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This paper describes a computational investigation of multimode instability growth and multimaterial mixing induced by multiple shock waves in a high-energy-density (HED) environment, where pressures exceed 1 Mbar. The simulations are based on a series of experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and designed as an HED analogue of non-HED shock-tube studies of the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability and turbulent mixing. A three-dimensional computational modelling framework is presented. It treats many complications absent from canonical non-HED shock-tube flows, including distinct ion and free-electron internal energies, non-ideal equations of state, radiation transport and plasma-state mass diffusivities, viscosities and thermal conductivities. The simulations are tuned to the available NIF data, and traditional statistical quantities of turbulence are analysed. Integrated measures of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy both increase by over an order of magnitude due to reshock. Large contributions to enstrophy production during reshock are seen from both the baroclinic source and enstrophy–dilatation terms, highlighting the significance of fluid compressibility in the HED regime. Dimensional analysis reveals that Reynolds numbers and diffusive Péclet numbers in the HED flow are similar to those in a canonical non-HED analogue, but conductive Péclet numbers are much smaller in the HED flow due to efficient thermal conduction by free electrons. It is shown that the mechanism of electron thermal conduction significantly softens local spanwise gradients of both temperature and density, which causes a minor but non-negligible decrease in enstrophy production and small-scale mixing relative to a flow without this mechanism.
This article will argue that the history of East India Company Bombay – like that of many foreign British enterprises, and like many other ‘global’ cities and indeed colonies generally – is best understood as the product of contradictions and contingencies. Bombay was never easy to define geographically and its identity as an ‘English’ settlement was precarious. It could not insulate itself militarily from the powerful polities nearby; nor could it always rely on the loyalty of its subjects, whether English or of other ethnicities. It was a city constructed out of crisis and tragedy, trial and error, a history that the story about a European dynastic ‘dowry’ obscures, and which Company representatives worked hard to conceal.
At present, analysis of diet and bladder cancer (BC) is mostly based on the intake of individual foods. The examination of food combinations provides a scope to deal with the complexity and unpredictability of the diet and aims to overcome the limitations of the study of nutrients and foods in isolation. This article aims to demonstrate the usability of supervised data mining methods to extract the food groups related to BC. In order to derive key food groups associated with BC risk, we applied the data mining technique C5.0 with 10-fold cross-validation in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants study, including data from eighteen case–control and one nested case–cohort study, compromising 8320 BC cases out of 31 551 participants. Dietary data, on the eleven main food groups of the Eurocode 2 Core classification codebook, and relevant non-diet data (i.e. sex, age and smoking status) were available. Primarily, five key food groups were extracted; in order of importance, beverages (non-milk); grains and grain products; vegetables and vegetable products; fats, oils and their products; meats and meat products were associated with BC risk. Since these food groups are corresponded with previously proposed BC-related dietary factors, data mining seems to be a promising technique in the field of nutritional epidemiology and deserves further examination.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Although evidence shows that attachment insecurity and disorganization increase risk for the development of psychopathology (Fearon, Bakermans-Kranenburg, van IJzendoorn, Lapsley, & Roisman, 2010; Groh, Roisman, van IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Fearon, 2012), implementation challenges have precluded dissemination of attachment interventions on the broad scale at which they are needed. The Circle of Security–Parenting Intervention (COS-P; Cooper, Hoffman, & Powell, 2009), designed with broad implementation in mind, addresses this gap by training community service providers to use a manualized, video-based program to help caregivers provide a secure base and a safe haven for their children. The present study is a randomized controlled trial of COS-P in a low-income sample of Head Start enrolled children and their mothers. Mothers (N = 141; 75 intervention, 66 waitlist control) completed a baseline assessment and returned with their children after the 10-week intervention for the outcome assessment, which included the Strange Situation. Intent to treat analyses revealed a main effect for maternal response to child distress, with mothers assigned to COS-P reporting fewer unsupportive (but not more supportive) responses to distress than control group mothers, and a main effect for one dimension of child executive functioning (inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility when maternal age and marital status were controlled), with intervention group children showing greater control. There were, however, no main effects of intervention for child attachment or behavior problems. Exploratory follow-up analyses suggested intervention effects were moderated by maternal attachment style or depressive symptoms, with moderated intervention effects emerging for child attachment security and disorganization, but not avoidance; for inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility; and for child internalizing but not externalizing behavior problems. This initial randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of COS-P sets the stage for further exploration of “what works for whom” in attachment intervention.
