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Whereas the flow of simple single-phase Newtonian fluids tends to become more complex as the characteristic length scale in the problem (and hence the Reynolds number) increases, for complex elastic fluids such as dilute polymer solutions the opposite holds true. Thus small-scale, so-called ‘microfluidic’ flows of complex fluids can exhibit rich dynamics in situations where the ‘equivalent’ flow of Newtonian fluids remains linear and predictable. In the recent study of Qin et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 864, 2019, R2) of the flow of a dilute polymeric fluid past a
cylinder (in a
channel), a novel 3-D holographic particle velocimetry technique reveals the underlying complexity of the flow, including inherent three-dimensionality and symmetry breaking as well as strong upstream propagation effects via elastic waves.
Here, we report that a marine sandworm Nereis virens jaw protein, Nvjp1, nucleates hemozoin with similar activity as the native parasite hemozoin protein, HisRPII. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirm the identity of the hemozoin produced from Nvjp1-containing reactions. Finally, we observed that nAl assembled with hemozoin from Nvjp1 reactions has a substantially higher energetic output when compared to analogous thermite from the synthetic standard or HisRPII-nucleated hemozoin. Our results demonstrate that a marine sandworm protein can nucleate malaria pigment and set the stage for engineering recombinant hemozoin production for nanoenergetic applications.
Both in rheometry and in fundamental fluid mechanics studies, the Taylor–Couette geometry is used frequently to investigate viscoelastic fluids. In order to ensure a constant shear rate in the gap between the inner and outer cylinders, such studies are usually restricted to the small-gap limit where the assumption of a linear velocity distribution is well justified. In conjunction with a sufficiently large aspect ratio
(i.e. ratio of cylinder height to gap), the flow is then assumed to be viscometric. Here we demonstrate, using a perturbation technique with the curvature ratio (i.e. ratio of the half-gap to the mid-radius of the cylinders) as the perturbation parameter, full nonlinear simulations using a finite-volume technique, and supporting experiments, that, even in the creeping-flow (inertialess) narrow-gap limit, for viscoelastic fluids end effects due to finite aspect ratio always give rise to a secondary motion. Using the constant-viscosity Oldroyd-B model we are able to show that this secondary motion, as has been observed in related pressure-driven flows with curvature, such as the viscoelastic Dean flow, is solely a consequence of the combination of gradients of the first normal-stress difference and curvature. Our results show that end effects can significantly change the flow characteristics, especially for small aspect ratios, and this may have important consequences in some situations such as the onset criteria for purely elastic instabilities.
In an effort to better understand the consequences of early weaning (EW) for replacement beef heifers, a two-phase experiment was conducted investigating the impact on metabolic function and documenting reproductive characteristics. In phase 1, Angus×Simmental heifers (n=35) were stratified by BW and sire, and randomly assigned to either a normal weaning (NW, n=18) or EW (n=17) treatment. EW heifers were weaned at 107±3 days of age and provided access to a concentrate-based ration ad libitum with limit-fed mixed grass hay. NW heifers remained with their dams until 232±3 days of age, at which point heifers from both treatments were comingled and grazed on mixed summer pasture. Following NW, weekly blood samples were collected from all heifers for progesterone analyses used to determine the onset of puberty. Pelvic and ovarian size was measured before breeding. All heifers were subjected to an estrous synchronization protocol with timed artificial insemination (AI) at 437±4 days of age. During phase 2 of the experiment, a subset of pregnant heifers (n=16) were divided into two replicates and subjected to a glucose tolerance test, epinephrine challenge and progesterone clearance analysis. Neither age nor BW at puberty differed between EW and NW heifers. Likewise, no differences in pelvic area or ovarian size were observed. Thus, it appears that the reproductive maturity of EW and NW heifers was similar. Heifers studied during phase 2 of the experiment were restricted to those that had become pregnant to their first AI. Within this cohort, EW heifers tended to have lower overall circulating progesterone concentrations than those that were NW (P=0.14). Aspects of glucose and insulin dynamics were also altered, as EW heifers tended to have lower baseline glucose concentrations (P=0.10) despite similar baseline insulin concentrations. Compared with NW heifers, EW heifers had lower insulin area under the curve (P<0.05), which was partly the result of a tendency for lower peak insulin concentrations (P=0.11). Results of the glucose tolerance test indicate that a lesser insulin response was necessary to properly clear the glucose in the EW heifers, suggesting enhanced insulin sensitivity. Collectively, these results indicate that EW is not detrimental for the growth or reproductive development of replacement beef heifers, although some differences in glucose and insulin dynamics persist into adulthood.
Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with a variety of novel properties. In this work, bulk single crystal SrTiO3 samples were heated to 1200°C, resulting in the creation of point defects. These thermally treated samples showed large persistent photoconductivity (PPC) at room temperature. Illumination with sub-gap light (>2.9 eV) caused an increase in free-electron concentration by over two orders of magnitude. After the light is turned off, the conductivity persists at room temperature, with essentially zero decay over several days. The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements suggest that a point defect is responsible for PPC because the photo-induced response of one of the EPR signals is similar to that seen for the PPC. Due to a large barrier for recapture, the photo-excited electron remains in the conduction band, where it contributes to the conductivity.
The implementation of a geological disposal facility requires the demonstration of confidence that such a facility would be safe during both the operational period and in the long-term after the closure of such a facility. The generic environmental safety case described in this paper is the vehicle used to demonstrate an understanding of environmental safety. It will be used to prepare a site-specific environmental safety case in due course. The approach taken will be consistent with a staged development and approval process, as advocated by the environmental regulators.
A combined experimental, numerical and theoretical investigation of the geometric scaling of the onset of a purely elastic flow instability in serpentine channels is presented. Good qualitative agreement is obtained between experiments, using dilute solutions of flexible polymers in microfluidic devices, and three-dimensional numerical simulations using the upper-convected Maxwell model. The results are confirmed by a simple theoretical analysis, based on the dimensionless criterion proposed by Pakdel & McKinley (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 77, 1996, pp. 2459–2462) for onset of a purely elastic flow instability. Three-dimensional simulations show that the instability is primarily driven by the curvature of the streamlines induced by the flow geometry and not due to the weak secondary flow in the azimuthal direction. In addition, the simulations also reveal that the instability is time-dependent and that the flow oscillates with a well-defined period and amplitude close to the onset of the supercritical instability.
Single dots for future telecommunications applications
D. Dalacu, Institute for Microstructural Sciences, Canada,
K. Mnaymneh, Institute for Microstructural Sciences, Canada,
J. Lapointe, Institute for Microstructural Sciences, Canada,
G. C. Aers, Institute for Microstructural Sciences, Canada,
P. J. Poole, Institute for Microstructural Sciences, Canada,
R. L. Williams, Institute for Microstructural Sciences, Canada,
S. Hughes, Queen's University, Canada
Scalability requirements in future device application of self-assembled quantum dots for non-classical light generation necessitate control of the quantum dot nucleation site. In this chapter we discuss a site-control technique based on directed self-assembly of InAs/InP quantum dots emitting at telecommunication wavelengths. The site-control method preserves the high optical quality inherent in self-assembled quantum dots and the characteristic signatures of a strongly confined system are observed in the emission spectra. The efficacy of site-control manifests in the coupling of single quantum dots to microcavities required for the fabrication of efficient devices. The a priori knowledge of the quantum dot position is used to deterministically couple single dots to high-finesse microcavities with the assurance that one and only one quantum dot is coupled to each cavity. Such devices form the basis of efficient sources of single photons and entangled photon pairs for telecommunications applications that can be manufactured in a scalable manner using conventional semiconductor processing.
Self-assembled quantum dots possess the two-level emitter characteristics required for non-classical light generation  in quantum information processing and quantum key distribution. The performance of a quantum dot-based single photon source or entangled photon pair source will depend on how well the dot can be coupled to a high-quality factor Q, small volume Veff microcavity . The cavity is required to channel photons from the exciton decay into an optical mode that can be collected by an external optical system.
