A further survey in East Caprivi, Chobe National Park, Okavango swamps and Kavango was undertaken in June 1976. No evidence of lechwe schistosomes was found in droppings of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) nor baboons (Papio ursinus) living in lechwe habitats. It was thought that they were not capable of spreading or maintaining these parasites outside the confines of the known distribution of Kobus sp. The role of goats was equivocal but probably they too are poor hosts.
Kavango, an endemic area of S. haematobium and S. mansoni, was thought to be free of all animal schistosomes, thus confirming the hypotheses that (1) cattle and goats are poor hosts of the lechwe schistosomes and (2)S. mattheei was blocked from entering the territory by the presence of lechwe schistosomes in the surrounding areas. Evidence of schistosomes was not found in cattle and goats at Maun for the same reasons. The prevalence of S. mansoni at Maun has increased alarmingly over the past 20 years with a simultaneous disappearance of lechwe from the area. S. margrebowiei and S. leiperi eggs were found in lechwe and tsessebe droppings some 80 km north of Maun.
A high proportion of children with negative excreta from “non-endemic” areas in East Caprivi had positive CFT and/or skin tests, suggestive of exposure to lechwe schistosomes resulting in a possible immunity to S. mansoni and S. haematobium.