a description of an intrusive social image. Individuals who reported an intrusive social image (n = 77) rated the frequency, interference and phenomenological (e.g. vividness, emotional intensity) characteristics of the image. A content analysis of the intrusive image narratives was completed by independent raters.
High social anxiety (HSA) increased the likelihood and frequency of experiencing intrusive images, and to some extent the interference caused by these images. However, the characteristics of these images with regard to their content and quality were similar across levels of social anxiety. Among participants who provided narratives, HSA individuals (n = 34) did not differ from low socially anxious (LSA) individuals (n = 28) in themes that reflect concerns about their own thoughts, actions and behaviours. However, HSA individuals reported greater concerns about how other individuals would react, and their intrusive images were often from an observer perspective when compared with LSA individuals.
These results are interpreted in relation to cognitive models of emotion, memory and cognitive behavioural models of social anxiety.
The analysis of many types of geological samples by X- ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy has become routine. For example, the analysis of major elements in silicate rocks is not a problem because of the large number of standard reference materials available, and because of the benefits of the fusion preparation. Even simple linear regression analysis provides accurate results when standards and samples are similar.
Chemical analysis by the X-ray fluorescence microprobe technique offers potential means for the determination of compositional differences arising from the segregation of elements during the solidification of metals. The dimensional scale of the probe is expected to be suitable for the study of macro segregation and, in coarse-grained cast materials, of interdendritic micro segregation.
This paper describes preliminary work carried out to establish analytical sensitivity in respect of some minor constituents present in homogeneous steel samples of known composition. The significance of the results is discussed in relation to the problems of segregation in steel, and it is concluded that the Siemens Kristalloflex IV equipment needs to be adapted for fully focusing operation to achieve the sensitivity required for this work. Details are given of the work so far undertaken in this direction.
A file of digitized diffraction traces for clay minerals has been developed as a test for the usefulness of such traces in the analysis of clays and clay deposits. The kaolin, smectite, mica clay and chlorite groups are represented by patterns of the most common mineral species in the small crystallite size which is typical of their natural occurrences. Patterns are included for the oriented sample and for glycolated and heated samples when appropriate. This database may form a nucleus for an extensive collection of clay mineral traces in the same manner as the early Powder Diffraction File did for the modern PDE.
An electron microprobe analyzer shielded and modified to accept for analysis radioactive samples reading up to 100 R/hr is described. The following features will be illustrated and discussed: (1) biological shielding, (2) detector shielding, (3) sample transfer system, (4) remote sample loading and focusing system, (5) laboratory layout, and (6) experimental results.
An X-ray fluorescence method is presented for the analysis of tungsten-molybdenum solutions. Tungsten and molybdenum metal powders, produced by a fused-salt electrolysis procedure, are dissolved and analyzed for tungsten and molybdenum by using the W La1, Pt La1 intensity ratios. The platinum spectral line from the X-ray tube target serves as a self-internal standard. The sensitivity limit is about 0,05% and in the concentration range of 0.5 to 100%, the accuracy of analysis is within about 2% standard deviation. The technique is also applied to the analysis of tungsten and molybdenum in fused salts and to the determination of several other Impurity elements in these metals.
A double detector modification for the General Electric X-ray unit is described. The detector consists of a double-window flow proportional counter tube backed up by a sealed krypton-filled counter tube. This allows counting of either soft or hard radiation at maximum efficiencies without the necessity of changing counter tubes. Advantages in specific applications are discussed.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To evaluate the ability of various techniques to track changes in body fluid volumes before and after a rapid infusion of saline. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Eight healthy participants (5M; 3F) completed baseline measurements of 1) total body water using ethanol dilution and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and 2) blood volume, plasma volume and red blood cell (RBC) volume using carbon monoxide rebreathe technique and I-131 albumin dilution. Subsequently, 30mL saline/kg body weight was administered intravenously over 20 minutes after which BIA and ethanol dilution were repeated. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: On average, 2.29±0.35 L saline was infused with an average increase in net fluid input-output (I/O) of 1.56±0.29 L. BIA underestimated measured I/O by −3.4±7.9%, while ethanol dilution did not demonstrate a measurable change in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe differed from I-131 albumin dilution measurements of blood, plasma and RBC volumes by +0.6±2.8%, −5.4±3.6%, and +11.0±4.7%, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: BIA is capable of tracking modest changes in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe appears to be a viable alternative for the I-131 albumin dilution technique to determine blood volume. Together, these two techniques may be useful in monitoring fluid status in patients with impaired fluid regulation.