To help resolve the mechanistic bases for haematological adaptations (~28% increase in red blood cell volume) of equids to high altitude (3800 m, barometric pressure Pb, 487 mm Hg) and exercise, plasma erythropoietin concentration ([EPO]) was measured at rest and following exercise in six, moderately fit equids (four Arabians, one Quarter Horse and one Shetland Pony; four females and two males; age 9.0 ± 4.5 years (mean ± SD)). [EPO] was measured on 2 days at 225 m (i.e. ~sea level; Pb, 743 mm Hg), over the course of a 10-day altitude exposure, and then again for 2 days after return to sea level. A standard track exercise test (submaximal, speed set-to-heart rate of 110 (trot), 150 (canter), 180 (gallop) bpm) was performed 2 days pre-high-altitude exposure and on three separate days at high altitude. In addition, a maximal incremental exercise test was performed on a high-speed motor-driven treadmill at sea level and 2 days following return to sea level from high altitude. Resting [EPO] increased from 28 ± 29 at sea level to 144 ± 46 mU ml− 1 (P < 0.05) on the first day at high altitude. By day 2 at high altitude, [EPO] had returned to baseline (31 ± 24 mU ml− 1, P>0.05 vs. pre-high altitude) and did not change over the remaining 8 days at high altitude nor over the 2 days after return to sea level. [EPO] was not significantly altered by acute exercise at sea level or at 3800 m. These results indicate that [EPO] increases rapidly (though transiently) in response to hypobaric hypoxia but not to acute exercise, and that exercise does not appear to potentiate the altitude response. Thus, if any [EPO]-derived haematological adaptations to high altitude are present, these appear to result from a transient ~4-fold elevation of [EPO] rather than any sustained increase in this signalling mechanism, at least in the equid.
Evaluation of antimalarial efficacy is difficult because recurrent parasitaemia can be due to recrudescence or re-infection. PCR is used to differentiate between recrudescences and re-infections by comparing parasite allelic variants before and after treatment. However, PCR-corrected results are susceptible to misclassification: false positives, due to re-infection by the same variant present in the patient before treatment; and false negatives, due to variants that are present but too infrequent to be detected in the pre-treatment PCR, but are then detectable post-treatment. This paper aimed to explore factors affecting the probability of false positives and proposes a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis to account for both types of misclassification. Higher levels of transmission intensity, increased multiplicity of infection, and limited allelic variation resulted in more false recrudescences. The uncertainty analysis exploits characteristics of study data to minimize bias in the estimate of efficacy and can be applied to areas of different transmission intensity.
Early growth is associated with later risk of osteoporosis and fractures. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationships between maternal lifestyle and body composition and neonatal bone size, geometry and density in the offspring. Participants were recruited from the Southampton Women’s Survey, a unique prospective cohort of 12,500 initially non-pregnant women aged 20–34 years, resident in Southampton, UK. These women were studied in detail before and during pregnancy, and the offspring underwent anthropometric and bone mineral assessment (using dual energy-X-ray absorptiometry) at birth. A total of 841 mother–baby pairs were studied (443 boys and 398 girls). The independent predictors of greater neonatal whole body bone area (BA) and bone mineral content included greater maternal birthweight, height, parity, triceps skinfold thickness and lower walking speed in late pregnancy. Maternal smoking was independently associated with lower neonatal bone mass. Neonatal BA adjusted for birth length (a measure of bone width) was predicted positively by maternal parity and late pregnancy triceps skinfold thickness and negatively by late pregnancy walking speed. These findings were similar in both genders. We have confirmed, in a large cohort, previous findings that maternal lifestyle and body build predict neonatal bone mineral; additionally, maternal parity and fat stores and walking speed in late pregnancy were associated with neonatal bone geometry. These findings may suggest novel public health strategies to reduce the burden of osteoporotic fracture in future generations.
Use of well persons as the comparison group for laboratory-confirmed cases of sporadic salmonellosis may introduce ascertainment bias into case-control studies. Data from the 1996–1997 FoodNet case-control study of laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serogroups B and D infection were used to estimate the effect of specific behaviours and foods on infection with Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE). Persons with laboratory-confirmed Salmonella of other serotypes acted as the comparison group. The analysis included 173 SE cases and 268 non-SE controls. SE was associated with international travel, consumption of chicken prepared outside the home, and consumption of undercooked eggs prepared outside the home in the 5 days prior to diarrhoea onset. SE phage type 4 was associated with international travel and consumption of undercooked eggs prepared outside the home. The use of ill controls can be a useful tool in identifying risk factors for sporadic cases of Salmonella.