Suicide is a devastating public health problem and very few biological treatments have been found to be effective for quickly reducing the intensity of suicidal ideation (SI). We have previously shown that a single dose of ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is associated with a rapid reduction in depressive symptom severity and SI in patients with treatment-resistant depression.
We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of ketamine in patients with mood and anxiety spectrum disorders who presented with clinically significant SI (n = 24). Patients received a single infusion of ketamine or midazolam (as an active placebo) in addition to standard of care. SI measured using the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSI) 24 h post-treatment represented the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale – Suicidal Ideation (MADRS-SI) score at 24 h and additional measures beyond the 24-h time-point.
The intervention was well tolerated and no dropouts occurred during the primary 7-day assessment period. BSI score was not different between the treatment groups at 24 h (p = 0.32); however, a significant difference emerged at 48 h (p = 0.047). MADRS-SI score was lower in the ketamine group compared to midazolam group at 24 h (p = 0.05). The treatment effect was no longer significant at the end of the 7-day assessment period.
The current findings provide initial support for the safety and tolerability of ketamine as an intervention for SI in patients who are at elevated risk for suicidal behavior. Larger, well-powered studies are warranted.
The calc-alkaline, gneissic El Shalul granite is the westernmost gneiss dome or core complex within the Arabian–Nubian Shield. Previous studies have indicated that it represents either a window into the underlying pre-Neoproterozoic Sahara metacraton or a melt derived from the metacraton. U–Pb LA-ICP-MS dating of magmatic zircons from two samples of the variably foliated El Shalul pluton gives ages of 637 ± 5 Ma and 630 ± 6 Ma, excluding it from representing exhumed cratonic rocks. The ages are, however, indistinguishable from the age of the Um Ba'anib pluton, constituting the core of the Meatiq Gneiss Dome, as well as several other plutons in the Eastern Desert, indicating an important magmatic pulse in the Arabian–Nubian Shield in Late Cryogenian time. Major and trace element data indicate a within-plate setting. Bulk rock Nd-isotope and Hf-isotope data on zircons from the El Shalul pluton indicate derivation of the primary melt from a relatively juvenile source, either the lower crust of a mid-Neoproterozoic volcanic arc or as a result of fractionation of a mantle-derived mafic melt. Sm–Nd bulk rock isotopic data indicate a model age of c. 720 Ma for the protolith from which the melt was derived. Time-corrected Hf-isotope data obtained on the magmatic zircons indicate that the bulk of the source rock was extracted from the mantle around 810 Ma.
Rainfall variability, both within and between seasons, is reflected in highly variable crop growth and yields in rainfed agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa and results in varying degrees of weather-induced risk associated with a wide range of crop, soil and water management innovations. In addition there is both growing evidence and concern that changes in rainfall patterns associated with global warming may substantively affect the nature of such risk. Eighty-nine years of daily rainfall data from a site in southern Zambia are analysed. The analyses illustrate approaches to assessing the extent of possible trends in rainfall patterns and the calculation of weather-induced risk associated with the inter- and intra-seasonal variability of the rainfall amounts. Trend analyses use monthly rainfall totals and the number of rain days in each month. No simple trends were found. The daily data were then processed to examine important rain dependent aspects of crop production such as the date of the start of the rains and the risk of a long dry spell, both following planting and around flowering. The same approach is used to assess the risk of examples of crop disease in instances when a ‘weather trigger’ for the disease can be specified. A crop water satisfaction index is also used to compare risks from choices of crops with different maturity lengths and cropping strategies. Finally a different approach to the calculations of these risks fits a Markov chain model to the occurrence of rain, with results then derived from this model. The analyses shows the relevance of this latter approach when relatively short daily rainfall records are available and is illustrated through a comparison of the effects of El Niño, La Niña and Ordinary years on rainfall distribution patterns.
EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) is an
astro-particle physics facility aiming to directly detect galactic dark
matter. The Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane has been selected as host
laboratory. The EURECA collaboration unites CRESST, EDELWEISS and the
Spanish-French experiment ROSEBUD, thus concentrating and focussing effort
on cryogenic detector research in Europe into a single facility. EURECA will
use a target mass of up to one ton, enough to explore WIMP – nucleon scalar
scattering cross sections in the region of 10-9 – 10-10 picobarn.
A major advantage of EURECA is the planned use of more than just one target
material (multi target experiment for WIMP identification).
Bilateral vocal fold immobility in adduction usually creates severe dyspnoea. Many surgical procedures have been established to improve the airway insufficiency in affected patients.
Over the last six years 22 patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility in our department have undergone CO2 laser posterior ventriculocordectomy with partial arytenoidectomy (PVCPA). None had dyspnoea or a disturbance in the immediate post-operative period or during follow up, which ranged from five months to six years. Only one patient required a second procedure.
Laser PVCPA appears to be an effective and reliable method for the treatment of bilateral vocal fold immobility in selected patients.
First erratum: The following is a correction for an error that
occurred in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological
Society, Vol. 8, No. 2. An abstract titled
“Parkinson's Disease Affects the Attentional Control of
Unpracticed Movements,” by M. Lévesque, S. Lemay, S.
Chouinard, P. Blanchet, M.-A. Bédard, and F. Richer, was
accidently left out. This abstract was supposed to appear on p. 230
after C. Boulet et al., in the Executive Function subsection of Poster
4, which was a part of the Friday Morning, February 16, group of sessions.
Second erratum: The following is a correction for an error that
occurred in Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society,
8:2. On page 276, the abstract at the bottom of the left column has
a laterality error, and “right” was supposed to appear instead
Third erratum: The following is a correction for an error that occurred
in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society,
Vol. 8, No. 3. The error occurred in the article titled
“Reading level attenuates differences in neuropsychological tests
performance between African American and White Elders,” pp.
341–348, by Manly et al. On page 343, under the subheading
“Reading Level,” the last line in the paragraph should state
the age range as 65–74 and not 70–75 years.
Cambridge University Press and the authors regret the inconvenience
that these inadvertent errors may have caused.
An optimal control problem is studied, in which the state is required
to remain in a
compact set S. A control feedback law is constructed which, for
given ε > 0, produces ε-optimal trajectories that satisfy the
state constraint universally with respect to all initial conditions
The construction relies upon a constraint removal technique which
utilizes geometric properties of inner approximations of S and a
related trajectory tracking result.
The control feedback is shown to possess a robustness property with
respect to state measurement error.
There is considerable evidence for a unitary and dimensional view of the genetic vulnerability to symptoms of anxiety and depression. The GENESiS (Genetic Environmental–Nature of Emotional States in Siblings) Study aims to use a multivariate approach to detect genetic loci that contribute to individual differences in this vulnerability dimension. The study used the UK General Practice Research Framework to generate a community-based sample of siblings. Questionnaire measures of anxiety/depression included the short form of the neuroticism scale from the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-N), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and the anxious arousal and high positive affect subscales from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AA and MASQ-HPA). Genetic model-fitting of 2658 unselected sibships provided evidence for a single common genetic (familial) factor that accounted for a substantial proportion of the genetic variances and covariances of these four measures. Using the parameter estimates of this model, we constructed a composite index of this common genetic factor. This index, which has a sib correlation of 0.22, will be used as a quantitative phenotype in the molecular genetic phase of GENESiS. Twin Research (2000) 3, 316–322.