Sporadic salmonellosis has been reported in mature lactating dairy cattle in the southwestern United States and is an intriguing problem in that Salmonella can be cultured from faecal samples of these cattle throughout the year. However, it is pathogenic only during late summer/early autumn and in certain years. We sampled apparently healthy (n=10) and diarrhoeic (n=10) cattle during an outbreak on a 2000 head dairy in 2003. The following year, monthly faecal (from the same 30 head), total mixed ration, water, and pen soil samples were collected for Salmonella culture. No serogroup, serotype, genetic, or antimicrobial susceptibility differences were observed in comparison of isolates from healthy and sick cattle. During year 2 of the study, Salmonella was routinely cultured (although highly variable from month to month) from the cattle and the environment, although no outbreak of salmonellosis was observed.
To estimate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and impact of concurrent pain on HRQOL in patients seeking treatment for depression in a 6 month observational study in the United Kingdom (subsample results from pan-European study).
HRQOL was measured using two generic quality of life instruments: the Short Form 36 Health Status Survey (SF-36) and the EuroQol (EQ-5D). Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (range 0-100, no/mild pain [NMP] 0-29, clinically significant pain ≥30).
608 eligible patients were enrolled, mean age 42.8 years (SD 14.7) and 61.2% were female. 49.4% of patients reported NMP; 10.8% had significant pain from a co-morbid medical condition known to cause pain (PMC) and 39.8% had significant pain associated with a medical disorder not known to cause pain or without further co-morbidity (PD). SF-36 physical component scores were lowest in the PMC group, 36.7 (SD 9.7); with improving scores in the PD group, 44.4 (SD 10.0) and the NMP group, 54.5 (SD 8.3). There was no marked variation in mental component summary scores between the groups; 23.0 (SD 8.5), 20.4 (SD 9.1) and 21.7 (SD 10.8) respectively. A similar trend in HRQOL loss was observed for the EQ-5D health state index, where scores of 0.30 (SD 0.32), 0.41 (SD 0.30) and 0.60 (SD 0.25) were observed respectively.
A high proportion of patients presented with pain presumably related to depression. The presence of concurrent pain appears to be associated with reductions in SF-36 physical component scores and overall HRQOL (EQ-5D).
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) constitute the single largest determinant of livelihoods for scores of forest fringe communities and poor people in the tropics. In India over 50 million people are believed to be directly dependent upon NTFPs for their subsistence. However, such human dependence on NTFPs for livelihood gains (win) has most frequently been at a certain ecological cost (lose). If livelihoods are to be maintained, the existing ‘win-lose’ settings have to be steered to a ‘win-win’ mode, otherwise, there could be severe erosion of the biological resources and loss of livelihoods (‘lose-lose’). Examining the dependence of forest fringe communities on NTFPs at three sites in south India with contrasting human and ecological settings, three key factors (extent of dependence on NTFPs, indigenous ecological knowledge and market organization) are likely to constrain reaching the win-win situation. How these factors shape the ecological cost of harvesting NTFPs at the three sites is examined. Within the parameter space of these factors, it is possible to predict outcomes and associations that will conform to win-win or win-lose situations. Empirical data derived from the three study sites demonstrate the causality of the observed associations. The key for long-term livelihood gains lies in reducing the ecological cost. Certain interventions and recommendations that could optimize the balance between livelihood gains and ecological cost are proposed.
Food-borne bacterial illnesses strike more than 76 million North Americans each year. Many of these illnesses are caused by animal-derived foodstuffs. Slaughter and processing plants do an outstanding job in reducing bacterial contamination after slaughter and during further processing, yet food-borne illnesses still occur at an unacceptable frequency. Thus, it is imperative to widen the window of action against pathogenic bacteria. Attacking pathogens on the farm or in the feedlot will improve food safety all the way to the consumer’s fork. Because of the potential improvement in overall food safety that pre-harvest intervention strategies can provide, a broad range of preslaughter intervention strategies are currently under investigation. Potential interventions include direct anti-pathogen strategies, competitive enhancement strategies and animal management strategies. Included in these strategies are competitive exclusion, probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, antibacterial proteins, vaccination, bacteriophage, diet, and water trough interventions. The parallel and simultaneous application of one or more preslaughter strategies has the potential to synergistically reduce the incidence of human food-borne illnesses by erecting multiple hurdles, thus preventing entry of pathogens into the food chain. This review emphasizes work with Escherichia coli O157:H7 to illustrate the various strategies.